Este contenido todavía no está preparado para las conexiones cifradas.

lunes, 12 de junio de 2017

Autobiography of Mark Twain, Vol. 1 3/3 (English) (Mark Twain)

Autobiography of Mark Twain, Vol. 1 3/3 (Mark Twain)

[The Tennessee Land] (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1870)
61.1–3 monster tract of land . . . was purchased by my father . . . seventy-five thousand acres at one purchase] Although John Marshall Clemens may have acquired a tract as large as forty thousand acres in a single transaction, he also bought numerous smaller parcels, beginning as early as 1826 and continuing until at least 1841. In 1857, ten years after his death, the family had ownership records for twenty-four tracts of unknown acreage. After surveying the land in 1858, Orion concluded that he could establish title to some 30,000 acres, less than half of the 75,000 acres that Clemens estimates here.
61.1 my father] See the Appendix “Family Biographies” (pp. 654-57) for information about Clemens’s immediate family.
62.28–29 the great financial crash of ’34, and in that storm my father’s fortunes were wrecked] President Andrew Jackson’s attack on the second Bank of the United States precipitated a money crisis in 1834. Many state banks were unable to meet the demand for loans, which caused numerous businesses to fail. John Clemens, who belonged to the Whig party (formed in opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats), may well have felt the effects of this economic downturn (Wecter 1952, 36–37).
62.38–39 candidate for county judge, with a certainty of election] Shortly before his death Clemens did declare his candidacy for office, but it was for the position of clerk of the circuit court, not for “county judge” (Inds, 309–11; see also AD, 28 Mar 1906, where Clemens mistakenly recalled that his father had “just been elected”).
62.41–63.1 “going security” for Ira —— . . . took the benefit of the new bankrupt law]
In his manuscript, Clemens first wrote Ira Stout’s full name, then—in the same ink—substituted dashes for his surname. John Marshall Clemens had dealings with Ira Stout, a land speculator, in late 1839. He purchased Hannibal property from Stout, at an inflated value, which he had to sell at a loss in 1843 to pay his creditors. The transaction by which John Clemens became responsible for Stout’s debts has not been identified. Clemens also mentioned Stout’s perfidy in 1897 in “Villagers of 1840–3,” and again in his Autobiographical Dictation of 28 March 1906 (Inds, 104, 310, 349–50). The federal “bankrupt law” of 1841 enabled debtors, for the first time, to escape payment of their debts, while providing for little or no compensation of creditors. It was repealed two years later.
63.10–11 After my father’s death . . . on a temporary basis] When John Marshall Clemens died in March of 1847, the Clemenses were living with Dr. Orville Grant’s family in a house at Hill and Main. They remained there for several months before moving to the “temporary” quarters, which have not been identified. Eventually they returned to the house that their father had built in late 1843 or early 1844—the “Boyhood Home” that still stands at 206 Hill Street (Wecter 1952, 102, 113, 121; AD, 2 Dec 1906).
63.11–12 My brother . . . bought a worthless weekly newspaper] Orion began the weekly Hannibal Western Union in mid-1850, and within a year bought the Hannibal Journal, publishing the first issue of the Journal and Western Union in September 1851. He edited the combined paper, employing Clemens as his assistant for much of the time, until September 1853, when he sold it and moved to Muscatine, Iowa (link note preceding 24 Aug 1853 to JLC, L1, 1–2; Inds, 311).
63.14–16 but we were disappointed in a sale . . . decided to sell all or none] Nothing is known about this potential deal. In 1850 Arnold Buffum of the Tennessee Land Office, a land agency in New York, suggested the land be offered for ten cents an acre, but no sale took place (Buffum’s letter does not survive, but is described in MTBus, 17). Clemens claimed that on two later occasions he negotiated sales of the land which Orion rejected. In 1865 a buyer agreed to pay $200,000 for an unspecified number of acres, intending to settle European immigrants on it to grow grapes and produce wine; Orion’s “temperance virtue” quashed that deal (AD, 5 Apr 1906; 13 Dec 1865 to OC and MEC, L1 326–27). Then in 1869, Jervis Langdon offered $30,000 in cash and stock, but Orion again demurred, citing his fear that Clemens would “unconsciously cheat” his future father-in-law (9 Nov 1869 to PAM, L3, 388–89 n. 2). Exasperated by Orion’s scruples, Clemens renounced his own share, and by 1870 wanted nothing more to do with “that hated property” (9 Sept 1870 to OC, L4, 193). Orion henceforth assumed all responsibility for it. Over many years, Orion disposed of the land, either through his own efforts or through hired agents, both in large parcels (ten thousand acres) and in small ones (fewer than three hundred acres). Some of it was sold for cash—of unknown amounts—and some was traded for other property. At least one unscrupulous buyer failed to pay at all. Ultimately, the proceeds may have barely covered the cost of the property taxes. Orion regretfully acknowledged his failure in an 1878 letter to his sister and mother: “I am so sorry to hear you are cramped for means,” he wrote, “it gave me another twinge of conscience that I fooled away the Tennessee land, and some of your money with it” (OC to PAM and JLC, 2 Nov 1878, CU-MARK; OC to SLC, 4 Nov 1880, CU-MARK; Wecter 1952, 31–32, 278 n. 9; also the following documents provided courtesy of Barbara Schmidt: Fentress County Deeds 1820–48, Vol. A:161, 236, 244, 288, 293, 335; Fentress County Land Grants, Book T:46; “Declaration” with “Exhibits 1–6,” filed 15 May 1907, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration 1907–9).
[Early Years in Florida, Missouri] (Source: MS in NNAL, written in 1877)
64.20 My uncle, John A. Quarles] John Adams Quarles (1802–76) was married to Martha Ann Lampton, with whom he had ten children. She was the younger sister of Clemens’s mother. He settled in Florida, Missouri, in the mid-1830s, where he became a prosperous merchant and farmer. After the Clemens family moved to Hannibal in 1839, Clemens spent his summers at the Quarles farm, from about age seven until he was eleven or twelve (Inds, 342). For a longer reminiscence of life on the farm see “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It].”
64.21 “bit” calicoes] Presumably calicoes were sold at the rate of one “bit” (one-eighth of a dollar) per yard (Ramsay and Emberson 1963, 21).
65.18 my father owned slaves] In about 1833 John Marshall Clemens bought “one negro man” from Rawley Chapman (b. 1793) in Tennessee—his only documented slave purchase. The family also owned a woman named “Jenny,” who had been given to Clemens’s parents in about 1825. Clemens recalled that she was the “only slave we ever owned in my time” (Inds, 327; record of bill of sale, Fentress County Deeds, Vol. A:233). See “Jane Lampton Clemens” (Inds, 82–92) for a fuller discussion of the family’s attitude toward slavery.
65.20 “stogy” shoes] A rough heavy kind of shoe; the name is supposedly derived from “Conestoga,” a town in Pennsylvania.
THE GRANT DICTATIONS (Source: TS in CU-MARK, dictated in 1885)
The Chicago G.A.R. Festival
67 title The Chicago G.A.R. Festival] More properly, the “Thirteenth Annual Reunion of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee.” The G.A.R. (Grand Army of the Republic) was a fraternal organization of all Union veterans, and one of the sponsors of this nearly week-long event in Chicago, which, as Clemens explains, was a celebration of the returning Grant “by the veterans of the Army of the Tennessee—the first army over which he had had command” (67.19–20).
67.2–3 first time I ever saw General Grant was in the fall or winter of 1866 at one of the receptions at Washington] Clemens misremembered the year of the reception: see the note at 67.6–13. Ulysses S. Grant (1822–85) graduated from West Point and served with distinction in the Mexican War, demonstrating remarkable courage and leadership qualities. He resigned his commission in 1854 and made a meager living as a farmer and merchant. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he reenlisted in the army, eventually emerging as the leading Union general. After Grant’s important victories at Vicksburg and Chattanooga, President Lincoln appointed him general-in-chief of all the Union armies, and in 1866 he received the title of General of the Army—a unique rank equivalent to a four-star general, previously awarded only to George Washington. As president of the United States for two terms, from 1869 to 1877, he failed to curb the widespread corruption in his administration but was not directly implicated in it. In the dictations that follow, Clemens describes Grant’s later years: his unsuccessful bid in 1880 for a third presidential term, his financial reverses, the writing and publication of his memoirs, and his final illness.
67.5 General Sheridan] Philip H. Sheridan (1831–88), a brilliant military strategist and one of the most respected Union generals, was, like Grant, a West Point graduate. After the Civil War he served in New Orleans, defeating a small French army stationed in Mexico, and then led campaigns against the Plains Indians. In 1888 he was made General of the Army, but died shortly thereafter. Later that year Clemens’s firm, Charles L. Webster and Company, published Sheridan’s Personal Memoirs.
67.6–13 I next saw General Grant . . . I am embarrassed—are you?”] Clemens served, briefly, as secretary for Republican Senator William M. Stewart of Nevada (1827–1909) in Washington during the winter of 1867–68, shortly after returning from the Quaker City expedition. His fifty letters about the trip written to the San Francisco Alta California, half a dozen to the New York Tribune, and one to the New York Herald, supplied more than half the content of The Innocents Abroad, his first major book, published in 1869 (L2: 7 June 1867 and 9 Aug 1867 to JLC and family, 59 n. 5, 78–79; 22 Nov 1867 and 24 Nov 1867 to Young, 109 n. 2, 113–14; 2 Dec 1867 and 23 June 1868 to Bliss, 119–20, 232 n. 1). Clemens could not have met Grant in 1866, since he did not arrive in the East from San Francisco until early 1867. In a December 1867 notebook entry Clemens wrote, “Acquainted with Gen Grant—said I was glad to see him—he said I had the advantage of him” (N&J1, 491). The note probably alluded not to an actual meeting, but to an imaginary one, similar to the one in the manuscript that Clemens wrote on 6 December and left unpublished entitled “Interview with Gen. Grant” (SLC 1867t). It is likely that here Clemens alludes to a reception he attended in Washington in mid-January 1868; in a letter to the San Francisco Alta California he mentioned shaking hands with Grant and noted that “General Sheridan was there” (SLC 1868a). He wrote his family just days later that he had “called at Gen. Grant’s house last night. He was out at a dinner party, but Mrs. Grant said she would keep him at home on Sunday evening. I must see him, because he is good for one letter for the Alta, & part of a lecture for San F” (20 Jan 1868 to SLC and PAM, Paine’s transcript in CU-MARK). That Alta interview probably never took place, but his calling “at Gen. Grant’s house” implies that they had been formally introduced at the reception. Their second meeting at which Clemens claimed to be “embarrassed” actually occurred in mid-1870, during a brief trip to Washington where he met up with Senator Stewart. Clemens described his encounter with Grant, then serving his first term as president, on the day it occurred, in a letter of 8 July to his wife (6 July 1870 and 8 July 1870 to OLC, L4, 164–67). Clemens misplaced the year of his first meeting as 1866 rather than 1868, and may therefore have misplaced the year of the second by almost the same increment, making it early 1869 rather than mid-1870. By 1870 the Quaker City voyage was no longer news and The Innocents Abroad had given Mark Twain more than “some trifle of notoriety.”
67.17–19 Then, in 1879 . . . Army of the Tennessee] In 1877–79 Grant undertook a tour through Europe and Asia, accompanied by his wife, son Jesse, Adam Badeau, and John Russell Young, during which he was graciously received by numerous foreign dignitaries and heads of state. The banquet held in Chicago on 13 November 1879 was the culmination of four days of celebration (for a full account of the tour see Jean Edward Smith 2001, 606–13).
68.1 Carter Harrison, the mayor of Chicago] Carter Henry Harrison, Sr. (1825–93), served as mayor of Chicago from 1879 to 1887, and again briefly in 1893, until his assassination in October. His friendship with Clemens has not been otherwise documented.
68.4–5 “I am not embarrassed—are you?”] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 27 August 1906 for another account of the meetings with Grant.
68.10 General Sherman] William Tecumseh Sherman (1820–91) entered the army after graduating from West Point in 1840 and served in the Mexican War. In 1853 he resigned his commission and took a position as a banker. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was commissioned colonel; he attained the rank of brigadier general after the capture of Vicksburg in 1863. His famous March to the Sea through Georgia divided the Confederacy and hastened the end of the war. He succeeded Grant as General of the Army in 1869, and engaged in the Indian Wars until his retirement in 1884. His Memoirs, published in 1875, were highly acclaimed.
68.17 Colonel Vilas was to respond to a toast] William F. Vilas (1840–1908) of Madison, Wisconsin, was admitted to the bar in 1860. He attained the rank of lieutenant colonel during the Civil War, and later became postmaster general of the United States (1885–88), secretary of the interior (1888–89), and a U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1891–97). He responded to the toast “Our First Commander, Gen. U.S. Grant” (“Banquet of the Army of the Tennessee,” New York Times, 15 Nov 1879, 1).
69.15–17 Ingersoll . . . was to respond to the toast of “The Volunteers,”] Robert G. Ingersoll (1833–99) was trained as a lawyer. He raised and commanded the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry Regiment during the Civil War, fought at the battles of Shiloh and Corinth, and was captured by the Confederates in 1863. After the war he served as attorney general of Illinois. Known for his radical views on religion and slavery, he was a gifted and popular orator who advocated humanism and agnosticism, making him the target of frequent criticism. At the banquet he responded to the toast “The Volunteer Soldiers of the Union Army” (“Banquet of the Army of the Tennessee,” New York Times, 15 Nov 1879, 1). Afterwards Clemens wrote in a letter to his wife, Olivia:
I heard four speeches which I can never forget. One by Emory Storrs, one by Gen. Vilas (O, wasn’t it wonderful!) one by Gen. Logan (mighty stirring), one by somebody whose name escapes me, & one by that splendid old soul, Col. Bob Ingersoll,—oh, it was just the supremest combination of English words that was ever put together since the world began. My soul, how handsome he looked, as he stood on that table, in the midst of those 500 shouting men, & poured the molten silver from his lips! Lord, what an organ is human speech when it is played by a master! All these speeches may look dull in print, but how the lightnings glared around them when they were uttered, & how the crowd roared in response! (14 Nov 1879 to OLC, Letters 1876–1880)
And to William Dean Howells he wrote:
Bob Ingersoll’s speech was sadly crippled by the proof-readers, but its music will sing through my memory always as the divinest that ever enchanted my ears. And I shall always see him as he stood that night on a dinner table, under the flash of lights & banners, in the midst of seven hundred frantic shouters, the most beautiful human creature that ever lived. “They fought that a mother might own her child”—the words look like any other [in] print, but Lord bless me, he borrowed the very accent of the angel of Mercy to say them in, & you should have seen that vast house rise to its feet. (17 Nov 1879 to Howells, Letters 1876–1880)
When he returned to Hartford, Clemens wrote Ingersoll asking for a copy of his speech (9 Dec 1879 to Ingersoll, Letters 1876–1880). The printed copy sent by Ingersoll is in the Mark Twain Papers, so identified by Clemens. The sentence he quoted in part to Howells reads as follows:
Grander than the Greek, nobler than the Roman, the soldiers of the Republic, with patriotism as shoreless as the air, battled for the rights of others, for the nobility of labor, fought that mothers might own their babies, that arrogant idleness should not scar the back of patient toil, and that our country should not be a many-headed monster made of warring states, but a nation, sovereign, great, and free. (“The Grand Banquet at the Palmer House, Chicago, Thursday, Nov. 13th, 1879,” CU-MARK)
69.29 “Egod! He didn’t get left!”] This was evidently the “slang expression” that was new to Clemens (68.13). While it originally referred to missing a boat or train connection, in the late 1870s it came to mean “lose out” in general. Clemens recorded this exact remark about Ingersoll in his 1882 notebook (N&J2, 373, 507; see, for example, “How a Lawyer Got Left,” Puck 3 [24 Apr 1878]: 4).
70.13 the child is but the father of the man] A slight misquotation from “The Rainbow,” by William Wordsworth.
70.15–16 for when they saw the General break up in good-sized pieces they followed suit with great enthusiasm] Clemens described this occasion in his letter to Howells:
Gen. Grant sat at the banquet like a statue of iron & listened without the faintest suggestion of emotion to fourteen speeches which tore other people all to shreds, but when I lit in with the fifteenth & last, his time was come! I shook him up like dynamite & he sat there fifteen minutes & laughed & cried like the mortalest of mortals. But bless you I had measured this unconquerable conqueror, & went at my work with the confidence of conviction, for I knew I could lick him. He told me he had shaken hands with 15,000 people that day & come out of it without an ache or pain, but that my truths had racked all the bones of his body apart. (17 Nov 1879 to Howells, Letters 1876–1880)
For the full text of “The Babies,” see Budd 1992a, 727–29.
[A Call with W. D. Howells on General Grant]
70.18 1881] The year should be 1882: see the note at 70.19–37.
70.19 Howells] William Dean Howells (1837–1920) was born at Martin’s Ferry, Ohio, into a large family with radical political and religious tendencies. He was apprenticed to his father, a printer, and became a journalist. With, as he was to say, “an almost entire want of schooling,” he read widely in his father’s library, teaching himself Spanish, German, French, and Italian (Howells to John S. Hart, 2 July 1871, in Howells 1979, 375). In recognition of his support of Lincoln’s 1860 presidential campaign, Howells was rewarded with a consulship in Venice (1861). Returning to America in 1865, he rose as a journalist, moving to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to be assistant editor (1866–71) and then editor (1871–81) of the Atlantic Monthly. In 1881 he retired to concentrate on writing. Among his personal friends were Henry Adams, William and Henry James, and jurist Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (son of the poet). His friendship with Clemens dates from his review of The Innocents Abroad in 1869 (Howells 1869). Howells used his position at the epicenter of American letters to help assure Mark Twain’s literary success; he also served his friend as editor, proofreader, and sounding-board. In literature, Howells championed and practiced realism. His best novels, out of a vast output, are usually considered to be The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) and A Hazard of New Fortunes (1890); he memorialized Clemens in My Mark Twain (1910).
70.19–37 his old father . . . resigned, a couple of years later] Howells’s father, William Cooper Howells (1807–94), was appointed U.S. consul at Toronto in 1878, after serving for four years as the consul at Quebec. Howells learned in late January 1882 that his father might lose his position, and on 2 March wrote him that he planned “to spend Sunday with Mark Twain who is a great friend of Grant’s, and can possibly get me access to him” (Howells to William C. Howells, 2 Mar 1882, in Howells 1980, 10–11). Clemens and Howells called on Grant in New York on 10 March. In My Mark Twain, Howells reported that Grant was “very simple and very cordial, and I was instantly the more at home with him, because his voice was the soft, rounded, Ohio River accent to which my years [i.e., ears] were earliest used from my steamboating uncles, my earliest heroes. When I stated my business he merely said, Oh no; that must not be; he would write to Mr. Arthur” (Howells 1910, 71). Grant acted so promptly that Secretary of State Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (1817–85) responded the following day, “You may inform Mr. Clemens that it is not our purpose to make a change in the Consulate at Toronto” (Frelinghuysen to Grant, 11 Mar 1882, CU-MARK). Grant forwarded the letter to Clemens, and he in turn wrote Howells, on 14 March, “This settles the matter—at least for some time to come—& permanently, I imagine. You see the General is a pretty prompt man” (MH-H, in MTHL, 1:394). The elder Howells resigned his post in June 1883 (21 June 1874 to Howells, L6, 166 n. 2; Howells 1979, 61, 196; Howells 1980, 10–11, 14, 58–59).
71.7–8 “How he sits and towers” . . . Dante] Howells quoted this phrase in a letter to Clemens from Bethlehem, New Hampshire, of 9 August 1885: “We had a funeral service for Grant, here, yesterday, and all the time while they were pumping song and praise over his great memory, I kept thinking of the day when we lunched on pork and beans with him in New York, and longing to make them feel and see how far above their hymns he was even in such an association. How he ‘sits and towers’ as Dante says” (CU-MARK, in MTHL, 2:536). Less than a month later, on 10 September, Clemens added this quotation to his dictated typescript, inserting in brackets the words “It was bacon and beans” and Howells’s presumed quote from Dante. The phrase is not, however, from Dante, but from a sonnet by Italian dramatist and poet Vittorio Alfieri (1749–1803): “Siena, dal colle ove torreggia e siede” (“Siena, from the hill where she towers and sits”). Howells’s source was E. A. Brigidi’s La Nuova Guida di Siena (a work he drew on for his Tuscan Cities), where it appeared without citation (Brigidi 1885, 11; Howells 1886, 126, 139). Many years later Howells recalled that the “baked beans and coffee were of about the railroad-refreshment quality; but eating them with Grant was like sitting down to baked beans and coffee with Julius Caesar, or Alexander, or some other great Plutarchan captain” (Howells 1910, 72).
71.9–18 “Squibob” Derby at West Point . . . would change places with him] Howells later recalled:
Grant seemed to like finding himself in company with two literary men, one of whom at least he could make sure of, and unlike that silent man he was reputed, he talked constantly, and so far as he might he talked literature. At least he talked of John Phoenix, that delightfulest of the early Pacific Slope humorists, whom he had known under his real name of George H. Derby, when they were fellow-cadets at West Point. (Howells 1910, 72)
George Horatio Derby (1823–61), a captain in the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, was known primarily for the humorous sketches he wrote under his pseudonym while stationed on the Pacific Coast. These were collected in Phoenixiana; or, Sketches and Burlesques (1856) and, posthumously, The Squibob Papers (1865) (15 Dec 1866 to JLC and family, L1, 374 n. 2).
71.27–29 General Badeau’s military history . . . John Russell Young’s account . . . had hardly any sale at all] Adam Badeau (1831–95) became Grant’s military secretary in 1864, and by the time he retired from the army in 1869 (with the brevet rank of brigadier general) the two men had become close friends. President Grant appointed Badeau U.S. consul in London, where he served from 1870 to 1881, except for a leave from his post to travel with Grant for the first five months of his 1877–79 world tour. Between 1868 and 1881 Badeau published his three-volume Military History of Ulysses S. Grant (Badeau 1868–81; N&J3, 107 n. 137; 15 June 1873 to Badeau, L5, 382 n. 1). John Russell Young (1840–99) had a distinguished career as a journalist with several newspapers before becoming managing editor of the New York Tribune from 1866 to 1869. In 1872 he accepted a position as foreign correspondent for the New York Herald. He accompanied Grant on his tour, which he chronicled in Around the World with General Grant (1879). Appointed by President Chester A. Arthur as U.S. minister to China in 1882 (through Grant’s influence), Young mediated a number of disputes involving the United States, China, and France before returning to the Herald in 1885 (14 May 1869 to OLL, L3, 230 n. 6; 17 or 18 June 1873 to Young, L5, 383 n. 1).
71.34–35 best plan of publication—the subscription plan] Subscription publishers sold books in advance of publication through agents who went door to door, largely in rural areas, and persuaded people to place orders by showing them a bound “prospectus” with sample pages and illustrations. Subscription books typically cost more than those sold in bookstores, and were the best way to ensure high profits—a lesson that Clemens had learned from his own experience, beginning in 1869 with the American Publishing Company.
71.36–37 American Publishing Company . . . swindling me for ten years] In early 1872, shortly after the publication of Roughing It, Clemens began to suspect that his publisher, Elisha P. Bliss, Jr., of the American Publishing Company, was cheating him by overstating his production expenses. He was reassured by Bliss’s explanation, however, and stayed with the firm through the publication of A Tramp Abroad in 1880 (see RI 1993, 877–80; AD, 21 Feb 1906, note at 370.32–33). Although after Bliss’s death in 1880 Clemens considered suing the company, he decided that Francis Bliss, who had succeeded his father, had treated him fairly (26 Oct 1881 to Webster, NPV, in MTBus, 173–74; 28 Dec 1881 to Osgood and Company and 31 Dec 1881 to Osgood, MH-H, in MTLP, 147–49; 3? Oct 1882 to Elliott, CU-MARK; 6 Oct 1882 to Webster, NPV, in MTBus, 203–4). By mid-1883 he was willing to recommend the firm to fellow author George Washington Cable:
If I were going to advise you to issue through a Hartford house, I would say, every time, go to my former publishers, the American Publishing Company, 284 Asylum st. They swindled me out of huge sums of money in the old days, but they do know how to push a book; and besides, I think they are honest people now. I think there was only one thief in the concern, and he is shoveling brimstone now. (4 June 1883 to Cable, LNT)
Grant and the Chinese
72.6 Yung Wing, late Chinese Minister at Washington] Yung Wing (1828–1912) was raised in a peasant family in southern China and learned to read and write English at a missionary school. He came to the United States with his teacher in 1847 and graduated from Yale College in 1854. In 1876 he was appointed minister to Washington jointly with Chin Lan Pin, a position he declined, agreeing instead to serve as Chin’s assistant minister (1878–81). Clemens became acquainted with Yung through their mutual friend the Reverend Joseph Twichell (Yung 1909, 1, 3, 7, 13, 19–21, 27, 41, 173, 180–90, 197–200; New York Times: “The Chinese Ambassadors,” 29 Sept 1878, 1; “China’s Backward Step,” 2 Sept 1881, 5; 21 Feb 1875 to Sprague and others, L6, 393 n. 3).
72.7–9 Li-Hung-Chang . . . military railroads in China] Li Hung Chang (1823–1901), viceroy of the Chinese capital province of Zhili from 1870 to 1896, was, as Clemens claimed, a progressive politician who promoted modernization of the army and the building of railroads. Clemens first approached Grant about the railroad project in early 1881. Twichell described the circumstances in a journal entry for 25–28 March of that year:
Yung Wing arrives from Washington full of business. The Chinese Gov. (so he is advised) is soon to embark in a great Rail Road enterprize, and he wants the United States to get in ahead of England and all the world in furnishing the men and the capital involved in carrying out the project. . . . Accordingly M. T. is called on for counsel and aid. He writes to Gen. G. at once. Answer comes promptly that he is on the point of setting out for Mexico, but will be sure to seize an opportunity to write en route to Li Hung Chang making recommendations in the line of Y. W’s ideas. (Twichell 1874–1916)
Neither Clemens’s letter nor Grant’s reply is known to survive. On 1 April Grant wrote to Clemens while en route to Mexico, enclosing the promised letter to Li:
If you will show this letter to Yung Wing, and he approves of it, and then forward it to Li Hung Chang, I will be much obliged to you.
I regret much not reading your letter when it was received. Had I done so I would have arranged for a meeting with you and friends no matter what I had to do. (CU-MARK)
In a second letter of the same day he added, “On my return to New York I will be very glad to meet you with Yung Wing, and any others you, or he, choose to bring, to talk on this subject” (CU-MARK). Clemens wrote to thank Grant on 22 April: “Your letter to the viceroy has gone at a fortunate time, for it will strengthen his hands at a needed season” (quoted in Dawson 1902). Clemens’s recollection that he and Yung called on Grant three years later to discuss the project, in early 1884, is confirmed by his remark below about Grant’s “fall on the ice,” an accident that occurred in December 1883 (Badeau 1887, 416).
72.8 Prince Kung] Prince Gong (1833–98), as he is now more commonly known, was head of China’s Grand Council. As the most prominent statesman in China during the 1860s and 1870s, he pursued an agenda of modernization and cooperation with Western countries. Clemens had evidently read a false newspaper report that the prince had committed suicide after the emperor deposed him, but he had only retired from public life (“Prince Kung,” Chicago Tribune, 2 May 1884, 5).
72.33–34 About 1879 or 1880, the Chinese pupils . . . had been ordered home by the Chinese government] Yung’s life work was to promote the education of Chinese students in the United States. As a result of his efforts, in 1872 the Chinese government established the Chinese Educational Commission, which brought more than a hundred boys to Hartford for a program of studies intended to prepare them for government service in their native country. Yung was appointed co-commissioner with Chin Lan Pin. Both Chin and Woo Tsze Tun, who became co-commissioner in 1876, were conservatives who feared that the mission was a threat to traditional Chinese culture. According to Yung, Woo’s “malicious misrepresentations and other falsehoods” ultimately persuaded the Chinese government, with the consent of Viceroy Li, to take steps to abolish the program in late 1880 (Yung 1909, 200–210).
73.2–3 Wong, non-progressionist, was the chief China Minister] Although Clemens did not correctly recall Minister Chin’s name, he did accurately describe his role in bringing about the end of the Chinese Mission (Yung 1909, 203).
73.13 Rev. Mr. Twichell] Joseph H. Twichell (1838–1918), the son of a tanner, was born in Connecticut. He graduated from Yale in 1859, but his studies at Union Seminary were interrupted by Civil War service as chaplain of the Seventy-first New York Volunteers. In 1865 he completed his divinity studies at Andover Seminary and accepted the pastorate of Asylum Hill Congregational Church (Hartford, Connecticut), where he would remain for the rest of his career. The same year, he married Julia Harmony Cushman (1843–1910); they had nine children. He struck up a friendship with Clemens in 1868, which deepened when the Clemenses moved to the Hartford neighborhood of Nook Farm, where the Twichells also lived. Twichell preached a “muscular Christianity” more concerned with social progress than with doctrine, and was broad-minded enough to be Clemens’s confidant and adviser. He accompanied Clemens to Bermuda in 1877 and to Europe in 1878; in A Tramp Abroad he is the model for the character of Harris. He was one of Clemens’s closest friends, presiding at both his wedding and his funeral.
73.13–22 went down to New York to see the General . . . do it immediately] Twichell, who had befriended Yung and strongly endorsed his work, asked Clemens to enlist Grant’s support. The two men called on Grant in New York on 21 December 1880. Clemens wrote Howells, “Grant took in the whole situation in a jiffy, & before Joe had more than fairly got started, the old man said: ‘I’ll write the Viceroy a letter—a separate letter—& bring strong reasons to bear upon him’ ” (24 Dec 1880 to Howells, Letters 1876–1880).
73.31–33 General Grant’s letter . . . peremptory command to old Minister Wong to continue the Chinese schools] In March 1881 Clemens wrote to thank Grant for his intervention, announcing that the “Mission in Hartford is saved. The order to take the students home to China was revoked by the Viceroy three days ago—by cable. This cablegram mentions the receipt of your letter” (15 Mar 1881 to Grant, OKeU).
73.36–37 policy of the Imperial government had been reversed] Ultimately, the efforts of Grant and others to continue the mission were futile. By July 1881 it had been abolished and the students recalled to China (New York Times: “China’s Educational Mission,” 16 July 1881, 5; “China’s Backward Step,” 2 Sept 1881, 5).
74.1 at the farm at Elmira] From 1871 until 1889, the Clemens family spent their summers at Quarry Farm, the Elmira, New York, residence of Olivia’s sister and brother-in-law, Susan and Theodore Crane. Susy, Clara, and Jean were all born there. The property had been purchased in 1869 by Jervis Langdon, who bequeathed it to his daughter Susan. Named after an old slate quarry on the site, it was situated outside the city, on a hill overlooking the Chemung River. In 1874 Susan built an octagonal study on the hill above the house for Clemens to use as a writer’s retreat. There he worked on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), A Tramp Abroad (1880), The Prince and the Pauper (1881), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889) (17 Mar 1871 to Bliss, L4, 366–67 n. 3; Cotton 1985, 59).
74.2–7 Gerhardt . . . not able to get anything to do] Clemens befriended Karl Gerhardt (1853–1940), a young self-taught sculptor and chief mechanic for a tool manufacturer in Hartford, in February 1881. His wife, Josephine (called “Hattie”), initiated the relationship by calling on Clemens and persuading him to visit her husband’s studio. Clemens, impressed by Gerhardt’s talent, sought the opinions of several artists, who endorsed his judgment: painter James Wells Champney (1843–1903), sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward (1830–1910), and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens (see AD, 16 Jan 1906, note at 284.7–8). Clemens offered to loan Gerhardt $3,000 to study at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, an amount that Ward and others assumed would easily support the artist and his wife for five years. Gerhardt exhausted his stipend (and supplements) in less than four years and returned to the United States in the summer of 1884, leaving his wife in Paris with their infant daughter, Olivia (named in honor of Olivia Clemens; his “little boy,” Lawrence, was not yet born). Having failed to secure any work, he sculpted a clay bust of Clemens, and a plaster casting of it was photographed to provide a second frontispiece for Huckleberry Finn. In the late 1880s Gerhardt won a number of important commissions for memorial statues, but by the end of the decade work became scarce. In the mid-1890s he was briefly in partnership with architect Walter Sanford and was employed by a bicycle manufacturer. Sometime after Hattie died in 1897, he moved to New Orleans and lived in obscurity, doing some sculpting but chiefly tending bar and doing other odd jobs until his own death in 1940 (21 Feb 1881 to Howells [1st], NN-BGC, and 7 Aug 1884 to Howells, MH-H, in MTHL, 1:350–55, 2:497–98; “Art Notes,” New York Times, 6 Mar 1881, 8; letters to the Gerhardts: 30 Sept and 1 Oct 1882, MB; 26 Mar 1883, CLjC; 14–25 June 1883, CU-MARK; 1 Aug 1883, CtHMTH; HF 2003, xxvii, 374; AskART 2008e; see Schmidt 2009c).
74.12–13 The speech . . . was worth four times the sum] Richard D. Hubbard (1818–84) was a Yale graduate and lawyer who served as governor of Connecticut from 1877 to 1879. On 28 March 1883 he addressed the state legislature in Hartford proposing that a statue of Nathan Hale be commissioned for the exterior of the capitol building. A brief sample will explain Clemens’s sarcasm:
Nathan Hale perished more than a century ago, a bloody sacrifice on a bloody altar. . . . In the lonely watches of that prison night whose early dawn was to end his days—yes, in that night’s thickest gloom and still more in that morning’s horror of great darkness that was to deliver his body from the power of hell, it pleased God—this also I dare affirm—it pleased God to come nigh unto his waiting servant; to uncurtain the future for a space of time, and to let down to his watching eyes a prophetic vision of his country’s coming independence. (“Connecticut’s Martyr Spy,” Hartford Courant, 29 Mar 1883, 1)
74.14–21 The committee . . . Mr. Coit . . . Barnard . . . Waller] Robert Coit (1830–1904), president of the New London Northern Railroad Company since 1881, served as a Connecticut state senator from 1880 to 1883 (“Robert Coit Dead,” Hartford Courant, 20 June 1904, 1; Biographical Review 1898, 276–77). Henry Barnard (1811–1900) was an educator and editor who devoted his career to the improvement of public schools and held a number of government positions. He acquired a reputation, however, as an inept administrator who failed to complete his obligations. He was appointed to the committee to replace Hubbard, who died in February 1884. Thomas M. Waller (1840–1924) practiced law and entered politics in 1867, serving as a state legislator, secretary of state, mayor of New London, and governor from 1883 to 1885.
74.23–24 A salaried artist . . . Mrs. Colt’s private church] The “salaried artist” has not been identified. James G. Batterson (1823–1901), a prominent Hartford businessman and founder of the Travelers Insurance Company, was the president of the New England Granite Works, which specialized in producing “artistic memorials” in granite, marble, and bronze. Enoch S. Woods, a sculptor with a studio in Hartford, was the sexton of the Church of the Good Shepherd. This Episcopal church had been built in 1866 by Elizabeth Jarvis Colt (1826–1905), the widow of Samuel Colt (the founder of Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company), as a memorial to her late husband and the three children she had lost in infancy (Geer 1886, 42, 207, 245, 297, 521). Woods created a model of Hale “as he had prepared himself for the hangman’s rope, standing bare-headed and with his hands pinioned” (“A Sculptor’s Model of Nathan Hale,” Hartford Courant, 12 July 1883, 2).
74.31 William C. Prime] Clemens had satirized Tent Life in the Holy Land (1857), an idealized travel narrative by journalist and author William C. Prime (1825–1905), in chapters 46 and 48 of The Innocents Abroad—calling him “Grimes”—and in 1908 still considered him a “gushing pietist” (AD, 31 Oct 1908). In late 1885 and early 1886, however, Clemens was negotiating with Prime for the right to publish McClellan’s Own Story, a work that Prime edited on behalf of General George B. McClellan’s widow. The book was issued in 1887 by Webster and Company (31 Jan 1886 to Prime, DLC; N&J3, 218).
74.31 Charles D. Warner] Charles Dudley Warner (1829–1900), an essayist, travel writer, and editor of the Hartford Courant, was a central figure in the Hartford Nook Farm community. With Clemens he coauthored The Gilded Age (1873–74), a satirical novel that lent its name to the materialism and political corruption in American society after the Civil War. Warner had met Gerhardt at the same time as Clemens and continued to take an interest in his career (link note following 20–22 Dec 1872 to Twichell, L5, 259–60; 21 Feb 1881 to Howells [1st], NN-BGC, in MTHL, 1:350–55; 5 Apr 1884 to the Gerhardts, CtHMTH).
75.26 the prospects . . . seemed to be as far away as ever] In December the committee—which by then consisted of Coit, Barnard, and Governor Henry B. Harrison (Waller’s successor)—at last awarded the contract to Gerhardt. Olin L. Warner, a sculptor who had studied with the same Paris mentor as Gerhardt (François Jouffroy), persuaded the committee that his sketch was superior to the full-sized model that Woods submitted. A year later Gerhardt’s clay model, a figure of “heroic size . . . standing with his arms partly outstretched,” was approved, and was cast in bronze. Both Clemens and Gerhardt attended the unveiling ceremony in June 1887; the Reverend Joseph Twichell gave the invocation, and Charles Dudley Warner (a new committee member) made the presentation address (Hartford Courant: “The Nathan Hale Statue,” 22 Dec 1885, 2; 22 Dec 1886, 1; “The Hale Statue Unveiled,” 15 June 1887, 5; “The Hale Statue,” 15 June 1887, 1).
About General Grant’s Memoirs
75.28 a history of General Grant’s memoirs] See the Autobiographical Dictations of 6 February, 28 May, 29 May, 31 May, 1 June, and 2 June 1906 for Clemens’s later recollections of the events he describes below. See also N&J3, 122–25, for an overview of the circumstances surrounding the publication of Grant’s Personal Memoirs (1885–86).
75.30–31 During the Garfield campaign . . . Republican Party] Grant himself had been a potential candidate for a third term as president at the June 1880 Republican convention. Although he did not actively campaign for the nomination, he indicated his willingness to run if drafted. Although many of his supporters backed him through thirty-six ballots, the nomination finally went to James A. Garfield. Grant pledged his support, and at Garfield’s invitation, joined his campaign (Jean Edward Smith 2001, 614–17). Garfield defeated Democrat Winfield Hancock, but was in office only six months before his assassination, in July 1881. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Chester A. Arthur.
76.1 Grant’s eldest son, Colonel Fred Grant] Ulysses S. Grant married Julia Dent (1826–1902), the daughter of a Missouri farmer, in 1848. Frederick Dent (1850–1912) was their first child, followed by Ulysses S., Jr. (1852–1929), Ellen Wrenshall (1855–1922), and Jesse Root, Jr. (1858–1934). As a youth Frederick spent much of the Civil War at his father’s side, serving with distinction. After graduating from West Point in 1871, he joined a cavalry regiment, and later served on the staffs of several generals, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1877–79 he joined his father and mother on their world tour. He resumed his military career during the Spanish-American War, reaching the rank of major general. Ulysses S. Grant, Jr. (called “Buck”), a graduate of Harvard and Columbia Law School, became a stockbroker. After the failure of his firm, he recovered with the help of his father-in-law, Jerome B. Chaffee, a former state senator (see the note at 83.30). Jesse Grant studied at Cornell, but left to accompany his parents on the early part of their world tour. He attended Columbia Law School for only a year (McFeely 1981, 22, 489–90, 521).
76.5–8 the General left the White House . . . live in either of them] No evidence has been found that Grant was in debt after either term as president. After leaving the White House in March 1877, he spent $85,000 of his own money (earned from investments) on his world tour. After their return the Grants still had $100,000 invested, which provided an annual income of less than $6,000. This amount was not sufficient to maintain their standard of living (it barely covered the cost of their rooms at the Fifth Avenue Hotel). The Grants also owned a house in Philadelphia, given to them in 1865, and “four or five little houses” they had purchased in Washington (Julia Dent Grant 1975, 161, 322). Grant had resigned from the army in 1869—giving up his unique title of General of the Army, awarded by an act of Congress in July 1866—and was therefore ineligible to be placed on the retired list; nor did he qualify for a pension by virtue of his political office: former presidents received no government support until 1958 (Badeau 1887, 316, 418; Jean Edward Smith 2001, 419–20, 607–8; Stephanie Smith 2006).
76.15–20 in introducing the General, I referred to the dignities and emoluments . . . he was well satisfied] Clemens accompanied the Grant party from Boston to Hartford on the morning of 16 October 1880, and introduced the general at a gathering in Bushnell Park that afternoon. His speech included the following remarks:
When Wellington won Waterloo—a battle about on a level with some dozen of your victories—sordid England tried to pay him for that service—with wealth and grandeurs! She made him a duke, and gave him $4,000,000. If you had done and suffered for any other country what you have done and suffered for your own, you would have been affronted in the same sordid way. (Laughter.) But thank God this vast and rich and mighty republic is imbued to the core with a delicacy which will forever preserve her from so degrading you. (Renewed laughter.) Your country loves you, your country is proud of you, your country is grateful to you. (Applause.) Her applauses, which have been thundering in your ears all these weeks and months, will never cease while the flag you saved continues to wave. (Great applause.)
Your country stands ready, from this day forth[,] to testify her measureless love, and pride, and gratitude towards you in every conceivable—inexpensive way. (Roars of laughter.) (“Grant. His Reception in Hartford,” Hartford Courant, 18 Oct 1880, 1)
Clemens sent Howells a clipping of his speech, with the remark that “Gen. Grant came near laughing his entire head off” (19 Oct 1880 to Howells, Letters 1876–1880). Grant replied that what the American people had given him was “of more value than gold and silver. No amount of the latter could compensate for the respect and kind feelings of my fellow-citizens” (“Grant. His Reception in Hartford,” Hartford Courant, 18 Oct 1880, 1).
76.22–25 certain wealthy citizens . . . rascality of other people] At the end of 1880 George Jones of the New York Times and other friends came to the Grants’ rescue by raising a trust fund of $250,000, which was invested in railroad bonds to provide a guaranteed income of $15,000 a year (Goldhurst 1975, 12–13, 21).
76.26–30 Grant and Ward, brokers and stock-dealers . . . business of the house] The principals in the firm, established in mid-1880, were Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., and Ferdinand Ward. Ward, the son of a minister, grew up in Geneseo, New York. He went to New York in 1875, and worked as a clerk in the produce exchange. He began building his fortune by “speculating in memberships” on the exchange, and later inherited a fortune upon the death of his father-in-law, an officer of the Marine National Bank (“Wall Street Startled,” New York Times, 7 May 1884, 5). By the early 1880s he was reputed to be worth $750,000, and was known as the “Young Napoleon” of the financial world. Grant and Ward invested $100,000 each. In November 1880 General Grant and James D. Fish, president of the Marine National Bank, each added $100,000, and became “special” partners. The Grants put in cash, while the other two men pledged securities. Frederick Grant and, to a lesser extent, Jesse Grant also invested with the firm (McFeely 1981, 489–90; Jean Edward Smith 2001, 619; New York Times: “The Fish-Grant Letters,” 28 May 1884, 5; advertisement for “Grant & Ward, Bankers,” 8 Dec 1881, 7; Goldhurst 1975, 13–14).
76.37–38 5th of May . . . penniless] The firm collapsed on 6 May 1884 and simultaneously caused the closure of the Marine National Bank. For several years, investors had made unrealistic profits, collecting annual dividends sometimes as high as 40 percent. Grant and his son had left everything in Ward’s hands, and believed themselves millionaires. Ward’s scheme was to induce investors to buy securities, retain them on deposit as collateral on multiple loans from the Marine Bank (with the collusion of Fish), and then pay out the borrowed funds in large dividends to other investors. The scheme collapsed when Ward finally could not repay the loans. The securities he had pledged to the bank did not cover the loss, which in turn caused the bank to fail. The estimated liabilities of the firm of Grant and Ward totaled nearly $17 million, with actual assets of about $67,000 (Goldhurst 1975, 13–19; Jean Edward Smith 2001, 619–21; McFeely 1981, 490; New York Times: “Wall Street Startled,” 7 May 1884, 1; “Ward’s Curious Methods,” 13 May 1884, 1; “Debts of Grant & Ward,” 8 July 1884, 8; “Ferdinand Ward Arraigned,” 5 June 1885, 8).
76.42–77.7 Ward had spared no one . . . connected with the Grant family] The New York house, purchased with money from a $100,000 fund raised by wealthy friends, belonged to Mrs. Grant. The Grants assumed an existing mortgage and gave the balance of the gift—$52,000—to Ward, who falsely claimed that it was invested in bonds. The $65,000 was most likely from the sale of the Philadelphia house (Badeau 1887, 420; Julia Dent Grant 1975, 161, 323–24). According to Badeau, Grant
was ruined; one son was a partner in the wreck and the liabilities; another[,] the agent of the firm, was bankrupt for half a million; his youngest son on the 3d of May had deposited all his means, about $80,000, in the bank of his father and brother, and the bank suspended payment on the 6th; his daughter had made a little investment of $12,000 with the firm; one sister had put in $5,000, another $25,000; a nephew had invested a few thousands, the savings of a clerkship; and other personal friends had been induced by Grant’s name and advice to invest still more largely. (Badeau 1887, 421)
In one sense it cannot be claimed that Grant lost his initial investment, because he and his son had each been drawing as much as $3,000 a month from the firm for living expenses. So between late 1880 and early 1884, they probably received an amount equal to their original investment, plus a reasonable return. What Grant had lost, however, was a putative fortune: he believed that his withdrawals did not affect his principal, which was now alleged to be about a million dollars. In addition, he was now responsible for the liabilities of the firm. (Mrs. Grant eventually paid out about $190,000 from the proceeds of Grant’s Memoirs to settle these business debts.) And, finally, he had borrowed $150,000 from William H. Vanderbilt in a last-minute effort to avert the disaster, in the belief that Ward would return the money immediately. To repay the debt, Grant made over all his assets to Vanderbilt, including deeds to his real estate. (When Vanderbilt offered to return the property to Mrs. Grant and forgive the debt, the Grants refused.) Mrs. Grant—whose property was considered separate—still owned two houses in Washington, which she sold to raise money; loans from friends provided additional funds for living expenses (Goldhurst 1975, 3–5, 13, 22–25, 250; “Gen. Grant’s Testimony,” New York Tribune, 28 Mar 1885, 1; Badeau 1887, 419–20, 423, 432–33).
77.9–13 bill to restore to General Grant . . . Fitz-John Porter Bill by President Arthur] Major General Fitz-John Porter (1822–1901) was convicted by a court martial in January 1863 of disobeying orders at the second battle of Bull Run. Many believed he was innocent of the charges, arguing that the orders were based on false information, and would have resulted in a doomed assault. In 1879 Porter was exonerated by a board of inquiry, and in early 1880 his supporters began a long campaign to restore him to his army rank on the retired list, either by legislation or by executive action. Late in 1880 a bill authorizing the president to similarly reinstate Grant was introduced in Congress. These were the first of a series of “relief” bills for both men that were debated in Congress over the next several years. When at last a bill for Porter passed both houses, President Arthur vetoed it in July 1884, claiming that it was unconstitutional because it named a specific person, a power not granted to Congress. Meanwhile, after the failure of Grant and Ward in May 1884, a second bill to reinstate Grant had been introduced in Congress. President Arthur, who wanted to avoid contradicting his earlier position in the Porter case, asked Congress to confer a pension upon Grant without presidential action—a form of charity that Grant “indignantly declined to receive” (Badeau 1887, 432). In January 1885 a final bill was proposed, authorizing the president to place one former general on the army retired list with the corresponding “rank and full pay.” The Porter bill and the Grant bill both passed the Senate, but were stalled in the House, in part because some congressmen wanted to retaliate against Arthur by forcing a veto. Finally, less than half an hour before Congress was to adjourn sine die at noon on 4 March, the last bill was passed. The timing was so close that at 11:45 the assistant doorkeeper “stood upon a chair and pushed the hands of the Senate clock back six minutes, while everybody laughed at the cheating of time.” The bill was signed at once, and at “11:53 by the corrected time” the president proffered Grant’s nomination, which was unanimously approved. Clemens, who was present when Grant heard the news, sent a telegram to his wife: “We were at General Grants at noon and a telegram arrived that the last act of the expiring congress late this morning retired him with full Generals rank and accompanying emoluments. The effect upon him was like raising the dead” (“Gen. Grant’s Retirement,” New York Times, 5 Mar 1885, 1; 4 Mar 1885 to OLC, CU-MARK). Unfortunately, the result of these efforts was essentially honorary. Grant died less than five months later, and his pay, $13,600 a year, was not continued to his widow. In December 1885, however, Congress awarded Mrs. Grant her own pension of $5,000 a year. Porter’s case was not resolved until July 1886, when he was restored to his former rank by a special act of Congress and awarded an annual pension of $3,375 (New York Times: “Fitz John Porter Whitewashed,” 29 Mar 1879, 2; “Gen. Grant’s Former Salaries,” 14 Dec 1880, 1; “Fitz John Porter’s Case,” 12 Jan 1880, 1; “In Vindication of Porter,” 3 Jan 1882, 5; “Porter’s Last Hope Gone,” 16 Apr 1882, 1; “Still Seeking a Pardon,” 1 Jan 1884, 1; “The Fitz John Porter Bill Killed,” 4 July 1884, 1; “For Gen. Grant’s Benefit,” 8 May 1884, 1; “Mrs. Grant’s Pension Approved,” 27 Dec 1885, 1; “Army and Navy News,” 7 July 1886, 3; Annual Cyclopaedia 1883, 236–48; Annual Cyclopaedia 1884, 207–8; Annual Cyclopaedia 1885, 203–4, 225–27; Badeau 1887, 340–41, 432, 443; Jean Edward Smith 2001, 624–25; Los Angeles Times: “The Retired List,” 22 Oct 1893, 9; “Current Notes,” 22 May 1885, 2; “Will Mrs. Grant Have a Pension?” Utica Observer, undated clipping in Scrapbook 22:59, CU-MARK).
77.27–31 I was reading . . . going to write a fourth] In the winter of 1884–85, Clemens was on a lecture tour with George Washington Cable. Olivia was present at the first of their two performances in New York at Chickering Hall, on 18 and 19 November. Grant’s four war articles (“The Battle of Shiloh,” “The Siege of Vicksburg,” “Chattanooga,” and “Preparing for the Wilderness Campaign”) were published in the Century between February 1885 and February 1886. They were part of “Battles and Leaders of the Civil War,” a series of articles by dozens of authors, including generals from both sides of the conflict, which appeared from November 1884 to October 1887 and was then collected in four volumes (Ulysses S. Grant 1885a, 1885b, 1885c, 1886; Johnson and Buel 1887–88).
77 footnote *Aug.’85 . . . Gilder himself] Richard Watson Gilder (1844–1909) was a poet and the influential editor of the Century Magazine from its first issue in November 1881 until his death (see Johnson 1923, 88–96). This footnote is one of several comments that Clemens added in August 1885 to the text he had dictated in May.
79.21–22 Charles L. Webster & Co. . . . one-tenth interest] Charles L. Webster (1851–91), a surveyor and civil engineer from Fredonia, New York, had married Annie Moffett, the daughter of Clemens’s sister, Pamela, in 1875. Clemens hired him as his general manager in 1881, giving him broad responsibility for both his business and personal affairs. In 1884, when Clemens established his own publishing company, he relied on Webster to run the business, at a salary of $2,500 a year, supplemented (starting in 1885) by one-third of the profits up to $20,000 a year, and one-tenth of earnings beyond that (contracts dated 10 Apr 1884 and 20 Mar 1885, NPV). Webster and Company published all of Clemens’s books from Huckleberry Finn (1885) to Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894), as well as other works. Clemens forced Webster to retire, ostensibly because of ill health, in 1888; he returned to Fredonia, where he died at age thirty-nine. The publishing firm, which had been losing money for several years, declared bankruptcy on 18 April 1894 (“Mark Twain’s Company in Trouble,” New York Times, 19 Apr 1894, 9).
80.22 George W. Childs] Childs (1829–94) was the editor and publisher of the Philadelphia Public Ledger from 1864 until his death. He was a highly respected and admired businessman and philanthropist, as well as a good friend of Grant’s (N&J3, 100 n. 111).
80.30–31 Clarence Seward’s was one] Clarence A. Seward (1828–97) established the firm of Seward, Da Costa and Guthrie in 1867; it became one of the most prominent and successful law practices in New York.
80.35 the contract was drawn . . . in my hands] Clemens delegated Webster to negotiate with Grant. On 27 February 1885, Grant agreed to allow the firm to issue his book in return for 70 percent of the net profits. The amount of money ultimately paid to Mrs. Grant has not been determined, but Webster Company records show that by 1 October 1887 she had received checks totaling about $397,000 (Fred Grant to Charles L. Webster and Co., 22 July 1887, CU-MARK; “Cash Statement | Oct. 1st 1887 | Chas. L. Webster & Co.,” CU-MARK; N&J3, 94–97, 142, 312–13, 316 n. 47). Clemens estimated that she received between $420,000 and $450,000; the Webster Company’s portion was therefore at least $180,000. These amounts are equivalent—by some estimates—to $8 million and $3.4 million, respectively, in today’s dollars. In 1908 Fred Grant placed the figure even higher, claiming that the “first checks received for royalties on the sale of the book amounted to $534,000” (“Gen. Frederick Dent Grant’s Recollections of His Famous Father,” Washington Post, 3 May 1908, SM4, 8). On 6 July 1885, Clemens drafted a letter to the editor of the Boston Herald in response to a letter from its New York correspondent, published on 20 June. Clemens protested the claim that he had made an offer to Grant
”which no regular publisher felt like competing with.” I merely offer double as much for General Grant’s book as the Century Co had offered—that is all. I suggested to Gen. Grant that he submit my offer to the Century & other great publishing houses, & close with the one that offered him the best terms. He did it, & my offer was duplicated by several “regular publishers,” the Century among the number; & two firms exceeded my offer. But none of them could exceed my facilities for publishing a subscription book—nor equal them, either—a fact which I proved to the satisfaction of General Grant’s lawyer; & that is why I got the book. (MS draft in CU-MARK)
80.39 Roswell Smith’s remark] Smith (1829–92), publisher of the Century Magazine, had been one of the journal’s founders in 1870, when it was called Scribner’s Monthly. The change of name took place in 1881, when the magazine severed its connection with the Scribner firm, but Smith continued as its publisher (Mott 1957, 457, 467).
82.7–8 annual in London had offered little Tom Moore] The diminutive Irish writer Thomas Moore (1779–1852) published his first poetry collection under the pen name “Thomas Little.” The “annual in London” has not been identified.
82.30 Dr. Douglas] John H. Douglas was a leading New York throat specialist; in October 1884 he diagnosed Grant’s affliction as cancer of the throat (“Sinking into the Grave,” New York Times, 1 Mar 1885, 2).
83.9 Mt. McGregor] On 16 June 1885 the Grants traveled to a cottage owned by a friend, financier Joseph W. Drexel, on Mount McGregor, a summer resort near Saratoga Springs, New York. Grant stayed there, attended by his family and Dr. Douglas, until his death on 23 July (New York Times: “Resting at Mount McGregor,” 17 June 1885, 1; “A Hero Finds Rest,” 24 July 1885, 1).
83.11–12 Marine Bank man . . . sent up for ten years] James D. Fish was sentenced in June 1885 to ten years in Auburn State Prison (“On the Way to Auburn,” New York Times, 28 June 1885, 7).
83.22 President of the Erie Railroad] Hugh J. Jewett (1817–98) served as president of the Erie Railroad from 1874 to 1884, and was credited with rescuing it from insolvency. He was one of the largest creditors of the Marine Bank when it failed (“The Marine Bank Failure,” New York Times, 14 May 1884, 1).
83.30 ex-Senator Chaffee] Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., married Fannie Josephine Chaffee, the daughter of Jerome B. Chaffee, in 1880. Chaffee became wealthy from mining, land speculation, and banking in Colorado, and served as one of the state’s first senators in 1876–79. Chaffee himself was another of Ward’s victims: he lost about $500,000 in bonds that he had given to Ward to use as securities on loans (McFeely 1981, 489; “Senator Chaffee’s Bonds,” New York Times, 28 Dec 1884, 12).
85.24 I was talking to General Badeau there one day] Badeau recalled a conversation with “one of the greatest wits of this generation” that took place when they met on a visit to Grant as he “lay lingering in his final illness”:
The visitor was a personal friend as well as an admirer of Grant, and he and I talked of the great revulsion in popular feeling which had occurred—the sympathy and affection that had revived as soon as the hero was known to be dying. It made me think of Lincoln, reviled and maligned for years, but in one night raised to the rank of a martyr and placed by the side of Washington. “Yes,” said the other, with the terrible sententiousness almost of Voltaire: “The men that want to set up a new religion ought always to get themselves crucified.” (Badeau 1887, 590)
86.11 I will make a diversion here, and get back upon my track again later] Albert Bigelow Paine published this “diversion” (86.11–91.18) in Mark Twain’s Autobiography under the title “Gerhardt and the Grant Bust”; he placed it after his incomplete text of “About General Grant’s Memoirs,” which ends with “that sort of thing” (93.41–42; MTA, 1:57–68). Physical evidence in the typescript as well as several references and dates in the text itself show, however, that Clemens dictated the text as it is presented here (see the Textual Commentary, MTPO).
86.12 away with G. W. Cable, giving public readings] George Washington Cable (1844–1925), a New Orleans native, was known for his stories of Creole life. He and Clemens became friends in 1881, and from November 1884 through February 1885 they joined in a lecture tour. Billed as the “Twins of Genius,” they spoke in more than sixty cities in the East, Midwest, and Canada. Clemens gave readings from his forthcoming Huckleberry Finn (which issued in February) and other works, and Cable read from several of his books and sang Creole songs (Cardwell 1953, 1–3, 12; HF 2003, 578).
86.18 the Presidential election] Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, defeated James G. Blaine in the 1884 election.
87.7–11 J. Q. A. Ward . . . no true artist could bring himself to do] On 5 April 1884, before Gerhardt returned from Paris, Clemens wrote to him, “I would strongly advise that you now write A. St Gaudens & J. Q. A. Ward, & ask them if they can give you employment & wages in their establishments in New York. If they can & will, that is a certainty; it is sure bread & butter; & is of course better & wiser than setting up for one’s self without capital” (CtHMTH). Gerhardt replied on 27 May that he strongly preferred to work independently, and pleaded, “Don’t make me be a second fiddle that would kill me” (CU-MARK).
88.8–9 We reached the General’s house . . . to see the family] Clemens wrote an account of this visit in his notebook on the day it took place, 20 March 1885 (N&J3, 106–7).
88.16 Jesse Grant’s wife] Elizabeth Chapman Grant (known as “Lizzie”) married Jesse in San Francisco in 1880 (McFeely 1981, 484).
89.5 Mrs. Fred Grant] Ida Honoré married Fred Grant in 1874 (Goldhurst 1975, 117).
90.20 Harrison, the General’s old colored body-servant] Harrison Tyrrell had been Grant’s devoted valet for many years (McFeely 1981, 519). In a letter of 11 September 1885 Clemens wrote to Henry Ward Beecher about Grant’s loyalty to him:
You remember Harrison, the colored body-servant? the whole family hated him, but that did not make any difference, the General always stood at his back, wouldn’t allow him to be scolded; always excused his failures & crimes & deficiencies with the one unvarying formula, “We are responsible for these things in his race—it is not fair to visit our fault upon them—let him alone;” so they did let him alone, under compulsion. (CU-MARK, in MTL, 2:460–61)
90.29 best portrait of General Grant that is in existence] For an image of the bust see the photograph following page 204; see also Schmidt 2009d.
91.17–18 after the world learned his name] Here, at the end of the account of the bust of Grant, Clemens wrote “Depew’s speech” in the bottom margin of the page as a prompt to himself. It wasn’t until the Autobiographical Dictation of 1 June 1906, however, that he actually described the speech, which was delivered at a banquet in Grant’s honor by Chauncey M. Depew (1834–1928), a prominent attorney and director of several railroads. There Clemens noted that it was “the most telling speech I ever listened to—the best speech ever made by the capable Depew, and the shortest.”
92.3–4 we proceeded to draw a writing to cover the thing] Webster wrote to Clemens on 15 April 1885 that he had just signed a contract with the Century Company, which stipulated that all of Grant’s “future articles” in the Century Magazine—that is, the second, third, and fourth—were to be copyrighted by Webster and Company “in the name of U. S. Grant.” In regard to the Memoirs, Webster agreed “not to publish first vol before Dec. 1st next, and second vol before Mch. 1st next” (CU-MARK).
92.32 Smith’s exact language] Clemens’s extant notebook contains no such remark. Clemens did, however, note that
Mr. R S . . . said to me shortly after the contract was signed, “I am glad on GG’s account that there was somebody with pluck enough to give such a figure[;] I should have been chary of venturing it myself.” . . .
10 p c.
This was a perfectly fair & honorable offer, for it was based upon a possible sale of 25,000 sets. But I was not figuring on 25,000, I was figuring on a possible 300,000. Each of us could be mistaken, but I believed I was right. (N&J3, 182–84)
93.7–8 New York World and a Boston paper, (I think the Herald)] Clemens appended four clippings at the end of his typescript, which are included in the text; among them is the World article, which appeared on 9 March 1885 (see 95.24–96.27). No copy of the Herald has been found, but another article that Clemens appended, from the 9 March Springfield (Mass.) Republican (see 94.36–95.21), repeats the information reported by the New York correspondent of the Herald.
93.9–11 I had taken an unfair advantage . . . got the book away from them] Robert Underwood Johnson, an associate editor of the Century Magazine, wrote many years later that Paine’s account of the Grant negotiations in Mark Twain: A Biography (MTB, 2:799–803)—which was based on this dictation—“leaves something to be desired. It places Mr. Roswell Smith in the attitude of treating the author in a somewhat niggardly manner, the fact being that the matter was wholly in the hands of General Grant, on whose terms it was to have been undertaken”:
As to the first offer of Mr. Clemens, the difference between it and ours was very slight, if any: in one case a larger royalty being computed on the net returns and in the other a smaller on the gross. Mr. Clemens made a later alternative offer of a considerable cash advance, a large percentage of the profits, and a guaranty of a certain sale. Had we known of this we should have been able to meet the situation. We were at the disadvantage that Mark Twain, who was a frequent visitor at the Sixty-sixth Street house, knew our terms and we did not know his.
Nevertheless, with all respect to Roswell Smith’s motives, which were above criticism, it remains that his failure to secure this work beyond peradventure within the five months from the time he was invited to Long Branch in September until the signing of the contract in February was, from a business point of view, a signal exception in the successful career of a publisher of imagination, boldness, and resourcefulness. His omission to clinch the matter did not reflect the alertness and enterprise of his associates, but he had the disadvantage of having as a rival a man of winning personality, shrewd business ability, and large horizon. The result cast a gloom over the younger members of the Century Co., who never ceased to think that in our hands this phenomenal book would have reached as phenomenal a sale as it did in Mr. Clemens’s; for at that time the success of the War Series had put the Century Co. in close touch with the public in the matter of military history. We thought it hard that another should have “plowed with our heifer.” (Johnson 1923, 218–19)
In late October 1884 Smith was still confident that Grant would place his book with the Century Company. In a letter of 9 September 1884 he wrote to Gilder that Grant was
thoroughly intelligent in relation to the subscription book business, and very much disgusted with the way it is usually managed. He remarked that he did not propose to pay a scalawag canvasser $6 for selling a $12 book, not worth much more than half the money, as in some cases he quoted. His ideas agree with ours—to make a good book, manufacture it handsomely, sell it at a reasonable price, and make it so commanding that we can secure competent agents at a fair commission. (Rosamond Gilder 1916, 123–24)
Johnson later learned from Fred Grant that “his father’s decision had been influenced chiefly by the fact that Mr. Clemens had convinced him that . . . his own firm had been successful publishers of subscription books, while the Century Co. had done little in that line” (Johnson 1923, 218).
93.14–16 Boston paper’s account . . . sister of Mr. Gilder]Jeannette L. Gilder (1849–1916) corresponded from New York for the Boston Saturday Evening Gazette (not the Herald, as Clemens suggests) under the pseudonym “Brunswick.” Her letter to the Gazette is largely reprinted in the article from the Springfield (Mass.) Republican of 9 March 1885 that here follows Clemens’s dictation (see 95.13–21). Although less well known than her brother Richard Watson Gilder, Jeannette Gilder pursued a successful literary career. In 1881 she cofounded a literary magazine, The Critic, with her other brother, Joseph B. Gilder, which they edited together until 1906. Her work appeared in a variety of newspapers and magazines, and she compiled several literary anthologies.
94.14–16 new electric light company of Boston . . . prosperous condition] In the spring of 1883, numerous articles in the Hartford Courant reported on the rapid growth of the American Electric and Illuminating Company of Boston, incorporated a year earlier. Its successful plan to establish subsidiary companies throughout New England was expected to pay shareholders “substantial dividends” (Hartford Courant, 20 Feb 1883, 3).
94.22 lied about his son] See the note at 95.3–4.
94.34–35 in the way of abuse] Clemens’s dictation ends here. Redpath added two typed comments. The first, “To be followed by Duncan’s libel suit,” referred to the lawsuit for libel that Charles C. Duncan—former captain of the Quaker City and organizer of the 1867 Holy Land excursion—brought against the New York Times in 1883. Duncan objected to an article published on 10 June which reported remarks of Clemens’s condemning his misuse of public funds in his position as New York shipping commissioner. Clemens claimed that the Times reporter had misrepresented his comments. Duncan technically won his suit in March 1884, but was awarded only twelve cents in damages. No 1885 dictation about the lawsuit has been found (N&J3, 18 n. 34; “Mr. Mark Twain Excited,” New York Times, 10 June 1883, 1; see also N&J2, 35 n. 26). Redpath’s second note read: “See two pages of newspaper statements about Grant’s book and the Century people and Mark Twain affixed.” These “statements,” which survive in four clippings preserved with the typescript, are transcribed at the end of Clemens’s dictated text.
94.36–38 GEN GRANT, MARK TWAIN AND THE CENTURY . . . correspondent of the Boston Herald] The first part of this article (through “news is true,” 95.10), from the Springfield (Mass.) Republican of 9 March 1885, reports information published in the Boston Herald, presumably on 7 or 8 March; no copy of the Herald has been located.
95.3–4 Webster & Co . . . his son Jesse] Jesse and Fred Grant were both interested in a partnership in Webster and Company, an arrangement that neither Clemens nor Webster favored. Clemens’s first known mention of the idea was in a letter of 21 July 1885 to Edward H. House: “Neither of the General’s sons is a partner. We all talked about that, but it was never seriously considered. Col. Fred talks about it yet—but if seriously it doesn’t sound so” (ViU). On 20 December 1885 Clemens alluded to the scheme in a letter to Webster. At that time the partnership was “a consideration” in the firm’s negotiations to secure the right to publish Grant’s letters to his wife—a deal that was never concluded (NPV, in MTBus, 347). Although discussions of a Grant partnership continued into early spring 1886, neither of Grant’s sons joined the business (8 Feb 1886 to Webster, NPV, in MTBus, 353–54; Webster to SLC, 10 Feb 1886 and 20 Mar 1886, CU-MARK; see N&J3, 218, 220, 222).
95.10–21 “Brunswick,” . . . publish the book] Jeannette Gilder’s column, “New York Gossip,” which began with a long section on Grant’s medical news, appeared in the Saturday Evening Gazette on 7 March 1885. The Springfield Republican accurately quoted her discussion of Grant’s book, omitting only two brief passages about subscription books and the series of war articles in the Century Magazine.
96.28 N.Y. World] From the issue of 9 March 1885.
97.30 N.Y. Tribune] From the issue of 10 March 1885.
97.38 General’s connection with Lincoln’s assassination] Abraham Lincoln and his wife invited the Grants to accompany them to Ford’s Theater on 14 April 1865, the night that John Wilkes Booth assassinated the president. The Grants did not attend because they were visiting their children at school in New Jersey. Booth’s co-conspirators planned to assassinate two men who were not at the theater: Secretary of State William Seward (who was injured but survived) and Vice-President Andrew Johnson (who was not actually attacked). It is probable, but not certain, that Grant was another intended victim.
98.20–39 work of Gen. Adam Badeau . . . book which I did not write] Grant prepared most of the manuscript of his Memoirs himself, but occasionally dictated to his son Fred, or to a stenographer, Noble E. Dawson. Badeau provided editing services, for which he was to receive nothing if the book earned less than $20,000, $5,000 if it earned $20,000, and $5,000 more if it earned $30,000. The false accusation that Grant was not doing his own writing was based on information from “General George P. Ihrie, who had served with Grant in Mexico. Ihrie had inadvertently remarked to a Washington columnist that the General was no writer” (Goldhurst 1975, 118, 153, 193–94). Clemens was so outraged by the World article that he briefly considered initiating a lawsuit. He wrote to Fred Grant on 30 April 1885:
The General’s work this morning is rather damaging evidence against the World’s intrepid lie. The libel suit ought to be instituted at once; damages placed at nothing less than $250,000 or $300,000; no apologies accepted from the World, & no compromise permitted for anything but a sum of money that will cripple—yes, disable—that paper financially. The suit ought to be brought in the General’s name, & the expense of it paid out of the book’s general expense account. (NPV, in MTBus, 319)
By 3 May he had reconsidered and wrote to Webster:
I have watched closely & have not seen a single reference to the World’s lie in any newspaper. So it is possible that it fell dead & did no harm. I suppose Alexander & Green have decided that a libel suit against a paper which hasn’t influence enough to get its lies copied, would be a waste of energy & money (as you give me no news of any kind about the matter.) If that is their verdict, & if the lie has not been copied around, it is no doubt the right & sensible verdict. I recognize the fact that for General Grant to sue the World would be an enormously valuable advertisement for that daily issue of unmedicated closet-paper. (NPV, in MTBus, 323)
Badeau responded to the World article by demanding a new financial arrangement with Grant: $1,000 a month until the book was done, and 10 percent of the profits. After a bitter exchange of letters, Badeau withdrew from the project. He and Grant never met again (Goldhurst 1975, 194–200, 251). After Grant’s death, Badeau threatened Mrs. Grant with a lawsuit to claim what he was owed. The dispute was settled in 1888, when Badeau accepted $10,000 plus interest (as stipulated in the original contract), and agreed that the composition of the Memoirs “was entirely that of Gen. Grant, and to limit his claim to that of suggestion, revision, and verification” (“Gen. Badeau’s Suit Ended,” New York Times, 31 Oct 1888, 8).
98.44 N.Y. World] From the issue of 6 May 1885.
[The Rev. Dr. Newman]
99.2 Extract from my note book] This extract is a near verbatim rendering of Clemens’s notebook entry (see N&J3, 117–18).
99.12 Rev. Dr. Newman] John Philip Newman (1826–99) was ordained as a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church in 1849. After serving as chaplain of the U.S. Senate from 1869 to 1874—during which time he became a confidant of Julia Grant’s—he was appointed inspector of U.S. consuls in Asia by President Grant (Goldhurst 1975, 187–88).
99.14 ex-Governor Stanford] Leland Stanford (1824–93) was trained in the law. He went West in 1852 to join his brothers in various mercantile pursuits, and served as governor of California from 1861 to 1863. He became immensely wealthy from his partnership in the Central Pacific Railroad corporation, which completed the transcontinental railroad in 1869. His only son, Leland, Jr., died at age fifteen in March 1884 while visiting Italy. His body was brought home and held in a vault while his family built a mausoleum on their property in Palo Alto, said to be “as magnificent as an Oriental palace.” At the memorial service held in Grace Church in San Francisco on 30 December, $20,000 was spent on floral decorations. Newman delivered a eulogy, the “most fulsome ever delivered in the Western Hemisphere,” comparing “young Stanford to all the great of earth, and then, as if weary of the effort to find a fitting prototype for him among human beings, he boldly declared that the boy was some sort of a reproduction of Jesus Christ” (“California Astonished,” Chicago Tribune, 2 Jan 1885, 3).
99.33–34 “Thrice have I been . . . come out again.”] A similar version of Newman’s remark was reported in the New York Times on 16 April 1885, and doubtless in other newspapers as well (“A Day of Hopefulness,” 4).
The Machine Episode (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1890 and 1893–94)
101.4–7 Ten or eleven years ago, Dwight Buell . . . was about finished] Dwight H. Buell owned a shop on Main Street in Hartford, and was a director of the Farnham Type-Setter Manufacturing Company. The machine he wanted Clemens to invest in was invented by James W. Paige, who—in collaboration with the Farnham Company—was building a prototype in a workshop at Samuel Colt’s firearms factory in Hartford. Clemens first purchased stock in the Farnham Company in the fall of 1881 (Geer 1882, 341, 455; 180 Oct 1881 and 25 Oct 1881 to Webster, NPV, in MTBus, 171–73).
101.21–22 rate of 3,000 ems an hour . . . four case-men’s work] A compositor setting material by hand pulled the metal types for characters and spaces one at a time from a case—a wooden tray divided into compartments—and placed them, in reverse order, in a composing stick. The full stick was then transferred to a galley tray, where the types were held in place to allow a proof to be printed. The “dead matter”—types that had already been set and used for printing—was then distributed by hand back into the case for reuse. An “em” was a measure equal to the square of the height of one type, and therefore varied according to the size of the font. The ems in one line were multiplied by the number of lines to determine the quantity of typeset material (Pasko 1894, 145; Stewart 1912, 21, 61, 85). In September 1890, shortly before writing the present account, Clemens claimed that an operator of the Paige compositor could set 8,000 ems of type per hour, more than ten times what a hand typesetter could produce (11 Sept 1890 and 27 Sept 1890 to Jones, CU-MARK; printed document enclosed with the letter of 11 Sept, “Saving-Capacity of the Several Machines,” annotated by Clemens, photocopy in CU-MARK).
101.23 William Hamersley] Hamersley (1838–1920), an attorney, served from 1868 to 1888 as the state prosecutor for Hartford County. In 1886 he was elected to the lower house of the Connecticut General Assembly, and in 1893–94 served as Superior Court Judge. As president of the Farnham Company, he was one of the earliest investors in the typesetting machine (Connecticut State Library 2006; N&J3, 141 n. 50).
102.1–2 I set down my name for an additional $3,000] In mid-1882 Clemens recorded in his notebook that he owned two hundred shares in the Farnham Company, worth $5,000 (N&J2, 491).
102.9 Hamersley wrote Webster a letter which will be inserted later on] Clemens did not insert a letter into this account, nor has any letter from Hamersley to Webster been found.
102.10 James W. Paige] In the early 1870s in Rochester, New York, Paige (1842–1917) set about inventing a typesetting machine, which was granted a patent in 1874. This original machine, however, lacked any mechanism for justifying or distributing type. Paige moved to Hartford, and in 1877 joined with the Farnham Company, which was developing a distributor for its own typesetter, a “gravity machine with converging channels” (Legros and Grant 1916, 378). Paige began to design a new machine that could both set and distribute type. By 1882, when he produced a working model, the enterprise had cost nearly $90,000. The Farnham Company withdrew its support, and Clemens agreed to find additional investors (Lee 1987; “Private Circular to the Stockholders of the Farnham Type-Setter Manufacturing Company,” 26 Jan 1891, CU-MARK; N&J3, 36 n. 69).
102.34–35 wonderfully valuable application of electricity] Clemens may be referring to another of Paige’s inventions, a printing telegraph. Clemens tried to promote the project for several months in 1885 (N&J3, 170, 181 n. 12).
102.38 splendid thing in electricity] In the summer of 1887, while perfecting a dynamo for his typesetter, Paige had an idea for a revolutionary electromagnetic motor that might be very lucrative. Although Clemens briefly supported his experiment, on 16 August he signed a contract stipulating that Paige was to proceed at his own expense. Clemens received a one-half share in the invention and agreed to reimburse Paige should it prove successful (N&J3, 338 n. 111; “1887. Agreement of J. W. Paige regarding Magnetic Electro Motor dated 16th August,” CU-MARK).
103.7 he could apply the alternating test and come out triumphant] In a notebook entry dated 1 November 1888 Clemens remarked on Nikola Tesla’s recently patented alternating-current motor:
I have just seen the drawings and description of an electrical machine lately patented by a Mr. Tesla, & sold to the Westinghouse Company, which will revolutionize the whole electric business of the world. It is the most valuable patent since the telephone. The drawings & description show that this is the very machine, in every detail which Paige invented nearly 4 years ago.
Tesla “tried everything that we tried, as the drawings & descriptions prove; & he tried one thing more—a thing which we had canvassed—the alternating current. That solved the difficulty & achieved success” (N&J3, 431).
103.20–21 another piece of property . . . assignment, Aug. 12, 1890] This contract stipulated that Paige would grant Clemens all “right, title and interest in his inventions . . . and in the domestic and foreign patents obtained and that may be obtained therefor,” in return for one-quarter of the gross receipts from the eventual sales or rentals of the machine. For the agreement to be valid, Clemens had to pay Paige $250,000 within six months. The property that “already belonged” to Clemens was evidently the foreign royalties. He made the following notebook entry in April 1893, when he met with Paige in Chicago:
Paige . . . called again tonight. I asked him if his conscience troubled him any about the way he had treated me. He said he could almost forgive me for that word. He said it broke his heart when I left him and the machine to fight along the best way they could &c. &c.. . . When his European patent affairs are settled, he is going to put me in for a handsome royalty on every European machine. This would be very generous except for the fact that his present contract with the Connecticut Co already does that for me. We parted immensely good friends. (Notebook 33, TS pp. 8–9, CU-MARK; N&J3, 576 n. 4; “Copy of Contract between S. L. Clemens & James W. Paige—Aug 12th 1890,” CU-MARK)
103.38–39 contracts will be found in the Appendix] No such appendix—presumably a collection of all the contracts with Paige—has been found.
104.6 Pratt & Whitney’s] The Pratt and Whitney Company, a machine and tool manufacturer incorporated in Hartford in 1869, was engaged to produce the prototype (Geer 1882, 254, 459).
104.16–17 Jones . . . lose his interest in the thing] John P. Jones (1829–1912), a native of England, went to California at the start of the gold rush, settling in Nevada in 1867. He became superintendent and then part owner of the Crown Point mine in Gold Hill, which struck a rich vein of silver and made him wealthy: by 1874 his monthly income was reported to be half a million dollars (29 Mar and 4 Apr 1875 to Wright, L6, 439 n. 5). He represented Nevada as a U.S. senator from 1873 to 1903. Clemens’s attempts to induce Jones to invest in the typesetter began in early 1887, and continued for several years. In July 1890 Jones inspected the machine during one of its operational intervals and made a token investment of $5,000. In early September Clemens had a contract drawn up whereby Jones agreed to “use his best endeavors” to raise $950,000 and “organize a corporation” which would purchase Clemens’s interest and assume his obligation to pay Paige $250,000 by February 1891. Jones may never have signed this agreement; in any event, on 11 February he wrote that he had been unable to interest any investors. In fact, two of the men he had approached were “large stockholders in the ’Mergenthaler,’ ” the Paige machine’s chief competitor (Jones to SLC, 11 Feb 1891, CU-MARK; see the note at 106.23–24). Clemens drafted a reply, which he apparently never sent: “For a whole year you have breathed the word of promise to my ear to break it to my hope at last. It is stupefying, it is unbelievable” (14–28 Feb 1891 to Jones, CU-MARK; N&J3, 278–79 n. 183, 565 n. 261, 572–73, 576–77 n. 6; 8 Sept 1890 [with enclosed contract] and 11 Sept 1890 to Jones, CU-MARK; 22 Feb 1891 to Goodman, NN-BGC).
104.27 End of 1885] These words mark the beginning of the second section of Clemens’s account, written several years after the first part. It begins on a new sequence of pages, and was probably written in late 1893 or early 1894, when Clemens was in New York working with Henry Rogers to negotiate a new contract with Paige (see the note at 106.23–24).
105.1–6 The contract . . . $30,000 and 6 per cent interest] A contract of 6 February 1886 stipulated that Clemens would pay Paige’s expenses up to $30,000, plus an annual salary of $7,000, and Hamersley would provide “professional services,” while the machine was perfected. After a successful prototype was tested, Clemens and Hamersley were to raise the money to manufacture it. A corporation would then be formed, with Clemens receiving 9/20 of the stock. If they failed to obtain the “necessary capital” within three years, however, they were entitled to reimbursement of the money they had advanced, from any profit that “may at any time thereafter accrue.” In the meantime, Paige retained “title of the property purchased with the money furnished . . . in pursuance of this agreement” (“Agreement,” CU-MARK).
105.17 F. G. Whitmore] Franklin Gray Whitmore (1846–1926), owner of a real estate office and Clemens’s Hartford business agent, supervised the building of the typesetter at the Pratt and Whitney works in 1886 (Burpee 1928, 3:952; N&J3, 189 n. 27).
105.27 royalty deed was made and signed] By the terms of a deed of 26 September 1889 Clemens paid Paige $100,000 (presumably with funds already advanced) in return for a royalty of $500 on every machine that would eventually be sold. Clemens then tried to sell his interest at a cost of $1,000 for each “five hundredth part of my interest in the royalty of five hundred dollars” (“Deed” in CU-MARK; N&J3, 518 n. 119).
105.33–38 contract No. 2 . . . contract No. 3 (the May contract?) . . . “June” contract] A contract drawn up in December 1889 (“No. 2”), which provided for the establishment of a corporation and gave Clemens 9/20 of the stock (an amount equal to his current interest in the typesetter), may never have been ratified. The “May” and “June” contracts have not been found (N&J3, 576 n. 5, 579 n. 23; contract of 14 Dec 1889 in CU-MARK).
106.11–13 I signed it . . . It had but six months to run] That is, the contract signed in August 1890 (see the note at 103.20–21).
106.20 Charley Davis, take a pen and write what I say] Charles E. Davis was the Pratt and Whitney engineer who supervised the manufacture of the typesetter. When Clemens visited Chicago in April 1893 to check on the progress of the machine, he received a visit from Davis, who mentioned that he “still holds the paper which Paige dictated to him one day to quiet me, in which he says that no matter what happened he and I would always share and share alike in the results of the machine” (Notebook 33, TS p. 9, CU-MARK; N&J3, 246 n. 71).
106.23–24 I went on footing the bills . . . instead of the original $30,000] Clemens’s total investment, which he elsewhere estimated to be as much as $170,000, was equivalent to over $3 million in today’s dollars (SLC 1899a; AD, 28 Mar 1906). He finally stopped financing the machine in late February 1891, having failed to raise the necessary $250,000 to buy out Paige. Clemens traded his stock for royalties on future sales, hoping to eventually recover much of his loss. The following year, Paige contracted with the Webster Manufacturing Company in Chicago (Towner K. Webster, principal) to build a new machine, and the Pratt and Whitney prototype was dismantled and moved to that city. The invention continued to attract backers, among them a group of New York brokers who formed the Connecticut Company in 1892 and bought an interest in the Webster Manufacturing Company. In 1893 Henry Huttleston Rogers (the Standard Oil executive who took charge of Clemens’s financial affairs) organized the Paige Compositor Manufacturing Company—later superseded by the Regius Manufacturing Company—which negotiated with Paige, seeking to resolve the claims of the numerous investors and secure Clemens’s interest. The rebuilt machine continued to show promise, and in the fall of 1894 was tested by the Chicago Herald. According to one account, the machine performed well despite delays for repairs, and “delivered more corrected live matter” of the highest “artistic merit” than “any one of the thirty-two Linotype machines which were in operation in the same composing department” (Legros and Grant 1916, 381). But by then the 1890 model of the Linotype machine, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler and based on a simpler and more practical concept, had captured the market. Clemens’s hopes were finally shattered. One of Paige’s patent attorneys later called the machine an “intellectual miracle,” the “greatest thing of the kind that has been accomplished in all of the ages”—but it was too impractical to be a commercial success: with eighteen thousand parts, it was impossible to manufacture in quantity, and too complicated to run long without repairs (Legros and Grant 1916, 381, 391). Rogers persuaded the Linotype Company to buy Paige’s patents, in order to eliminate any possible competition. Paige himself died in poverty in 1917 (25 Feb 1891 to OC, CU-MARK; HHR, 12–20, 25–26, 148 n. 2; Lee 1987, 59–60; N&J3, 546 n. 190; 11 Nov 1894 and 28 Nov 1894 to Rogers, Salm, and 2 Jan 1895 to Rogers, CU-MARK, in HHR, 94–95, 98–100, 115; Scientific American 1901).
106.25–29 Ward tells me . . . Mr. North . . . is to get a royalty until the aggregate is $2,000,000] Henry S. Ward was a New York broker who owned an interest in the typesetter through the Connecticut Company. Charles R. North was a Pratt and Whitney machinist; Paige agreed to pay him “$200 a month out of his salary & $400 to $500 per machine until he shall have received $2,000,000” (HHR, 12, 31–34; Notebook 33, TS p. 8, CU-MARK).
106.31 had his nuts in a steel-trap] This remark alludes to an incident that Clemens actually witnessed, in which an acquaintance “got his Nüsse caught in the steel trap” of a sitz-bath (Fischer 1983, 47–48 n. 85; N&J3, 132, 135–36, 234, 356).
Travel–Scraps I (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1897)
108.26 trunnions] Clemens evidently uses “trunnions” to mean trulls, trollops. A trunnion is a pin or pivot.
110 DIAGRAM OF LONDON] The diagram illustrates Clemens’s remark that London “is fifty villages massed solidly together” (108.40–41). It is reproduced from a London newspaper article that Clemens clipped out and altered in his own hand. For some unexplained reason, he relocated Bow, in East London, to the West End, placing it (absurdly) in the region of Hanover Square.
112.19 Liverpool] No period of time during which Clemens and Osgood (see the note at 112.20) were both in Liverpool has been identified. Possibly Clemens was thinking of 10 September 1872, which they spent “driving about Warwickshire in an open barouche,” but the reference to the Kinsmen club suggests a later date (11 Sept 1872 to OLC, L5, 155; see the note at 113.10).
112.20 James R. Osgood] Clemens’s sometime publisher James Ripley Osgood (1836–92) started out as a clerk with Boston publishers Ticknor and Fields in 1855, later becoming a partner. After Fields retired in 1870, the firm was reorganized as James R. Osgood and Company. Setbacks and mismanagement drove Osgood and Company out of business, but it was reorganized under the same name in 1880, publishing works by William Dean Howells, George Washington Cable, and Walt Whitman, among others. Osgood published three of Clemens’s books: The Prince and the Pauper (1881), The Stolen White Elephant, Etc. (1882), and Life on the Mississippi (1883). The sales of these books disappointed Clemens, but his affection for the man himself was undiminished. Osgood spent his last years in London (Edgar 1986, 341–47; for details of Osgood’s role as Clemens’s publisher, see AD, 21 Feb 1906, note at 372.25–27).
113.10 Kinsmen Club together in London] The Kinsmen, a private social club for artists and performers, was founded in New York in April 1882. It was an informal society; a founding member, drama critic Laurence Hutton, wrote that “there were to be no dues, no fees, no club-house, no constitution, no by-laws, no officers, ’no nothing’ but good fellowship and good times.” At the second meeting, in March 1883, Hutton invited Clemens to join, while Osgood, though he was a businessman and no artist, ebulliently forced his way into membership. A London “chapter” was established in 1883. On both shores the Kinsmen included many of Clemens’s other friends and associates, among them Howells, Warner, Twichell, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Francis D. Millet, Brander Matthews, and Richard Watson Gilder (Hutton 1909, 325–29; Matthews 1917, 232–33).
115.29 the Queen’s approaching Jubilee] On 23 September 1896 Queen Victoria noted in her journal: “To-day is the day on which I have reigned longer, by a day, than any English sovereign.” She requested that celebrations be postponed until her “Diamond Jubilee,” or sixtieth year on the throne, which was celebrated across the British Empire in 1897 (Harlow and Carter 1999, 392; see “A Viennese Procession,” note at 126.9 [2nd of 2]).
116.15 Prince of Wales’s powerful name] Albert Edward, who became King Edward VII in 1901.
116.36 George Müller and his orphanages] George Friedrich Müller (1805–98), a Prussian-born evangelical preacher, settled in Bristol in 1832 and founded the Ashley Down Orphanage. It was remarkable both for the sheer number of orphans housed and educated, and for Müller’s literal interpretation of “the Lord will provide”—the orphanage never solicited donations.
FOUR SKETCHES ABOUT VIENNA (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1898)
[Beauties of the German Language]
118.1 February 3, Vienna. Lectured . . . last night] Clemens lectured in Vienna on 1 February, as he recorded in his notebook: “Tuesday, Feb. 1, ’98. Lectured in Vienna for a public charity. Several rows of seats were $4 apiece. Still, there was far from room enough in the hall for all that applied for tickets” (Notebook 40, TS p. 8, CU-MARK). The lecture was favorably reviewed the following day in the Vienna Neue Freie Presse (“Mark Twain als Erzähler,” 2 Feb 1898, 7).
[Comment on Tautology and Grammar]
119.22 May 6. * * *] A series of asterisks was Clemens’s typical signal that he had omitted some portion of text (see “Special Sorts” in the “Guide to Editorial Practice,” L6, 703–4).
119.29–30 Mr. Gladstone] The English statesman William Ewart Gladstone (1809–98) served four times as prime minister of the United Kingdom.
120.29–30 no death before the case of Cornelius Lean . . . special rules] Cornelius Lean, an employee of the London firm of Bryant and May, manufacturers of matches, died in late April 1898 of necrosis of the jaw, the result of exposure to white phosphorus. As a result of investigations into the deaths of Lean and others, the firm was found to be in violation of special rules passed between 1891 and 1895 requiring that all cases of the disease be reported (Satre 1982, 8–9, 19–24).
[A Group of Servants]
120.33 June 4, Kaltenleutgeben] The Clemens family spent the summer of 1898, from late May to mid-October, in Kaltenleutgeben, staying in “a furnished villa at the end of a water-cure village, & Mrs. Clemens & Jean will try the treatment. It is ½ to ¾ of an hour from Vienna by train. The villa is most pleasantly situated, with a dense pine wood bordering immediately on its back-garden, & with wooded hills all about” (13 May 1898 to Rogers, Salm, in HHR, 345–46; Notebook 40, TS p. 48, CU-MARK).
121.21 Wuthering Heights] It is not clear why Clemens appropriated the name of Emily Brontë’s classic novel (1847) for the garrulous older maid; he may have had in mind the narrator of the story, Ellen (Nelly) Dean, a household servant. According to one scholar, the maid’s “actual name sounded something like” the sobriquet (Dolmetsch 1992, 220; Dolmetsch provides no evidence to support his assertion).
122.10 gnädige Frau] “Madam.”
122.29 Heilige Mutter Gottes!] “Holy mother of God!”
122.31 Zu befehl] “At your command”—that is, an emphatic assent.
123.36 Ruhig!] “Silence!”
123.40 dienstman] Anglicized form of dienstmann: a man who performs miscellaneous tasks for a small fee (Hawthorne 1876, 290–93).
[A Viennese Procession]
124.17 Minister] Charlemagne Tower (1848–1923), the U.S. minister at Vienna from 1897–99, was an acquaintance of Clemens’s (see AD, 22 Aug 1907).
125.27 Kaiser Rudolph] Either Rudolf I (1218–91), founder of the house of Hapsburg, who brought Austria under his rule as king of Germany; or Rudolf II of Austria (1552–1612), an educated and intelligent ruler who suffered from mental illness.
126.9 Andreas Hofer’s] Hofer (1767–1810), a Tyrolean innkeeper, led a rebellion against Napoleon in 1809. Ultimately captured and executed, he was considered an Austrian martyr.
126.11 Directory] The Executive Directory, a body of five men, held power in France from 1795 to 1799. During this regime, the next-to-last period of the French Revolution, Napoleon defeated the Austrians and their allies.
126.19 India in ’96] Clemens saw a religious procession in Jaipur in March 1896 and described it in chapter 60 of Following the Equator (1897): “For color, and picturesqueness, and novelty, and outlandishness, and sustained interest and fascination, it was the most satisfying show I had ever seen.”
126.19 Queen’s Record procession] Queen Victoria’s Record Reign and Diamond Jubilee were celebrated in 1897 by numerous events, including a procession to St. Paul’s Cathedral on 22 June. A short service of thanksgiving was held there before the queen returned to Buckingham Palace. She later noted in her journal, “No one ever, I believe, has met with such an ovation as was given me, passing through those six miles of streets.” Clemens cabled three reports of the occasion to the Hearst newspapers (Hibbert 2001, 457–59; SLC 1897d, 1897e, 1897f).
My Debut as a Literary Person (Sources: MS in CtY-BR, written in 1898; Century Magazine, November 1899 [SLC 1899d])
127.2–3 I had already published one little thing (“The Jumping Frog,”) in an eastern paper] “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog” appeared in the New York Saturday Press of 18 November 1865. Clemens, who was living in San Francisco at that time, soon learned that his story was being praised and widely reprinted in the eastern press. In early 1867 he included it in his first book, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches, published in May (ET&S2, 262–72; 20 Jan 1866 to JLC and PAM, LI, 327–28, 330 n. 3).
128.5 I selected Harper’s Monthly] Founded in 1850, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine had built its reputation by serializing the novels of famous British writers such as Dickens and Thackeray, later adding American contributions in fiction, travel, current events, and poetry. By 1866 it was “so very successful that we may well consider it an index to the literary culture and general character of the nation” (Mott 1938, 383–405).
128.5–12 I signed it “MARK TWAIN,” . . . they put it Mike Swain or MacSwain] In Nevada Territory Clemens began signing his work “Mark Twain” in early February 1863, and his pseudonym gained wider recognition with the publication and frequent reprinting of the “Jumping Frog” tale (16 Feb 1863 to JLC and PAM, L1, 245–46 n. 1). “Forty-three Days in an Open Boat” appeared unsigned, however, in the December 1866 issue of Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (SLC 1866c), as did most of the articles by other contributors. The table of contents for volume 34 (which the December issue was part of) did not appear until May 1867; it attributed Clemens’s article to “Mark Swain.”
128.15 burning ofthe clipper ship Hornet on the line, May 3d, 1866] The Hornet left New York, bound for San Francisco, on 15 January 1866. It burned and sank in the Pacific Ocean near the equator, about fifteen hundred miles off the coast of South America (MTH, 102).
128.20–21 New Englander of the best sea-going stock . . . Captain Josiah Mitchell] Josiah Angier Mitchell (1812?–76) of Freeport, Maine, was the first in his family to “make the sea his profession—as the result of a pleasant trip to Havana for his health when a boy” (MTH, 107–8 n. 5).
128.22–24 was in the Islands to write letters for the “weekly edition” . . . well-beloved men] The owners of the Sacramento Union—James Anthony, Paul Morrill, and Henry W. Larkin—engaged Clemens to write a series of letters from the Sandwich Islands. He left San Francisco on 7 March 1866 in the steamer Ajax, arriving in Honolulu eleven days later. Some details of Clemens’s arrangement with the Union are unclear. He told his mother and sister he would remain in the islands “a month” and write “twenty or thirty letters” for the paper; in the event he remained four months and wrote twenty-five letters, which appeared in both the daily and weekly editions (RI 1993, 706–7; 5 Mar 1866 to JLC and PAM, L1, 333–34; MTH, 93, 256).
128.28–29 I was laid up in my room] Clemens was suffering from saddle boils (mentioned in “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad’ ”).
128.30–32 his Excellency Anson Burlingame . . . good work for the United States] Anson Burlingame (1820–70) was a founder of the Republican Party and a Republican congressman from Massachusetts (1855–61). In 1861 he was appointed U.S. minister resident to China, and until the end of his term in 1867 he promoted diplomacy between China and the Western powers. In June 1866 he was en route to China after a leave of absence in the United States. When he died in 1870, Clemens praised him as a man who acted “in the broad interest of the world, instead of selfishly seeking to acquire advantages for his own country alone” (SLC 1870a; 21 June 1866 to JLC and PAM, L1, 345–46 n. 5; see also AD, 20 Feb 1906).
129.3–4 my complete report ... telegraphed to the New York papers. By Mr. Cash] Clemens mentioned the Hornet survivors briefly in a letter to the Sacramento Union dated 22 June, before they had traveled to Honolulu from their landing site on the island of Hawaii. His full report, datelined 25 June, was written after he had interviewed the survivors—primarily the third mate, John S. Thomas. It was carried to San Francisco on the schooner Milton Badger and appeared on the front page of the Sacramento Daily Union on 19 July 1866, under the headline “Burning of the Clipper Ship Hornet at Sea.” No information has been found about republication of the article in New York newspapers, or about “Mr. Cash” (SLC 1866b; SLC 1866c; MTH, 109–10; 27 June 1866 to JLC and PAM, L1, 348 n. 1).
129.17–18 Within a fortnight the most of them took ship ... I went in the same ship] The Hornet’s longboat landed on 15 June 1866; Clemens and the survivors departed Honolulu on the clipper Smyrniote on 19 July, more than a month later (MTH, 107 n. 5; 19 July 1866 to Damon, L1, 349 n. 2).
129.20–22 Samuel Ferguson ... Henry Ferguson ... a professor there] Samuel Ferguson (1837–66) and Henry Ferguson (1848–1917) were the sons of a New York businessman and grew up in Stamford, Connecticut. Henry resumed his studies at Trinity College, Hartford, graduated in 1868, and was ordained an Episcopal priest. From 1883 to 1906 he held a professorship in history and political science at the college. Although Clemens and Henry Ferguson both lived in Hartford in the 1880s they seem not to have been in contact until Clemens published “My Debut as a Literary Person” in 1899 (Hartford Courant: “Death of a Trinity College Graduate,” 4 Oct 1866, 8; “Prof. Ferguson Dies at His Home,” 31 Mar 1917, 9). Clemens’s use of the Fergusons’ diaries proved somewhat troublesome. In early October 1899, shortly before the article appeared, Clemens wrote to Gilder, “Can’t you send to Professor Henry Ferguson, Trinity College, Hartford, & get him to photograph a page or two of Samuel Ferguson’s Diary for reproduction?” (Oct 1899 to Gilder, TxU-Hu). Ferguson declined. When the article was published Ferguson wrote to Clemens, objecting to the use of the diaries, and Clemens offered to withdraw the piece from his forthcoming collection, The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (SLC 1900b). Ferguson, somewhat mollified, asked that future reprintings disguise the real names of the crewmen, that he himself be less “distinctly identified,” and that his brother Samuel’s ailment be called “lung fever” (pneumonia) instead of “consumption” (tuberculosis) (Ferguson to SLC, 10 Nov 1899, CtY-BR, and 8 Dec 1899, CU-MARK; 20 Nov 1899 to Ferguson and 21 Dec 1899 to Ferguson, CtY-BR). Clemens honored these requests; he also softened the language about mutiny, insanity, and cannibalism. His revisions were reflected in the texts published in The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg and in a later reprinting, My Début as a Literary Person with Other Essays and Stories (SLC 1903a).
129.39 There was a cry of fire ... the vessel’s hours were numbered] The Hornet’s cargo was highly inflammable: it included 2,400 cases of kerosene and 6,200 boxes of candles (“Burning of the Ship Hornet,” New York Times, 22 Aug 1866, 2).
130.5 Portyghee] “Antonio Possene” (the name recorded by Captain Mitchell) was apparently from the Cape Verde Islands, a Portuguese colony since the fifteenth century (Mitchell 1866; “Burning of the Ship Hornet,” New York Times, 22 Aug 1866, 2).
130.16 soldiering] Malingering or shirking, more usually spelled as pronounced—“sogering” or “sodgering.”
130.21–22 Bowditch’s Navigator ... Nautical Almanac] The New American Practical Navigator, a manual of navigation, was first published by Nathaniel Bowditch in 1802. The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac has been published by the U.S. Naval Observatory since 1852.
130.26 forty-gallon “scuttle-butt,”] Potable water on a ship was stored in a scuttled butt—that is, a cask with a hole in it. “Scuttlebutt” came to mean “gossip” because of the drinkers’ conversations.
130.29–31 The captain and the two passengers kept diaries ... chance to copy the diaries] The journals of all three men are extant, but the copies that Clemens made on board the Smyrniote do not survive (Mitchell 1866, Henry Ferguson 1866, Samuel Ferguson 1866). Although the diary quotations included in the 1866 Harper’s article (which he left virtually unaltered for the 1898 piece) were nearly all rephrased, abridged, or expanded, he did not invent any fictional embellishments.
131.26 Revillagigedo islands] An uninhabited archipelago roughly three hundred miles south-southwest of the tip of Baja California.
132.6–7 cobbling] Choppy.
132.14 Clipperton Rock] Clipperton Rock surmounts a coral atoll roughly seven hundred miles southwest of Acapulco.
132.25–26 the sun gives him a warning: “looking with both eyes, the horizon crossed thus X.”] Samuel Ferguson’s more explicit diary entry clarifies this remark: “Sun very hot indeed and gave me a warning to keep out of it in a very peculiar doubling of the sight with both eyes while with either one it seemed right. With both eyes the horizon crossed thus X” (Samuel Ferguson 1866, entry for 9 May).
132.42–133.1 The captain spoke pretty sharply ... remark in my old note-book] In his manuscript, Clemens began to quote the captain’s speech, and then canceled it: “You ought to be ashamed of yourselves that you have no proper thankfulness for the infinite mercies of God in these disciplinary days of sanctified peril.” This remark is not found in Clemens’s extant notebooks, but at least one notebook from this period is unrecovered.
133.2 third mate, in the hospital at Honolulu] The third mate—Clemens’s chief informant—was John S. Thomas, whom Clemens characterized in his Sacramento Union report as “a very intelligent and a very cool and self-possessed young man” who “kept a very accurate log of his remarkable voyage in his head” (N&J1, 100–102; SLC 1866c).
133.11–12 The chief mate was an excellent officer ... fine all-around man] The chief mate—Samuel F. Hardy of Chatham, Massachusetts—was responsible for starting the Hornet fire. Nevertheless, Clemens praised him generously throughout this account (SLC 1866c; “Burning of the Ship Hornet,” New York Times, 22 Aug 1866, 2; Mitchell 1866).
136.10–11 it brought Cox ... if it hadn’t, the diarist would never have seen the land again] See the note at 140.4–5.
137.22 I wrote an article ... urging temporary abstention from food] “Starvation” diets or, more usually, near-starvation diets were a feature of the nineteenth-century medical landscape. Since the 1880s Clemens had confidently recommended fasting as a cure for “any ordinary ailment.” The article he refers to here, “At the Appetite-Cure,” was published in the Cosmopolitan for August 1898 (SLC 1898b, 433; Ober 2003, 207–10).
138.4 a banished duke—Danish] Clemens derived this information from Samuel Ferguson’s diary, which he quoted in his 1866 Harper’s article: “We have here a man who might have been a Duke had not political troubles banished him from Denmark” (SLC 1866d, 109). There was but one Dane in the longboat; he recorded his name at the end of Samuel’s diary as “Carl Henrich Kaatmann, geboren Augustenborg” (Samuel Ferguson 1866, entry for 30 Dec). The claim of the Prince of Augustenborg to the Danish dukedoms of Schleswig and Holstein sparked a European conflict that was widely reported in the 1860s (“What the European War Is About,” Circular 3 [11 June 1866]: 102).
138.38–139.2 The isles we are steering for are put down in Bowditch ... sailed straight over them] Although Bowditch’s Navigator locates a “Cluster of Islands” at 16–17° N, 133–136° W, they do not exist. The Hornet survivors gave up their search for them on 7 June, when they were slightly west of those coordinates (Bowditch 1854, 375).
139.5 ten rations of water apiece] Captain Mitchell’s entry for 2 June actually reads “10 raisins apiece”; Clemens evidently misread it as “rations” and added “of water” to supply some kind of sense (Mitchell 1866).
140.4–5 Cox’s return ... the two young passengers would have been slain] The mention of James Cox is rendered somewhat cryptic by the omission of certain details. Here we are told that Cox’s return saved the captain and the passengers, but also that the crewmen resolved that they “would not kill” (140.26). Clemens’s 1866 Harper’s article asserts that the men were in fact prepared to kill, and that only Cox’s warning, and his vigilance, prevented them. Some of the sailors planned
to watch until such time as the Captain might become worn out and fall asleep, and then kill him and the passengers. They were afraid of Ferguson’s pistol and the Captain’s hatchet, and laid many a plan for getting hold of these weapons. They told Cox ... they would kill him if he exposed them. He refused to join the conspiracy, and they said he should die; and so, after that, day after day and night after night, he did not go to sleep, but kept watch upon them in fear for his life. The Captain and passengers remained under arms, and watched also, but talked pleasantly, and gave no sign that they knew what was in the men’s minds. (SLC 1866d, 113)
Seaman Frederick Clough (“Fred,” 140.9)—implicated here in the “ugly talk” of mutiny and cannibalism—recalled these events rather differently in an article published in 1900: “We had almost reached the last chance then, and by this I mean the casting of lots for the sacrifice of one of us, so that the others might live to tell the story. To this agreement of a gamble for life or death all of us consented without the least hesitation” (Irvine 1900, 575). Captain Mitchell, for his part, noted laconically on 5 June: “A conspiracy formed to Murder me” (Mitchell 1866). According to a note made by Clemens while copying the diaries, “Capt. knew for days this murderous discontent was brewing by the distraught air of some of the men & the guilty look of others—& he staid on guard—slept no more—kept his hatchet hid & close at hand” (N&J1, 173).
140.27–28 ‘From plague, pestilence, and famine, from battle and murder—and from sudden death: Good Lord deliver us!’] Henry quotes the Litany from the Book of Common Prayer.
141.17 soup-and-bouillé] Clemens explained this term in his original dispatch to the Sacramento Union:
That last expression of the third mate’s occurred frequently during his narrative, and bothered me so painfully with its mysterious incomprehensibility, that at length I begged him to explain to me what this dark and dreadful “soup-and-bully” might be. With the Consul’s assistance he finally made me understand the French dish known as “soup bouillon” is put up in cans like preserved meats, and the American sailor is under the impression that its name is a sort of general title which describes any ... edible whatever which is hermetically sealed in a tin vessel, and with that high contempt for trifling conventionalities which distinguishes his class, he has seen fit to modify the pronunciation into “soup-and-bully.” (SLC 1866c)
144.8–10 rooster ... effort to do his duty once more, and died in the act] This account is at variance with Clemens’s 1866 report to the Sacramento Union, in which he wrote that the rooster “was transferred to the chief mate’s boat and sailed away on the eighteenth day”; his fate was therefore unknown. Frederick Clough, who was in the longboat, recalled that when the rooster “sang for the last time and died, he was cast into the sea” (SLC 1866c; Irvine 1900, 576).
144.19 If I remember rightly, Samuel Ferguson died soon after we reached San Francisco] Samuel died in San Francisco on 1 October 1866 (“Death of a Trinity College Graduate,” Hartford Courant, 4 Oct 1866, 8).
Horace Greeley (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1898–99)
145.1 Mr. Greeley] Horace Greeley (1811–72) grew up in New Hampshire and Vermont. He left school at fourteen to help his father with farming and odd jobs, and at age fifteen was apprenticed to a printer. Over the succeeding years he developed his skills as a journalist, writing for numerous New York newspapers and journals. In 1841 he founded the New York Tribune and remained its editor until his death. Through his newspaper, which gained enormous national influence, he attacked slavery and poverty and championed the rights of African Americans, women, and the working class. He made a brief bid to enter politics, but suffered a crushing defeat by Grant in the presidential election of 1872 and died shortly thereafter.
Lecture-Times (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1898–99)
146.1–5 I remember Petroleum Vesuvius Nasby (Locke) very well ... a most admirable hammering every week] David Ross Locke (1833–88) left school at an early age and was apprenticed to a printer, after which he worked on a succession of newspapers. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was the owner and editor of the Bucyrus (Ohio) Journal. It was not until a year later that he published his first satirical piece as Petroleum V. Nasby, an ignorant, bigoted, and boorish character who promoted liberal causes by seeming to oppose them. The popularity of the Nasby letters brought Locke to the attention of the proprietor of the Toledo Blade, who hired him as editor in 1865. Locke later became a part owner, and the Nasby letters, which he continued to write until shortly before his death, were an important feature of the weekly edition (L3: 20 and 21 Jan 1869 to OLL, 56 n. 1; 10 Mar 1869 to OLL and Langdon, 160 n. 5; Austin 1965, 11–12; Marchman 1957).
146.5–7 his letters were copied everywhere ... copperheads] According to an obituary of Locke:
These political satires sprang at once into tremendous popularity. They were copied into newspapers everywhere, quoted in speeches, read around camp-fires of Union armies and exercised enormous influence in molding public opinion North in favor of vigorous prosecution of the war. Secretary Boutwell declared in a speech at Cooper Union, New York, at the close of the war that the success of the Union army was due to three causes—the army, the navy, and the Nasby letters.... These letters were a source of the greatest delight to President Lincoln, who always kept them in his table drawer for perusal at odd times. (“Death of D. R. Locke,” Washington Post, 16 Feb 1888, 4)
George S. Boutwell (1818–1905) was secretary of the treasury, 1869–73.
146.9–12 Governor of the State was a wiser man than were the political masters of Körner and Petöfi ... he was an army—with artillery!] Locke himself almost certainly told Clemens this anecdote, which is also reported in an obituary, and there is no reason to doubt its substance. Nasby did, however, receive a commission as a second lieutenant in the Ohio Volunteer Infantry, signed on 5 November 1861 by Governor William Dennison, which required him to recruit a company of thirty men within fifteen days. The 16 November issue of the Bucyrus Journal contained Locke’s “valedictory,” and announced that he was “recruiting a company.” Ultimately Locke paid a substitute to fight in his place (Marchman 1957; John M. Harrison 1969, 64–66; “Death of D. R. Locke,” Washington Post, 16 Feb 1888, 4). Theodor Körner (1791–1813) and Sándor Petöfi (1823–49) were nationalist poets killed in battle: Körner died fighting for Prussia in the Napoleonic wars, and Petöfi died in the unsuccessful Hungarian revolt against the Austrians.
146.14–15 I saw him first ... three or four years after the war] Clemens heard Locke lecture in Hartford on 9 March 1869 (10 Mar 1869 to OLL and Langdon, L3, 158, 159–60 n. 1).
147.20–21 with the slave-power and its Northern apologists for target] For his “Cussed be Canaan” lecture Locke posed as Nasby (without the peculiar dialect he employed in print), making it clear that Nasby’s views were not his own. His argument—couched in satire—was that African Americans should be granted full equality, both economically and politically (John M. Harrison 1969, 192–96). In a letter to the San Francisco Alta California Clemens described the lecture as “a very unvarnished narrative of the negro’s career, from the flood to the present day”:
For instance, the interpolating of the word white in State Constitutions existing under a great general Constitution which declares all men to be equal, is neatly touched by a recommendation that the Scriptures be so altered, at the same time, as to make them pleasantly conform to men’s notions—thus: “Suffer little white children to come unto me, and forbid them not!” (SLC 1869b)
147.39–41 I began as a lecturer in 1866 ... added the eastern circuit to my route] Clemens delivered his first lecture, on the Sandwich Islands, in San Francisco on 2 October 1866. For his account of that experience, and the tour that followed, see “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad.’ ” In March and April 1867 he lectured on the same topic in St. Louis and other towns on the Mississippi, and then three times in New York and Brooklyn in May. In January 1868 he gave “The Frozen Truth” in Washington, D.C., a new lecture about his Quaker City voyage, before returning to the West (for the last time), where he delivered it in San Francisco on 14 and 15 April. He then performed it in several of the California and Nevada towns that he had visited on his 1866 tour, lecturing for the last time in San Francisco on 2 July. During the 1868–69 season Clemens toured from 17 November until 20 March, delivering “The American Vandal Abroad” (also about the Quaker City trip) throughout the Midwest and East (L1: link note following 25 Aug 1866 to Bowen, 361–62; 29 Oct 1866 to Howland, 362 n. 1; 2 Nov 1866 to JLC and family, 366–67 nn. 3, 4; L2: 19 Mar 1867 to Webb, 19 n. 2; link note following 1 May 1867 to Harte, 40–44; 8 Jan 1868 to JLC and PAM, 147 n. 7; 2–14 Apr 1868 to Fairbanks, 208; 14 Apr 1868 to Williams, 209–10 n. 2; 1 and 5 May 1868 to Fairbanks, 213 n. 4; 5 July 1868 to Bliss, 233 n. 1; L3: enclosure with 12 Jan 1869 to Fairbanks, 453–57; “Lecture Schedule, 1868–1870,” 481–83).
148.8 Redpath’s bureau] In the Autobiographical Dictation of 11 October 1906, Clemens describes James Redpath (1833–91) as a man of “honesty, sincerity, kindliness, and pluck.” An abolitionist, author, journalist, and social reformer, Redpath founded the Boston Lyceum Bureau (later called the Redpath Lyceum Bureau) in 1868, in partnership with George L. Fall. This business, one of the first of its kind, managed the tours of popular lecturers, readers, and musicians, arranging bookings and negotiating fees with local committees in cities both large and small. Lecturers paid their own traveling expenses, in addition to a 10 percent commission. (See “Ralph Keeler,” the next sketch, for more about the Redpath Bureau.) Redpath arranged Clemens’s 1869–70 tour, with the lecture “Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands,” and his 1871–72 tour, with “Roughing It” (after “Reminiscences of Some un-Commonplace Characters I Have Chanced to Meet” and “Artemus Ward, Humorist” were tried and discarded). Clemens did not tour during the 1870–71 season (Eubank 1969, 91–115, 119–20; L3: 20 Apr 1869 to Redpath, 199 n. 1; 10 May 1869 to Redpath, 214–16, 217–18 n. 8; 30, 31 Oct and 1 Nov 1869 to OLL, 383–84 n. 9; “Lecture Schedule, 1868–1870,” 483–86; L4: 24 Oct 1871 to Redpath, 478; 8 Dec 1871 to Redpath and Fall, 511; “Lecture Schedule, 1871–1872,” 557–63).
148.15–16 De Cordova—humorist] Raphael J. De Cordova (1822–1901) was a merchant until 1857, when an economic panic forced him to turn to writing and lecturing. He served on the staff of the New York Evening Express for a time, and contributed to the New York Times, but became best known as a humorous writer and lecturer. During the 1871–72 season he offered eight humorous talks through the Redpath Bureau, and he continued to appear on the platform until at least 1878 (“Death List of a Day,” New York Times, 5 Apr 1901, 9; Annual Cyclopaedia 1901, 419; Lyceum 1871, 17–18).
148.21 We took front seats in one of the great galleries—Nasby, Billings and I] Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw, 1818–85) was well known for the homespun philosophy he expressed in his humorous essays and sketches. Josh Billings’Farmer’s Allminax, his third book and the first of a series of ten comic annuals, was published in October 1869 and sold over ninety thousand copies in three months. Clemens, Billings, and Nasby were photographed together in the second week of November of that year, when all three were in Boston on tour. On 27 October Billings delivered his popular lecture “Milk and Natral Histry” at Boston’s Music Hall, where Nasby appeared on 9 November, and Clemens himself the following night. De Cordova gave four readings at Tremont Temple (not Music Hall) in mid-November; the three men probably heard him on 8 or 12 November (“Lecture Course,” Boston Post, 6 Nov 1869, 3; L3: 9 Nov 1869 to PAM, 386–87, 389 n. 4; 15 and 16 Nov 1869 to OLL, 397 n. 3; 24 and 25 Nov 1869 to OLL, 406, 408 n. 10).
148.25–27 Dickens arrangement of tall gallows-frame ... overhead-row of hidden lights] Clemens heard Dickens read in New York on 31 December 1867, when he accompanied Olivia Langdon and her family (8 Jan 1868 to JLC and PAM, L2, 146 n. 3). He described the occasion for his Alta California readers:
Mr. Dickens had a table to put his book on, and on it he had also a tumbler, a fancy decanter and a small bouquet. Behind him he had a huge red screen—a bulkhead—a sounding-board, I took it to be—and overhead in front was suspended a long board with reflecting lights attached to it, which threw down a glory upon the gentleman, after the fashion in use in the picture-galleries for bringing out the best effects of great paintings. Style!—There is style about Dickens, and style about all his surroundings. (SLC 1868c)
148.40–41 But the house remained cold and still, and gazed at him curiously and wonderingly] The Boston correspondent of the Springfield (Mass.) Republican agreed with Clemens’s opinion of De Cordova, but not with his assessment of the audience’s reaction: “Mr De Cordova is, among the lecturers, what one of the illustrated weeklies of the poorer sort would be among newspapers, provided it were better printed and on better paper. There is no wit in him, and no humor. His audience, however, seemed pleased, and not bored by his vivacious nothingness” (William S. Robinson 1869).
149.13–14 Dr. Hayes when he was fresh from the Arctic regions] Isaac I. Hayes (1832–81), a physician and explorer, accompanied Elisha Kent Kane on an Arctic expedition in 1853–55. He later led two Arctic expeditions of his own, in 1860–61 and 1869. The Redpath Lyceum booked his popular lectures from 1869 to 1878 (9 Mar 1858 to OC and MEC, L1, 78 n. 6; Eubank 1969, 295–306).
Ralph Keeler (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1898–99)
150.1–2 San Francisco in the early days—about 1865—when I was a newspaper reporter] Clemens was hired as the local reporter for the San Francisco Morning Call in June 1864, soon after arriving from Virginia City, Nevada Territory. (He had corresponded for the Call from Nevada the previous year.) The “fearful drudgery” (as he characterized it) of covering the news of the courts and theaters—plus other events of interest he could discover—ended in October, when he was “advised” to resign (see AD, 13 June 1906; CofC, 16–24; 18? May 1863 to JLC and PAM, L1, 254 n. 7).
150.2–4 Bret Harte ... The Golden Era] As the most important literary weekly in San Francisco in the early 1860s, the Golden Era provided a vehicle for the apprentice work of many western writers. Its editor from 1860 to 1866, Joseph E. Lawrence, was known for his genial nature and generosity. He aimed at pleasing both a rural and urban readership by offering serialized sensation novels, poetry, and local news and gossip, as well as higher-quality literature. Clemens contributed several articles to the Golden Era in late 1863 and early 1864, but later that year abandoned it in favor of a new journal, the more “high-toned” Californian (L1: link note following 19 Aug 1863 to JLC and PAM, 265–66; 25 Sept 1864 to JLC and PAM, 312, 314 n. 5). Harte (1836–1902) began setting type in 1860 for the Golden Era, which was soon publishing his verse and prose sketches. When the Californian began publication in May 1864 he became a major contributor, and, while serving as its editor in the fall, solicited Clemens’s work. (Clemens discusses Harte at length in the Autobiographical Dictations of 13 June, 14 June, and 18 June 1906, and 4 February 1907.) Ambrose Bierce (1842–?1914) did not arrive in San Francisco until early 1867, by which time Clemens had left for the East Coast. The two must have met in April or July 1868, when Clemens was on his last visit to San Francisco. Bierce’s first published article appeared in the Californian in September 1867, and his first Golden Era article was in the July 1868 issue. Lawrence invited Prentice Mulford (1834–91) to write for the Golden Era in 1866, after reading his poems and humorous stories in the Sonora Union Democrat. For Stoddard, see “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX,” note at 161.27–30 (1 May 1867 to Harte, L2, 40 n. 1; Walker 1969, 119–32, 142–45, 190–91; Bierce 1868; Joshi and Schultz 1999, 75–76; Davidson 1988, 23; L6: 8 Apr 1874 to Chatto and Windus, 102 n. 1; 1 Feb 1875 to Stoddard, 364, 366 n. 4; Hart 1987, 46–47, 191, 208, 337–38).
150.5 Aldrich] See “Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich.”
150.5 Boyle O’Reilly] John Boyle O’Reilly (1844–90) was an Irish poet, editor, and nationalist. Convicted of conspiracy for his activism in the Fenian movement, he was transported to Australia in 1868 but escaped to America the following year. He edited the Boston Pilot for many years, in which he advocated Home Rule, and became a popular lecturer.
150.5 James T. Fields] James Thomas Fields (1817–81) became a partner in the publishing company of William D. Ticknor and Co. when only twenty-five, and then the head of Ticknor and Fields in 1854. He edited the Atlantic Monthly, published by his firm, from 1861 to 1871, and was also a poet and the author of several books of reminiscences (Winship 1995, 17–18).
150.10–11 Mr. Emerson ... Longfellow] Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–82), John Greenleaf Whittier (1807–92), Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94), James Russell Lowell (1819–91), and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–82) all published their works through firms with which James T. Fields was associated: Ticknor and Fields and, after 1868, Fields, Osgood and Co. (Austin 1953, 16, 38).
150.17–23 He probably never had a home ... an account of his travels in the Atlantic Monthly] Ralph Olmstead Keeler (1840–73) was born in Ohio. Orphaned at age eight, he was sent to an uncle in Buffalo but ran away and began a vagabond life, working first on lake steamers and trains, and then as an entertainer in “negro” minstrel shows. After supporting himself through four years of college, he went to study in Germany, where he corresponded for several journals. He moved to San Francisco around 1863, where he lived by teaching and lecturing, as well as writing a humorous column—and a number of stories—for the Golden Era (1 Nov 1871 to OLC, L4, 485–86 n. 3; Walker 1939, 138–42). His articles for the Atlantic Monthly—“Three Years as a Negro Minstrel” (July 1869) and “The Tour of Europe for $181 in Currency” (July 1870)—were later collected in Vagabond Adventures, published by Fields, Osgood and Co. (Keeler 1869b, Keeler 1870a, Keeler 1870b).
150.23–24 “Gloverson and His Silent Partners;” ... found a publisher for it] Keeler’s novel, set in San Francisco, was a conventional and unimaginative tale with the stock ingredients of romance, adversity, pathos, and comic relief. Howells, in a fond reminiscence of Keeler, recalled reviewing his manuscript for possible publication in the Atlantic Monthly. When he “reported against it,” Keeler published the book in 1869 “at his own cost” (Howells 1900, 276). In 1874 Clemens facetiously predicted to Howells that this “noble classic” would be “translated into all the languages of the earth” and “adored by all nations & known to all creatures” (20 Nov 1874 to Howells [1st], L6, 291, also in AD, 12 Sept 1908; Keeler 1869a; Walker 1969, 141–42).
151.3–7 he often went out with me ... “lecture season.”] Clemens enjoyed Keeler’s company in November 1871, while on a lecture tour that lasted from mid-October 1871 to late February 1872. Between 31 October and 17 November Clemens appeared twice in Boston and in several nearby towns (L4: 1 Nov 1871 to OLC, 484, 485–86 n. 3; “Lecture Schedule, 1871–72,” 557–60).
151.7–8 James Redpath’s Bureau in School street, Boston] See “Lecture-Times,” note at 148.8. The bureau opened on 29 Bromfield Street, and in 1871 moved to 36 Bromfield. It was never on School Street (Eubank 1969, 105).
151.12–14 Henry Ward Beecher ... English astronomer ... Parsons, Irish orator] The following people were on one or more of Redpath’s lists of available lecturers between 1869 and 1873: Henry Ward Beecher (1813–87), the famous liberal pastor of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn; Anna Dickinson (1842–1932), an eloquent promoter of women’s rights; John B. Gough (1817–86), a temperance advocate; Wendell Phillips (1811–84), a social reformer; John H. Vincent (1832–1920), a religious educator; and William Parsons, an orator on literary and historical subjects. For Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke), Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), and Isaac I. Hayes, who were also among Redpath’s clients, see “Lecture-Times,” notes at 146.1–5, 148.21, and 149.13–14. Horace Greeley, one of the most popular speakers on the lecture circuit, was not on Redpath’s “regular” list but may have been one of the clients for whom he planned special engagements in large cities. The name of the “English astronomer” evidently escaped Clemens’s memory; a space for a name remains in the manuscript. He may have been Richard A. Proctor (1837–88), a renowned author and astronomer who made his first American lecture tour in 1873–74 but did not appear on Redpath’s list until many years later (Lyceum 1871, 29–34; Eubank 1969, 241, 295–301; Chicago Tribune: “ ‘Self-Made Men,’ ” 21 Sept 1871, 4; “Prof. Proctor’s Lectures,” 26 Feb 1874; Pond 1900, 178–79, 347).
151.14 Agassiz] Swiss-born Harvard naturalist Louis Agassiz (1807–73) and his less famous son, Alexander (1835–1910), were both active on the lecture circuit. Clemens heard the younger Agassiz speak at Newport in 1875, but neither man was on Redpath’s roster (link note following 29? July 1875 to Redpath, L6, 521–22).
151.29–152.2 Kate Field ... forgotten of the world] Field (1838–96) began her career as a journalist in 1859, writing letters from Italy to several American newspapers. Her first work for the New York Tribune was a series of articles on the 1866 American tour of Italian actress Adelaide Ristori, which led to an assignment to cover Charles Dickens’s second (and last) American reading tour. Her reviews were expanded and collected in Pen Photographs of Charles Dickens’s Readings (Field 1868). She made her debut as a lecturer in 1869, reading her essay “Woman in the Lyceum,” and continued to appear on the platform for most of her life. After an unsuccessful attempt at acting, in 1890 she started a newspaper, Kate Field’s Washington, and was its principal writer. In 1895 she went to Hawaii for her health, and died there of pneumonia (Scharnhorst 2004, 159–61; “Miss Kate Field on ‘Woman in the Lyceum,’ ” New York Times, 4 May 1869, 5; Field 1996, xxii–xxv, xxviii, xxix–xxx; 30 Jan 1871 to Redpath, L4, 323–24 n. 3).
152.3–7 Olive Logan’s notoriety ... her husband, who was a small-salaried minor journalist] Olive Logan (1839–1909), the daughter of a comedian and dramatist, enjoyed some success as an actress until her retirement from the stage in 1868. She published several books, the most successful of which was Before the Footlights and Behind the Scenes, an account of theater life. For two seasons, from 1869 to 1871, she was engaged by the Redpath Lyceum, offering lectures such as “The Passions,” “Paris, City of Luxury,” and “Girls,” which promoted women’s rights. In December 1871, Logan (who was divorced) married her second husband, William Wirt Sikes (1836–83). He worked as a journalist for several newspapers in New York State and contributed stories to periodicals such as Harper’s Monthly and The Youth’s Companion. Like his wife, Sikes lectured for Redpath from 1869 to 1871, delivering “The Peculiar Perils of Great Cities” and “After Dark in New York,” in which he described “dangerous haunts of vice and crime.” In 1876 he was appointed U.S. consul at Cardiff, Wales, and later wrote works about the history and folklore of the region (Lyceum 1870, 9, 15; 8 Jan 1870 to OLL [1st], L4, 9 n. 3; Olive Logan 1870; see also AD, 11 Apr 1906).
153.8–9 after the first season I always introduced myself—using, of course, a burlesque of the time-worn introduction] Clemens began introducing himself during the winter of 1869–70, while on his second eastern lecture tour (the first that Redpath arranged). On 8 December, in Washington, he announced that since he “knew considerably more about himself than anybody else, he thought he was better qualified to perform that ceremony. He had studied the usual form, and he thought he had finally mastered it” (“Mark Twain’s Savages,” Washington [D.C.] Morning Chronicle, 9 Dec 1869, 4). Several days later, in Meriden, Connecticut, he opened with the speech that became his standard introduction for the rest of the season, with slight variations:
I have the pleasure of introducing to you Mr. Samuel Clemens, otherwise Mark Twain, a gentleman whose high character and unimpeachable veracity are only surpassed by his personal comeliness and native modesty. [Applause, for the audience began to smell a rat and take him for the lecturer.] And, continued he, with the utmost sang froid, I am the gentleman referred to. I suppose I ought to ask pardon for breaking the usual custom on such occasions and introducing myself, but it could not be avoided, as the gentleman who was to introduce me did not know my real name, hence I relieved him of his duties. (“Mark Twain’s Lecture,” Meriden Republican, 13 Dec 1869, 2)
153.21–26 introduction taken from my Californian experiences ... I don’t know why] Clemens began his 1871–72 lecture tour in mid-October with the same introduction he had used in 1869–70 (see the note at 153.8–9). By 1 December, however, he had adopted the new one. He had lectured in the mining town of Red Dog, California, on 24 October 1866 (“Our Lecture Course,” Oswego [N.Y.] Commercial Advertiser and Times, 2 Dec 1871, 4; “Mark Twain,” Easton [Pa.] Express, 24 Nov 1871; link note following 25 Aug 1866 to Bowen, L1, 362; see also MTB, 1:295).
154.27–31 one of Ossawatomie Brown’s brothers ... tragedy of 1859 ... Atlantic Monthly] Militant abolitionist John Brown earned the nickname “Ossawatomie” from his battles against proslavery forces near the Kansas town of that name. Keeler interviewed two of Brown’s sons on their Ohio farm, located on Put-in-Bay Island in Lake Erie. The younger son, Owen, had been with his father at the failed attack on the U.S. armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in 1859. Brown was captured and executed for treason, but Owen was among those who escaped, and he told Keeler of his experiences on that night, and during the following days, in great detail. Keeler’s long article in the Atlantic Monthly was published posthumously, in March 1874 (Keeler 1874).
154.35–41 the Tribune commissioned Keeler to go to Cuba ... that was what had happened] In 1868, Cuba began a war of rebellion against Spain—known as the Ten Years’ War—which was ultimately unsuccessful. Although the United States remained neutral in the conflict, there was widespread sympathy for the rebellion among Americans. In October 1873 the Spanish captured the Virginius, a ship transporting arms to the insurgents, and executed over fifty of the men on board, many of whom were Americans. In late November Keeler traveled to Cuba as a correspondent for the New York Tribune, and over the next few weeks submitted several letters about the crisis. At the start of his return trip in mid-December, he disappeared from a steamship in Cuban waters. Although his fate was never known, it was believed that he was assassinated as a result of the violent anti-American sentiment arising from the Virginius incident. Howells, who eulogized Keeler in the March 1874 issue of the Atlantic Monthly, speculated that he had been “stabbed and thrown into the sea” by a Spanish officer who discovered that he was an American journalist (Halstead 1897, 41, 49; Howells 1874a, 366).
Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX (Sources: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1900; 1902 TS by Jean Clemens; TS3 [partial])
155.5 my sister] Pamela, who turned twenty-two on 13 September 1849; see the Appendix “Family Biographies” (p. 655).
155.13 black slave boy, Sandy] Sandy was owned by “a master back in the country” but was hired out to work for the Clemenses (“Jane Lampton Clemens,” Inds, 89; see also “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It]”).
157.7–8 one whom I will call Mary Wilson] The real “Mary” was Sarah H. Robards (1836–1918); she and her brothers George and John were all Hannibal schoolmates of Clemens’s, and she studied piano with his sister Pamela (see AD, 8 Mar 1906, note at 399.28–29, and AD, 9 Mar 1906, note at 401.7–16). Clemens recalled her in his 1902 notebook: “Sally Robards—pret[t]y. Describe her now in her youth & again in 50 ys After when she reveals herself” (Notebook 45, TS p. 21, CU-MARK). She married riverboat pilot and captain Barton Stone Bowen, the brother of William Bowen, who was probably Clemens’s closest childhood friend (Inds, 304–5, 345).
157.12–13 It was in 1896. I arrived there on my lecturing trip] Clemens reached Calcutta on his world lecture tour in February 1896 (see “Something about Doctors,” note at 190.10–12.
157.16–17 grand-daughter of the other Mary] After the death of her first husband, Barton Bowen, in 1868, Sarah Robards married the Reverend H. H. Haley. The granddaughter has not been identified (Inds, 345; Robards Family Genealogy 2009, part 14:65).
157.36–37 drunken tramp—mentioned in “Tom Sawyer” or “Huck Finn”—who was burned up in the village jail] This incident does not occur in either book, although there is an oblique allusion to it in chapter 23 of Tom Sawyer, where Tom and Huck give some matches to Muff Potter when he is in jail. Chapter 56 of Life on the Mississippi, however, contains a dramatic account of the tramp’s death and Clemens’s subsequent struggle with his conscience.
158.5 shooting down of poor old Smarr in the main street] William Perry Owsley murdered Sam Smarr (b. 1788) in 1845. Smarr, a beef farmer, was described as a generally peaceful man who became abusive when drunk. He offended Owsley by accusing him of stealing $2,000 from a friend, and by repeatedly insulting him and threatening his life. Owsley, a wealthy merchant, shot Smarr to death in a Hannibal street before many witnesses, but was acquitted of the crime. In “Villagers of 1840–3” (1897) Clemens wrote that after the trial his “party brought him huzzaing in from Palmyra at midnight. But there was a cloud upon him—a social chill—and presently he moved away” (Inds, 101, 339–40, 348). He recreated the incident in chapter 21 of Huckleberry Finn, where Colonel Sherburn shoots “old Boggs” (see HF 2003, 436). In a letter of 11 January 1900 Clemens recalled, “I can’t ever forget Boggs, because I saw him die, with a family Bible spread open on his breast” (11 Jan 1900 to Goodrich-Freer, ViU).
158.15–16 slave man who was struck down ... I saw him die] In “Jane Lampton Clemens” (1890), Clemens recalled:
There were no hard-hearted people in our town—I mean there were no more than would be found in any other town of the same size in any other country; and in my experience hard-hearted people are very rare everywhere. Yet I remember that once when a white man killed a negro man for a trifling little offence everybody seemed indifferent about it—as regarded the slave—though considerable sympathy was felt for the slave’s owner, who had been bereft of valuable property by a worthless person who was not able to pay for it. (Inds, 89)
158.16–18 young Californian emigrant who was stabbed ... I saw the red life gush from his breast] Clemens noted in 1897 that all emigrants “went through there. One stabbed to death—saw him.... Saw the corpse in my father’s office” (Autobiographical Fragment #160, CU-MARK). The body was carried to the office of John Marshall Clemens, the justice of the peace; Clemens saw it because he was hiding there to avoid being punished for skipping school. He recalled this traumatic experience repeatedly, in lectures and writings. See, for example, chapter 18 of The Innocents Abroad: “I put my hands over my eyes and counted till I could stand it no longer, and then—the pallid face of a man was there, with the corners of the mouth drawn down, and the eyes fixed and glassy in death!” (Inds, 101, 284).
158.18 young Hyde brothers and their harmless old uncle] Richard (Dick) Hyde (b. 1830?) and his brother Ed were ruffians whom Clemens described in “Villagers of 1840–3” as ”tough and dissipated.” The brothers—or perhaps Richard and another brother, Henry—were the models for the Stover brothers in “Hellfire Hotchkiss” (Inds, 96, 327).
158.22–25 young Californian emigrant who got drunk ... blameless daughter] Clemens’s recollection of this incident, which occurred in 1850, varies slightly from the account published in the Hannibal Missouri Courier, the newspaper where Clemens worked as a “printer’s devil” at the time:
Caleb W. Lindley, a stranger from Illinois, was shot in this city on Friday night last, by a woman named Weir, a widow, living in a house on Holliday’s Hill. He with several others, went to the house of the woman about 11 o’clock at night and demanded admittance, with permission to stay all night. Being refused, they threatened to do violence to the house, if their demands were not gratified. The woman ordered them away, and threatened to shoot, if they did not cease to molest her. One of them, Lindley, bolder than the rest, approached, and told her to “shoot ahead.” She accordingly fired, and he fell pierced with two balls and several buck shot.
The woman, a poor widow with several children, was not charged with a crime (20 May 1850, quoted in Wecter 1952, 159–60). The incident was the basis for chapters 29 and 30 of Tom Sawyer, in which Huck overhears Injun Joe threatening to disfigure the widow Douglas and summons help from the “Welchman” and his “brace of tall sons,” who live on Cardiff Hill (the fictional name for Holliday’s Hill), to thwart the attack.
158.26–27 a comrade—John Briggs, I think] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 16 March 1906, note at 420.17–18.
159.27–28 in an earlier chapter I have already described what a raging hell of repentance I passed through then] No such pre-1900 account has been found. Clemens returns to the subject of his temporary repentance in the Autobiographical Dictation of 8 March 1906.
159.30 Jim Wolf] Wolf (b. 1833?) was an apprentice printer who lodged with the Clemens family in the early 1850s when he worked with Samuel on Orion Clemens’s Hannibal Western Union (begun in 1850). Clemens, amused by his bashfulness, humorously described his slow response to the threat of an office fire in his first published piece, “A Gallant Fireman,” printed in Orion’s newspaper in January 1851 (SLC 1851). Wolfwas also the prototype for the bumpkin Nicodemus Dodge in chapter 23 of A Tramp Abroad (1880) (Inds, 351).
161.9–10 I was offered a large sum ... “Jim Wolf and the Cats.”] Clemens contributed his first piece to the New York Sunday Mercury in 1864—“Doings in Nevada,” 7 February—at the urging of Artemus Ward, after the two had met in Virginia City and enjoyed a “period of continuous celebration” in December 1863. “Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats,” which appeared on 14 July 1867, was his ninth (and last) contribution to that journal (SLC 1864a, 1864b, 1867b, 1867c, 1867d, 1867f, 1867g, 1867j, 1867k).
161.13–17 “Jim Wolf and the Cats” appeared in a Tennessee paper ... His name has passed out of my memory] The Tennessee newspaper printing has not been found. In 1885, however, A. H. Warner (otherwise unidentified) sent Clemens a handwritten transcription of a corrupt version of the text, which he had copied from an unknown source. Although Clemens’s original included a sprinkling of dialect words, this derivative text carried the concept much further. For example, “Our winder looked out onto the roof” was altered to “Wal our winder looked out onter the ruff.” It is likely that Clemens saw a printing of this text, or a variant of it, in the late 1860s; the popular “appropriator” has not been identified (A. H. Warner to SLC, 22 July 1885, and “Jim Wolfe and the Cats,” DV 275, CU-MARK).
161.24–27 In 1873 I was lecturing in London ... George Dolby, lecture-agent] The time referred to is December 1873. Dolby (d. 1900) was an experienced theatrical agent who in 1872 had tried and failed to persuade Clemens to lecture during his first visit to England. Clemens returned to London a year later, this time with his wife and infant daughter, Susy, and Dolby succeeded in booking him for five October days in London and one in Liverpool. At that point Olivia became desperately homesick, and Clemens accompanied his family home but immediately returned without them for a second round of lectures arranged by Dolby, from 1 to 20 December 1873 in London, and 8 to 10 January 1874 in Leicester and Liverpool (L5: 15 Sept 1872 to OLC, 159–60; link note following 29 Sept 1873 to MacDonald, 446–47; 19 Sept 1873 to Stoddard, 456–58; 22 Nov 1873 to Lee, 481; 30 Dec 1873 to Fitzgibbon, 539, 541 n. 4).
161.27–30 Charles Warren Stoddard ... to have his company] Stoddard (1843–1909) began contributing poems anonymously to the San Francisco Golden Era in 1861. He had been friends with Clemens in San Francisco since at least 1865. In 1867, with help from Bret Harte, Stoddard published Poems, his first book. Clemens wrote him in April from New York: “I want to endorse your book, because I know all about poetry & I know you can write the genuine article. Your book will be a success—your book shall be a success—& I will destroy any man that says the contrary” (23 Apr 1867 to Stoddard, L2, 30–31 n. 1). Highly praised by some critics, Poems failed to win general acclaim. Stoddard had been raised as a Presbyterian, but converted that same year to Catholicism, an experience he wrote about in A Troubled Heart and How It Was Comforted at Last (1885). His most successful works were travel essays, a collection of which, South-Sea Idyls, was published in 1873. He traveled to England in mid-October 1873 as a roving reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle, and Clemens hired him as a secretary and companion in December. Over the following decade Stoddard traveled extensively in Europe, the Middle East, and Hawaii, writing travel columns for the Chronicle and various journals. He taught literature in 1885–86 at the University of Notre Dame, and then from 1889 to 1902 at the Catholic University of America in Washington (link note following 14 Nov 1873 to OLC, L5, 476–78; L6: 9 Jan 1874 to Moore, 16 n. 1; 12 Jan 1874 to Finlay, 19–20 n. 1; James 1911; Austen 1991, 4, 58, 65–69, 82, 88, 100, 103–14).
161.31 great trial of the Tichborne Claimant for perjury] In 1866 an Australian butcher claimed to be Roger Charles Tichborne (b. 1829), the heir to the Tichborne baronetcy and estates who it was thought had been lost at sea in 1854. The claimant was acknowledged by Tichborne’s mother (and several other people), but after her death he lost an ejection suit against the present baronet and was then charged with perjury. His trial, which lasted from April 1873 to February 1874 and included testimony about forged documents, multiple aliases, murder, seduction, and insanity, fascinated the public. The jury determined that he was Arthur Orton, of Wapping. He was convicted and sentenced to fourteen years in prison, of which he served ten. The identity of the claimant remains unresolved: at least one modern historian, Douglas Woodruff, has supported his claim. Clemens, who was personally interested in claimants, asked Stoddard to “scrap-book these trial reports,” intending to “boil the thing down into a more or less readable sketch some day.” In 1897 he devoted two pages to the case in chapter 15 of Following the Equator, but made no other literary use of the scrapbooks, which survive in the Mark Twain Papers (19 Oct 1873 to Stoddard, L5, 456–57; Scrapbooks 13–18, CU-MARK).
162.6 Dolby had been agent for ... Charles Dickens] Dolby escorted Dickens on his reading tours in Great Britain and America between 1866 and 1869. Dickens found him to be an amiable companion and efficient manager, and they became friends (15 Sept 1872 to OLC, L5, 160 n. 1; see also Dolby 1885).
162.18–19 baby had the botts] “Botts” (more commonly “bots”) is a condition in many animals caused by an infestation of botfly larvae. The only species of botfly to attack humans is Dermatobia hominis, which deposits its eggs under the skin.
162.32 Tom Hood’s Annual] Clemens had met humorist and illustrator Tom Hood (1835–74), the editor of the London magazine Fun, on his first trip to England, in 1872. Hood heard Clemens tell a story and encouraged him to write it down for inclusion in Tom Hood’s Comic Annual for 1873, where it appeared as “How I Escaped Being Killed in a Duel” (SLC 1872a; 11 Sept 1872 to OLC, L5, 155, 157 n. 10).
163.19–20 thing he sold to Tom Hood’s Annual ... he did not put my name to it] The stolen Jim Wolf sketch, retitled “A Yankee Story” and attributed to “G. R. Wadleigh,” was published in Tom Hood’s Comic Annual for 1874 (SLC 1876j; Hood 1873, 78–79). George R. Wadleigh (b. 1845) was born in Boston, and listed himself in the 1881 census as a journalist (British Census 1881, f. 129, p. 23; see also N&J2, 147). He probably found the text in Practical Jokes with Artemus Ward, Including the Story of the Man Who Fought Cats, by “Mark Twain and Other Humorists,” an unauthorized collection of stories issued in 1872 in London by John Camden Hotten. Stoddard also wrote an account of the incident:
There was an American who besieged us at the Langham as well as at the lecture-hall. His story was pitiful. Snatched from a foreign office by a change in the administration, a lovely young wife at the point of death, he penniless in a strange land, a born gentleman, delicately reared, unacquainted with toil,—would Mark be good enough to loan him a few pounds until he could hear from his estates at home? Mark did; how could he avoid it, when the unfortunate man assured him that they had been friends for years and that they had played many a (forgotten) game of billiards in days gone by? Well, a week later, when the person in question had disappeared, one of Mark’s early sketches was discovered in a copy of London Fun, bearing the name of the unfortunate; and there were two or three others on file, which, however, were detected in season to save them from the same fate. Coöperative authorship is not always agreeable, and this fellow proved he was one of the biggest frauds on record. (Charles Warren Stoddard 1903, 72–73)
Scraps from My Autobiography. Private History of a Manuscript That Came to Grief (Sources: MS and TS [of the “ ‘Edited’ Introduction” only], written in 1900, CU-MARK)
164.2–10 An acquaintance had proposed ... the most competent person in Great Britain] The official records of Joan of Arc’s trials for heresy—the original one, which resulted in her execution in 1431, and the retrial, more than twenty years later, which annulled her condemnation—were first transcribed and published in five volumes by French archaeologist and historian Jules Quicherat in the 1840s. His work comprised selections, translated into modern French, of the original medieval French and Latin documents (Quicherat 1841–49). Clemens’s “acquaintance” was T. Douglas Murray, a wealthy barrister and amateur historian. In 1899 he asked Clemens to write an introduction to an English translation, the first ever published. Clemens was mistaken in his reference here to a translation published “a great many years before.” In the present case there were evidently two translators, one for each language (see the note at 164.11–12). Clemens was an obvious choice for this task. In 1896 he had published Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, a historical novel for which he did extensive research. The work was an affectionate homage to his favorite historical figure, and he sometimes said it was his best work, a judgment shared chiefly with his family. Murray published his book (without Clemens’s participation) in 1902, with his own preface, introduction, and notes. He did not identify the “competent” translators (MTB, 3:1033–34; Murray 1902; Sayre 1932).
164.11–12 When he asked me to write an Introduction for the book, my pleasure was complete, my vanity satisfied] On 3 September 1899 Clemens wrote to Henry H. Rogers about the assignment: “The Official Records of the Joan of Arc Trials (in Rouen & the Rehabilitation) have at last been translated in full into English, & I was asked to write an Introduction, & have just finished it after a long & painstaking siege of work. I am to help edit it, & my name will go on the title page with those of the two translators. I expect it to be ever so readable & interesting a book” (Salm, in HHR, 409–10).
165.20–32 Introduction ... Let me have it back as soon as you can] Clemens initially invited Murray’s editing. In September 1899 he wrote, “When I send the Introduction, I must get you to do two things for me—knock the lies out of it & purify the grammar (which I think stinks, in one place.)” (3 Sept 1899 to Murray, CU-MARK; see the text shown as deleted at 175.10–11: “forget whom she was”). By January 1900 Clemens had reviewed a typed version, on which Murray had made suggestions, returning it with the note, “I have retained several of the emendations made, & have added some others” (31 Jan 1900 to Murray, CU-MARK). Murray, however, continued to edit this first typescript, making numerous additional changes before having a clean copy made; he then revised this second typescript still further. By the time Clemens withdrew from the project, he had received a third typescript, incorporating Murray’s editing on the second one (all three typescripts are in CU-MARK).
166.21–22 Hark from the Tomb] Serious or earnest reproof, as in Isaac Watts’s hymn “A Funeral Thought”: “Hark! from the tombs a doleful sound; / My ears, attend the cry— / Ye living men, come, view the ground / Where you must shortly lie.’ ”
166.23 I shall write him a letter, but not in that spirit, I trust] Clemens wrote three letters to Murray expressing dismay at his editing. One, which clearly he never intended to send, comprises the last section of this sketch, and is undated. He drafted two other letters on 27 August 1900, only one of which he actually posted. The first contained passages like the following:
I will hold no grudge against you for thinking you could improve my English for me, for I believe you innocently meant well, & did not know any better. Your lack of literary training, literary perception, literary judgment, literary talent, along with a deficient knowledge of grammar & of the meanings of words—these are to blame, not you. (CU-MARK)
He was more restrained in the second letter, which he did send:
I am afraid you did not quite clearly understand me. The time-honored etiquette of the situation—new to you by reason of inexperience—is this: an author’s MS. is not open to any editor’s uninvited emendations. It must be accepted as it stands, or it must be declined; there is no middle course. Any alteration of it—even to a word—closes the incident, & that author & that editor can have no further literary dealings with each other. It was your right to say that the Introduction was not satisfactory to you, but it was not within your rights to contribute your pencil’s assistance toward making it satisfactory.
Therefore, even if you now wished to use my MS. in its original form, untouched, I could not permit it. Nor in any form, of course.
I shall be glad to have the original when convenient, but there is no hurry. When you return will answer quite well. If you have any copies of it—either amended or unamended—please destroy them, lest they fall into careless hands & get into print. Indeed I would not have that happen for anything in the world.
I am speaking in this very definite way because I perceive from your letter (notwithstanding what I said to you) that you still contemplate inserting in the book the Introduction, in some form or other. Whereas no line of it must be inserted in any form, amended or original. (CU-MARK)
Murray replied immediately, on 30 August, promising to return “all existing copies, including the original; and you may be sure that not a word of your MS shall be produced” (CU-MARK).
167.1 The “Edited” Introduction] At this point in his manuscript Clemens wrote, “Here insert the ‘edited’ Introduction.” To represent the introduction as revised by Murray, Clemens began with a clean typescript of his original introduction and copied onto it, by hand, about three-quarters of the markings that Murray had made on two different stages of the text. For the most part Clemens represented Murray’s revisions accurately, although he occasionally altered them, perhaps inadvertently. The revisions are shown here with diagonal slashes for deletions of single characters, horizontal rules for deletions of more than one character, and carets for inserted characters (for a full explanation of this transcription system, called “plain text,” see “Guide to Editorial Practice,” L6, 709–14).
179.34–36 your marginal remark ... foreign to her character] This remark of Murray’s does not appear on any of the surviving typescripts of Clemens’s introduction. It may have been written on a now-lost carbon copy, or it could have been erased from an existing typescript: many of Murray’s penciled revisions were inexplicably erased, but are still faintly visible.
[Reflections on a Letter and a Book] (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1903)
181.3 Dear Sir:—I have written a book] The author of this letter signed his name, “Hilary Trent,” and added a postscript notifying Clemens that his book, Mr. Claghorn’s Daughter, would “be sent you by the J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co.” Clemens omitted the signature and postscript when inserting the letter here. Trent’s 1903 novel blends domestic melodrama with an attack on the Westminster Confession of Faith, the creed of the American Presbyterian church—specifically what was controversially called its doctrine of “infant damnation” (see the note at 185.15–16). The publisher’s advertising claimed that Hilary Trent was “a well-known writer who conceals his identity under a nom-de-plume” (“Mr. Claghorn’s Daughter,” New York Sun, 23 May 1903, 7), but documentary and internal evidence indicates that he was R. M. Manley, a decidedly little-known writer who harbored strong feelings about the Westminster Confession (Manley 1903; Manley 1897; Manley to SLC, 29 Apr 1903 and 4 May 1903, CU-MARK).
185.15–16 revising the Confession of Faith ... chapters 3 and 10 of the Confession] The connection between Clemens’s screed on self-interest and the newspaper clippings that follow it is Presbyterian doctrine, the subject of Trent’s book (see the note at 181.3). In the late nineteenth century, American Presbyterians began to consider revisions to the Westminster Confession of Faith. Debate centered on chapter 3, which states that some souls have been predestined “unto everlasting life and others foreordained to everlasting death” (section 3); and chapter 10, which asserts that “elect infants” are saved, while infants (as well as adults) who are “not elected” cannot be saved (sections 3–4). Historically, this latter chapter has been interpreted as damning not only many Christian infants, but also all non-Christians (a fact which may bear upon Clemens’s inclusion of the clipping that follows, about the massacre of Russian Jews). In 1902, the year before the writing of the present essay, the Presbyterian church had adopted a statement endorsing a liberal construction of the disputed chapters; it was appended to the Confession in 1903 (Macpherson 1881, 48, 85–86; Briggs 1890, 21–22, 98–130; “Presbyterian Creed Revision Adopted,” New York Times, 23 May 1902, 5).
186.27 Westminster Catechism] The catechism based on the Westminster Confession would have been familiar to Clemens from his early religious training (see Fulton 2006, 140–55).
[Something about Doctors] (Source: MS in CU-MARK, written in 1903)
188.19–20 Dr. Meredith ... village of Hannibal] Dr. Hugh Meredith (1806–64), born in Pennsylvania, was a personal friend and business associate of Clemens’s father in Florida, Missouri, and then in Hannibal. The two men collaborated in planning improvements in both towns. Dr. Meredith joined the 1849 Gold Rush, but returned in early 1851. For several weeks in the winter of 1851–52 he edited Orion Clemens’s Hannibal Journal while Orion attended to the family’s property in Tennessee (Inds, 335; Wecter 1952, 55; see AD, 28 Mar 1906).
188.21–22 I have already said ... furnished the drugs himself] See “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” written in 1897–98 (215.3–6).
189.1 his own son Charles] Charles (b. 1833?) was the oldest of Dr. Meredith’s five children. He accompanied his father to the California gold fields, and later made a second trip west (Inds, 335).
189.21–22 our old family physician, Dr. Taft ... neglected successor] Cincinnatus A. Taft (1822–84) began practicing homeopathic medicine in Hartford in 1846, and became the Clemenses’ physician after they moved there in 1871. He was well loved by his patients; after his death Clemens praised him as a man “full of courteous grace and dignity” whose “heart was firm and strong ... and freighted with human sympathies” (18 July 1884 to the Editor of the Hartford Courant, CtHMTH; 17 Feb 1871 to JLC and family, L4, 333 n. 3). Taft’s “successor” has not been identified; the family did not find another satisfactory physician for several years (19 Apr 1888 to Langdon, CtHMTH).
189.25 Theron Wales] Theron A. Wales (b. 1842) received his medical degree in 1873 from the University of Pennsylvania, and immediately established a practice in Elmira. According to A History of the Valley and County of Chemung, his “superior literary attainments” earned him a “reputation as a writer upon various topics” (Towner 1892, “Personal References,” 133; L4: SLC and OLC to the Langdons, 9 Feb 1870, 68 n. 6; 22 Feb 1871 to OC, 335 n. 2).
189.37 our old ex-slave cook, Aunty Cord] Mary Ann (“Auntie”) Cord (1798–1888) was the cook at Quarry Farm, the Cranes’ property near Elmira. Thirteen years after she had been separated from her family by the slave market, she was miraculously reunited with her youngest son, who had escaped to Elmira and become a Union soldier. Clemens wrote a moving account of her history, “A True Story, Repeated Word for Word as I Heard It,” which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly in November 1874 (SLC 1874b; 2 Sept 1874 to Howells, L6, 219 n. 2).
190.10–12 I lectured every night for twenty-three nights ... ship at Vancouver] To recover financially from the failure of the Paige typesetting-machine venture, and the collapse of Charles L. Webster and Company in 1894, Clemens undertook a year-long world lecture tour in July 1895, accompanied by his wife and their daughter Clara. He opened in Cleveland, and made more than twenty appearances in the United States and Canada before embarking from Vancouver for Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, India, Mauritius, and South Africa. In July 1896 they returned to England, where Clemens wrote Following the Equator, based on the trip.
190.27–30 We were living in Berlin ... congestion of the wind’ard lung] The Clemenses sojourned in Berlin in the winter of 1891–92. Clemens lectured there on 13 January (the occasion has not been further identified), and wrote in his notebook, “Went to our cousin’s (Frau Generalin von Versen) ball, after the lecture; we all came home at 2 am., & I have been in bed ever since—three weeks—with congestion of lungs and influenza” (Notebook 31, TS p. 21, CU-MARK; see AD, 29 Mar 1906, note at 456.25–26).
190.39–42 Sidney Smith . . . I paid half the bill] Clemens wrote to Dr. Smith on 1 February 1896, complaining about his fee:
Twenty-five rupees per visit seems unaccountably large, & I have waited, in order to make some inquiries. I find from conversation with some of your well-to-do patients in Bombay that you charge them Rs. 10 per visit.
There may be some mistake somewhere & it may be that you can explain it. . . . Meantime I enclose cheque for Rs. 40 & will await an explanation of the seemingly extra charge. (CU-MARK)
[Henry H. Rogers] (Source: TS in CU-MARK, made in 1906 from a 1904 typescript [now lost] of Clemens’s dictation)
192.15–17 Standard Oil Trust . . . keeps them alive and going] From a small beginning as an oil investor, Rogers had advanced to a position of immense power and wealth. In 1890 he became a vice-president and a director of the Standard Oil Company, and his financial interests extended to natural gas, copper, steel, banking, and railroads. Although generous and amiable with his friends, he earned the sobriquet “hell hound” for his ruthless (and, by more rigorous standards, unethical) business practices (HHR, 2–7).
194.21 gas suit, wherein Mr. Rogers was sued for several millions of dollars] The lawsuit stemmed from a war for control of gas distribution in Boston that began in 1894. The principal combatants were Rogers, of Standard Oil, and J. Edward Addicks, of the Bay State Gas Company of Delaware (see the note at 196.40). In 1896 the Standard Oil interest won control over all the Boston gas companies, and Addicks abandoned the competition. In the ensuing years, however, a number of disputes developed over control of the various companies and the price of stocks traded in the consolidation transactions. The plaintiff in the lawsuit, filed in 1903, was the Bay State Gas Company. Among the defendants were the Massachusetts Gas Companies, a trust formed in 1902 that now controlled the industry in Boston; Kidder, Peabody and Company, the investment banking firm that handled the stock sales; and Henry H. Rogers. The plaintiff alleged that in 1902 some of the stocks were sold at artificially low prices, defrauding the Delaware Company and forcing it into a “fictitious default” (“Industrial Affairs,” Wall Street Journal, 17 June 1903, 5). One of the disputed transactions—the 1896 sale of his Brookline Gas Company—earned Rogers a $3 million profit, money that should have gone to investors. The case was not resolved until 1907, when Rogers agreed to return half of the $3 million (HHR, 76 n. 1, 306 n. 3; New York Times: “Standard Oil in Control,” 1 Nov 1896, 6; “Bay State Gas War Ended,” 21 Jan 1898, 1; “Decision on Gas Merger,” 13 Dec 1903, 17; “Rogers a Defendant in Boston Gas Suit,” 3 Apr 1904, FS2; Chicago Tribune: “Gas Suit for $3,000,000,” 16 Apr 1904, 6; “Rogers to Share Gas Deal Profits,” 1 Feb 1907, 2).
194.42 Here follows that Boston sketch] The article that follows, a “pen picture” of Rogers as a witness in the gas lawsuit, appeared in the Boston Sunday Post of 27 March 1904. Katharine Harrison, Rogers’s secretary, forwarded Clemens a clipping of the sketch, which he acknowledged in a letter to Rogers of 12 April 1904:
The Boston sketch has just arrived & I thank that ten-thousand-dollar secretary of yours for sending it: the one I have read so much about, recently as being as unpumpable as the Sphynx, & the only secretary of her sex that either earns that salary or gets it. That sketch is fine, superfine, gilt-edged; you will live one while before you see it bettered. It is a portrait to the life—in it I see you & I hear you, the same as if I were present; & by help of its vivid suggestiveness my fancy can fill in a lot of things the writer had to leave out for lack of room. (Salm, in HHR, 562)
195.18 Mr. Winsor] Robert Winsor (1858–1930), a prominent financier, was a partner in the investment banking firm of Kidder, Peabody and Company (“Robert Winsor Dies,” New York Times, 8 Jan 1930, 25).
195.18–19 famous telephone conversation with Mr. Lawson] Wealthy businessman and stockbroker Thomas W. Lawson (1857–1925) had become an active player in the gas company maneuvers in 1895. In the late 1890s he was the chief promoter and stockbroker in the consolidation of mining properties to form the Amalgamated Copper Company, which made millions for himself, Rogers, and William Rockefeller, but brought financial ruin to many investors. In 1902 he was involved in the transactions that led to the gas lawsuit. He testified that Rogers had offered him $1 million to withdraw his opposition to the reorganization of the New England Gas and Coke Company, a supplier whose indebtedness had forced it into receivership (see the note at 197.14). Rogers denied the charge, offering a different version of a telephone conversation that took place on 8 March 1902. Rogers’s “foul act of perjury,” as Lawson called it, ended their association, and in July 1904 Lawson began a series of articles in Everybody’s Magazine, exposing the rapacious and unethical business machinations of the financial world in general, and Addicks, Standard Oil, and Rogers in particular. In 1905 the articles were collected in a book: Frenzied Finance: The Crime of Amalgamated (Lawson 1905, 2–4, 23–31, 117, 123, 343–45; Adams 1903, 270–71; “Massachusetts Gas Trial,” Wall Street Journal, 26 Mar 1904, 5; New York Times: “Rogers Denies He Got Lawson Million,” 5 Apr 1904, 1; “Calls Rogers Bad Trustee,” 14 Apr 1904, 5).
195.23 Mr. Whipple] Sherman L. Whipple (1862–1930), the attorney for the plaintiff, was a graduate of Yale Law School and well known for his skill at examining witnesses (“Bay State Gas Hearing,” Washington Post, 3 Oct 1903, 1).
196.22 Shakspere says one may smile and smile and be a villain] “My tables! Meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain” (Hamlet, act 1, scene 5).
196.40 Mr. Addicks] J. Edward Addicks (1841–1919) was an aggressive financier who established the Bay State Gas Company in 1884. After accumulating a fortune from his gas investments, he turned to speculation in copper mining, participating with Lawson and Rogers in promoting the Amalgamated Copper Company (see the note at 195.18–19). Beginning in 1889 he spent seventeen years trying to win a seat in the U.S. Senate, but failed despite spending an estimated $3 million (“J. E. Addicks of Boston Finance Fame Dies at 78,” Chicago Tribune, 8 Aug 1919, 16).
197.14 Mr. Whitney] Henry M. Whitney (1839–1923), a Boston “captain of industry,” was largely responsible for the development of the electric streetcar system in the Boston area. In early 1896 he entered the gas business as a new supplier of cheap gas, in competition with the Standard Oil and Addicks interests. His company, the New England Gas and Coke Company, ran into debt in 1902 and was forced to reorganize. Its assets passed to a new trust, the Massachusetts Gas Companies. This trust’s purchase of the stock of the Bay State Company in 1903, allegedly at artificially low prices, was the basis of the current lawsuit (Adams 1903, 259, 266–67, 270–72; Lawson 1905, 134).
197.14–16 those other people . . . Yacht Club matter] In 1901, a boat that Lawson had built expressly to enter the New York Yacht Club Race was disqualified on the grounds that only members of the club were eligible to compete. A club member was quoted as saying Lawson had previously applied for membership and been blackballed; Lawson denied ever having made an application (“A Club of Snobs,” Washington Post, 9 Mar 1901, 6; “Mr. Lawson Will Challenge Any Yacht,” New York Times, 10 Mar 1901, 1).
197.49 Senator Allee] James Frank Allee (1857–1938) served as a Republican senator from Delaware from 1903 to 1907.
[Anecdote of Jean] (Source: MS in CU-MARK)
199 title Jean] Jean’s life is briefly outlined in the Appendix “Family Biographies” (p. 657).

Sources: Unless otherwise noted, the texts of Autobiography of Mark Twain are based on one or more typescripts in the Mark Twain Papers: TS1, TS2, TS3, or TS4. These are described in References and, in more detail, in the Introduction and Note on the Text.
An Early Attempt
203.1–2 The chapters which immediately follow . . . to put my life on paper] Clemens wrote the title page and “Early Attempt” preface for Autobiography of Mark Twain in June 1906, when he conceived his final plan for the work; his manuscript survives in the Mark Twain Papers. See the Introduction for a discussion of this plan and a facsimile of the manuscript (figures 2–3).
My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It]
203 title My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It] ] Clemens wrote this long reminiscence, with several internal chapter breaks, in Vienna over the winter of 1897–98; his manuscript survives in the Mark Twain Papers. A forty-four-page typescript that was made from the manuscript is now lost. Clemens revised the typescript, almost certainly in 1906, shortly before he asked Josephine Hobby to transcribe it (see AD, 9 Jan 1906, note at 250.19–21). Clemens identified this manuscript as “From Chapter II” of his autobiography (see p. 14 for a facsimile of its first page). The manuscript begins with two stanzas from Edward Fitzgerald’s translation of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám:
We are no other than a moving row
Of Magic Shadow-shapes that come and go
Round with the Sun-illumined Lantern held
In Midnight by the Master of the Show;
But helpless Pieces of the Game He plays
Upon this Chequer-board of Nights and Days;
Hither and thither moves, and checks, and slays,
And one by one back in the Closet lays.
Collation establishes that Clemens deleted both the chapter designation and the poem on the missing stage, and they are therefore omitted from the text here (see the Textual Commentary, MTPO). He had known and loved Fitzgerald’s Rubáiyát since 22 December 1875, when he saw it excerpted on the front page of the Hartford Courant. He recalled in 1907, “No poem had ever given me so much pleasure before, and none has given me so much pleasure since; it is the only poem I have ever carried about with me; it has not been from under my hand for twenty-eight years” (AD, 7 Oct 1907).
203.8 * * * * So much for the . . . New England branch of the Clemenses] No earlier section about the “New England branch” survives, and it remains unclear whether any previous text was ever written. In his draft of the preface entitled “An Early Attempt,” Clemens first wrote “The chapters which immediately follow constitute a fragment of one of my many attempts (after I was in my forties) to put my life on paper. The first part of it is lost.” He then deleted the second sentence. Clemens’s ancestor Robert Clements (1595–1658) emigrated from England in 1642 and settled in Massachusetts, where he helped establish the town of Haverhill. Robert’s great-grandson Ezekiel (1696–1778)—presumably the “other brother who settled in the South”—first went to Virginia (not Maryland, as Clemens claimed) in about 1743, but did not settle there permanently until about 1765. Clemens descended from Ezekiel through his son Jeremiah (1732–1811) (Lampton 1990, 78–79; Bell 1984, 4–8, 13, 24–25).
203.10–18 He went South with his particular friend Fairfax . . . American earl . . . Virginia City, Nevada] Clemens was slightly mistaken about the Fairfax family. The title of baron (not earl) was granted to the Fairfax family in 1627, and was not of “recent date.” It was Thomas Fairfax, the third baron (1612–71), grandson of the first baron, who served as general-in-chief of the parliamentary armies and won several crucial battles against the forces of Charles I. He resigned his command to Cromwell in 1650, and had no role in the king’s execution. Nine years later he helped to restore the monarchy. In describing the “particular friend” of the “other brother” Clemens probably meant William Fairfax, who emigrated to New England, and later settled in Virginia to manage the family estates. Clemens’s friend was Charles Snowden Fairfax (1829–69), the tenth baron, who was William’s great-great-grandson. Clemens probably met Charles in San Francisco in the early 1860s. He served in the California legislature in 1853 and 1854, and in 1856 was appointed clerk of the state supreme court. The town of Fairfax, in Marin County, where he owned a large estate, was named after him (Burke 1904, 587–88; Ellis 1939, 48–49; Gudde 1962, 100).
203.21–30 A prominent and pestilent creature . . . let the rascal go] This altercation took place in Sacramento, California, in 1859. Fairfax, the clerk of the state supreme court, quarreled with Harvey Lee (not “Ferguson”) over Lee’s recent appointment as the official reporter of court decisions. Fairfax slapped Lee, who drew a sword from his cane and wounded him in the lung. Fairfax thereupon threatened Lee with a pistol, but refrained from shooting him out of pity for his family (Ellis 1939, 49).
203.32–33 some of them were pirates . . . so were Drake and Hawkins] Sir Francis Drake (1540–96) and his cousin Sir John Hawkins (1532–95) raided Spanish ships under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth I.
204.1–4 one of the procession . . . Clement, by name—helped to sentence Charles to death] The ancestor who went to Spain has not been identified. The other putative ancestor, Gregory (not Geoffrey) Clements (1594–1660), was a London merchant and member of Parliament. In January 1649 he was a member of the high court of justice that tried Charles I and signed the king’s death warrant. In 1660, when the monarchy was restored under Charles II, Clements went into hiding, but was found and executed that October. Extensive genealogical research has not revealed any family connection to Gregory; Clemens’s earliest known ancestor was Richard Clements of Leicester (1506–71) (Lampton 1990, 78; Bell 1984, 4–7).
204.13–14 I am not bitter against Jeffreys] George Jeffreys (1645–89), lord chief justice of England and later lord chancellor, is known as “hanging Judge Jeffreys” for the punishments he handed out at the “bloody assizes” of 1685, when he tried the followers of the duke of Monmouth after their rebellion against James II. In 1688, when the king fled the country, Jeffreys was placed in the Tower of London, where he died the following year.
204.25–26 William Walter Phelps was our Minister at the Emperor’s Court] Phelps (1839–94), a graduate of Yale University and Columbia Law School, served several terms as a congressman from New Jersey, and briefly as minister to Austria-Hungary (in 1881–82), before being appointed minister to the court of Wilhelm II, the emperor of Germany, in June 1889. Phelps’s amiability and lavish hospitality made him very popular in Berlin society. This dinner no doubt took place in the winter of 1891, during the Clemenses’ sojourn in that city. Clemens already knew Phelps, but the two families became better acquainted during that time (MTB, 3:933).
204.26–27 Count S., a cabinet minister . . . of long and illustrious descent] In a passage that Clemens deleted from his manuscript, “Count S.” was identified as “the Empress Frederick’s Hofmeister, Count Seckendorff.” The Empress Frederick (1840–1901), the oldest daughter of Queen Victoria, was the widow of Frederick III and the mother of the current emperor. Her “master of the household” and close confidant was Count Goetz von Seckendorff (1841–1910), a lover of literature and the arts (Washington Post: “Von Seckendorff Dead,” 3 Mar 1910, 9; “Revives Court Gossip,” 4 Mar 1910, 1; Victoria 1913, 300–301). In the deleted manuscript passage Clemens further explained, “This nobleman was descended from the Seckendorff whom Wilhelmina, Margravine of Bayreuth, has made immortal in her Memoirs.” This earlier Seckendorff was a minister to King Frederick William I of Prussia. Clemens owned two copies of the Memoirs of the king’s daughter, Princess Wilhelmine (1709–58), published in 1877 and 1887. In 1897 he composed one chapter of a historical fiction about her before abandoning the project (N&J3, 295; Gribben 1980, 2:771–73; SLC 1897c; see Wilhelmine 1877).
205.18 Among the Virginian Clemenses were Jere. (already mentioned) and Sherrard] Jeremiah Clemens (1814–65) descended from Ezekiel Clemens of Virginia (see the note at 203.8), and was therefore a distant cousin. A lawyer, army officer, newspaper editor, and author, he was a member of the Alabama legislature, and later represented that state as a Democratic U.S. senator (1849–53). At the start of the Civil War he supported the Confederacy, but in 1864 changed allegiance to the Union. Sherrard Clemens (1820–80), another of Ezekiel’s descendants, was trained as a lawyer. He represented Virginia as a Democratic U.S. congressman in 1852–53, and again in 1857–61. The “James Clemens branch” of the family descended from Ezekiel through his son James (1734–95). Clemens was acquainted with James’s grandson, James Clemens, Jr. (1791–1878), a well-to-do doctor in St. Louis (Lampton 1990, 80; 21 June 1866 to JLC and PAM, L1, 346 n. 6; “Sherrard Clemens,” New York Times, 3 June 1880, 5; N&J1, 36 n. 40; Bell 1984, 31–36; see also AD, 9 Feb 1906).
205.29–36 I was a rebel . . . with that kind of swine] Clemens alludes to his brief stint, at the beginning of the Civil War, in the Marion Rangers, a company in the Missouri State Guard. Although the guard was officially loyal to the Union (see Dempsey 2003, 256–72), the volunteers themselves believed they were fighting for the South: in “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed,” Clemens’s account of the experience, he claimed that he “became a rebel” (SLC 1885b; see the link note following 26 Apr 1861 to OC, L1, 121). By 1868 he had become a Republican, although his allegiance wavered in 1884, when—with the other so-called “mugwumps”—he backed Grover Cleveland against James G. Blaine. In the 1876 election Clemens supported Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who defeated Samuel J. Tilden, a Democrat. At a large Republican rally in Hartford on 30 September 1876, Clemens made a speech in support of Hayes, concluding with an introduction for Connecticut Senator Joseph R. Hawley (“Just Before the Battle,” Hartford Evening Post, 2 Oct 1876, 2, in Scrapbook 8:25–27, CU-MARK; 13 and 14 Feb 1869 to OLL, L3, 97 n. 5; for Hawley see AD, 24 Jan 1906, note at 317.23–24). The only surviving letter from Sherrard Clemens to Clemens was written several weeks before this event, on 2 September, but it suggests that the description here was not exaggerated. Sherrard, evidently reacting to a newspaper notice, wrote:
I regret, very deeply, to see, that you have announced your adhesion, to that inflated bladder, from the bowels of Sarah Burchard, Rutherford Burchard Hayes. You come, with myself, from Gregory Clemens, the regicide, who voted for the death of Charles and who was beheaded, disembolled, and drawn in a hurdle. It is good, for us, to have an ancestor, who escaped, the ignominy of being hung. But, I would rather have, such an ancestor, than adhere, to such a pitiful ninnyhammer, as Hayes, who is the mere, representative, of wall street brokers, three ball men, Lombardy Jews, European Sioux, class legislation, special priviledges to the few, and denial of equality of taxation, to the many—the mere convenient pimp, of the bondholders and office holders, about 150 thousand people, against over 40.000.000. If you, have, any more opinions for newspaper scalpers, it might be well, for your literary reputation, if you, should keep them to yourself, unless you desire to be considered a “Political Innocent Abroad.” (Sherrard Clemens to SLC, 2 Sept 1876, CU-MARK)
205.41 married my father in Lexington in 1823, when she was twenty years old and he twenty-four] In autobiographical notes written in 1899 for Samuel Moffett, his nephew, to use as a basis for a biographical essay, Clemens asserted that his parents “began their young married life in Lexington, Ky., with a small property in land & six inherited slaves. They presently removed to Jamestown, Tennessee” (SLC 1899a, 2). Upon reading her son’s essay, which repeated these facts, Pamela Moffett objected: “There are plenty of people who know that your grandma did not belong to the bluegrass region of Kentucky. She was born and brought up in Columbia Adair Co. in the southern part of the state, quite outside of the bluegrass region. She never lived in Lexington, and I doubt if she ever saw the place” (PAM to Moffett, 15 Oct 1899, CU-MARK; Moffett 1899, 523–24). “Lexington” was altered to “Columbia” when the essay was reprinted in book form the following year (SLC 1900a, 314–33). See the Appendix “Family Biographies” (pp. 654–55).
206.2–6 their first crop of children . . . may have been others] Clemens had six siblings, three of whom died in childhood. Five were born in Tennessee: Orion, Pamela Ann, Pleasant Hannibal (b. 1828 or 1829, died at three months), Margaret (1830–39), and Benjamin (1832–42). Henry (1838–58) was born in Missouri (MTB, 1:5–12; Wecter 1952, 33–36; see “Genealogy of the Clemens Family,” L1, 382–83, and Inds, 311–15).
206.10–11 “Gilded Age,” a book of mine] In this novel, written by Mark Twain with Charles Dudley Warner (SLC 1873–74), the fictional Tennessee village of Obedstown is based on Clemens’s knowledge of Jamestown.
206.11–12 My father left a fine estate behind him in the region round about Jamestown—75,000 acres] See the note at 208.37.
206.19–20 Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati . . . as good wine as his Catawbas] Longworth (1782–1863), known as the “father of American grape culture,” was trained as a lawyer, but his primary interest was in horticulture. His cultivation of the Catawba grape made viticulture feasible in Ohio and resulted in a viable wine-making industry in the Cincinnati area.
206.25–26 James Lampton, who figures in the “Gilded Age” as “Colonel Sellers,”] Colonel Sellers, the irrepressible speculator and visionary in The Gilded Age, was based on James J. Lampton (1817–87), one of Jane Clemens’s first cousins. He was trained in both law and medicine, but later in life had his own business as a cotton and tobacco agent. In the late 1850s he lived in St. Louis, where Clemens often visited when he was a Mississippi River pilot (Inds, 329).
206.35–36 John T. Raymond’s audiences . . . dying with laughter over the turnip-eating scene] Comic actor John T. Raymond (1836–87), born John O’Brien, achieved his most notable success as Colonel Mulberry Sellers in Colonel Sellers, a theatrical adaptation of The Gilded Age. He opened in the play in New York City on 16 September 1874, and continued to perform the popular role intermittently for the rest of his life. The “turnip-eating scene” is in chapter 11 of the novel (L6: 22? July 1874 to Howells, 195 n. 4; 11 Jan 1875 to Raymond, 346 n. 1; 24 or 25 Aug? 1875 to Raymond, 528 n. 2; “Notes of the Stage,” New York Times, 7 Feb 1887, 4).
207.12 Frank Mayo] Clemens met Mayo (1839–96) on the West Coast, probably between 1863 and 1865 in San Francisco, when Mayo was the leading actor at Maguire’s Opera House. By the mid-1860s he was appearing in classical roles and character parts on the Boston and New York stages. He was best known for his title role in Davy Crockett, which he enacted more than two thousand times. In 1894 Clemens granted him permission to dramatize Pudd’nhead Wilson, and he appeared as the title character for the first time in April 1895. He died the following year while taking the play on a western tour. Clemens told Mayo’s wife, in his letter of condolence, “We were friends—Frank Mayo and I—for more than thirty years; & my original love for him suffered no decay, no impairment in all that time. All his old friends can say the same; & it is a noble testimony to the sweetness of his spirit & the graces of his character” (16 July 1896 to Mayo, CU-MARK; 9–22 Mar 1872 to Mayo, L5, 61–62 n. 2).
207.23–28 his name was Eschol Sellers! . . . we changed the name back to Colonel Mulberry Sellers, in the plates] Early impressions of the first edition read “Eschol Sellers”; the American Publishing Company changed the name to “Beriah Sellers” in the plates for later printings. The name became “Mulberry Sellers” in the Gilded Age play and remained so for The American Claimant in 1892 (SLC 1874a, 1892; 8? Nov 1874 to Watterson, L5, 274 n. 2).
208.1–2 Cable and I were stumping the Union on a reading-tour] See “About General Grant’s Memoirs,” note at 86.12.
208.6 his son] Lampton had one son, Lewis (b. 1855) (Lampton 1990, 141).
208.31 Chapter] This is the first of three unnumbered “Chapter” headings within the piece (the others are at 214.31 and 218.24). Although Clemens never supplied the numbers for these headings, he did not delete them, and they have therefore been retained in the present text.
208.37 That ended the Tennessee Land] See “The Tennessee Land.” Orion’s trade has not been documented. In an 1881 letter, however, Pamela wrote to Orion and his wife, Mollie, “I have some good news to tell you: Charley [Webster] has sold the very last acre of Tennessee land. Is not that something to rejoice over? He traded it for a lot in St. Paul Minn. which was assessed last year at $800. or $850. and this year at $1,050” (20 May 1881, CU-MARK).
209.24–33 I remember it very well . . . place was alive with ghosts] Clemens’s recollection cannot be entirely accurate: he was nearly four when his family moved to Hannibal in November 1839. Paine asserted that the incident occurred on a summer visit to the Quarles farm in Florida, and Dixon Wecter noted that Clemens was seven or eight at the time (MTB, 1:24–25, 30; Wecter 1952, 52–53; see also AD, 23 Feb 1906). A cousin and childhood playmate of Clemens’s, Tabitha Quarles Greening, related a version of the story that closely resembles his. According to her, the family rode off “leaving little Sam making mud pies on the opposite side of the house”:
A half hour later my grandfather, Wharton Lampton . . . came riding along and found Sam busily engaged in his culinary work. He appreciated the situation, and, lifting the boy up in front of him, rode after the movers, and when he had traveled seven or eight miles caught up with them. So busy were they contemplating what was then considered a long journey and making plans for their future that the absence of the to-be “Mark Twain” had not been noticed. The matter was taken as a huge joke by all concerned, Sam included, and the journey resumed.
To those who didn’t know the Clemens family this may seem a little overdrawn, but it is absolutely true. (“Mark Twain’s Boyhood,” New York Times, 11 Nov 1899, 5)
209.34–38 My brother Henry . . . at that age] Henry did in fact burn his feet sometime before he was fifteen months old, when the family left Florida. Jane Clemens recalled in 1880:
Henrys nurse was a negro boy they were playing in the yard. Henry was high enough to hold the top of the kettle and peep over. This time there was hot embers he ran into the hot embers bare footed. I set on one chair with a wash bowl on another & held Henry in my armes & his feet in the cold water or he would have gone in to spasems before your father got there from the store with the Dr. Mrs Penn came every day for some time & made egg oil to put on his feet. (JLC to OC, 25 Apr 80, CU-MARK)
209.41 incident of Benvenuto Cellini and the salamander] Traditional lore asserted that the salamander lived in fire. In his autobiography, the Italian artist Benvenuto Cellini (1500–71) recalled that when he was five, his father saw a salamander “sporting” in the flames of the fireplace. He boxed his son’s ears to make him “remember that that lizard which you see in the fire is a salamander, a creature which has never been seen before by any one of whom we have credible information” (Cellini 1896, 7–8; it is not known which edition of this work Clemens owned: see Gribben 1980, 1:134).
209.42–210.1 that remarkable and indisputable instance in the experience of Helen Keller] Keller (1880–1968) became blind and deaf after an illness at nineteen months. Taught by Anne Sullivan to communicate with sign language and Braille, she graduated from Radcliffe College in 1904 with honors. Keller was world famous as a writer and social activist, working especially as a tireless advocate for the blind. Clemens had felt great admiration and affection for her since meeting her in March 1894, praising her as “this wonder of all the ages” in chapter 61 of Following the Equator. In Midstream: My Later Life she wrote a moving account of her 1909 visit with Clemens at Stormfield. In a speech later that year he called her “the most marvelous person of her sex that has existed on this earth since Joan of Arc” (Fatout 1976, 642). The “indisputable instance” was presumably the recollection of her early illness, especially the tender care of her mother, which she recorded in her autobiography (see AD, 30 Mar 1906, and AD, 20 Nov 1906; Keller 2003, 16; Keller 1929, 47–69).
210.12–13 In “Huck Finn” and in “Tom Sawyer Detective” I moved it down to Arkansas] The Quarles farm was the prototype for the Phelps farm in Huckleberry Finn and “Tom Sawyer, Detective” (SLC 1896c; Inds, 342).
211.36–42 “Uncle Dan’l,” a middle-aged slave . . . and even across the Desert of Sahara in a balloon] Quarles freed his “old and faithful servant Dann” in 1855. Daniel appears as Uncle Dan’l in The Gilded Age, and as Jim in Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer Abroad (SLC 1894a), and the stories “Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians” (SLC 1884) and “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy” (SLC 1897–?1902) (Inds, 316–17).
212.32–34 I used Sandy once, also; it was in “Tom Sawyer;” . . . I do not remember what name I called him by in the book] Sandy appears in chapters 1 and 2 of Tom Sawyer as Jim, “the small colored boy” (Inds, 346).
213.20 coleoptera] Bats belong to the order Chiroptera, not Coleoptera (beetles).
213.33–36 “Injun Joe” the half-breed . . . I starved him entirely to death in the cave, but that was in the interest of art; it never happened] Injun Joe is found dead in chapter 33 of Tom Sawyer. His prototype has not been identified. Several Hannibal residents thought that he was based on a half-Cherokee man named Joe Douglas, but Douglas himself claimed that he did not arrive in Hannibal until 1862, nine years after Clemens had left. In 1902 Clemens noted, “If this man you speak of is Injun Jo . . . he must be about 95 years old. The half-breed Indian who gave me the idea of the character was about 35 years old 60 years ago” (“Tom Sawyer Characters in Hannibal,” St. Louis Post Dispatch, 2 June 1902, 5; “Recalling Days of Old,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 1 June 1902, 4; “Mark Twain’s Reunion,” New York Herald, 15 June 1902, section V:9; Wecter 1952, 151, 299 n. 30; Edgar White 1924, 53).
213.36–37 “General” Gaines, who was our first town-drunkard before Jimmy Finn got the place] Gaines was one of the sources for the character of Huck’s father in Huckleberry Finn, and Clemens used his expression “Whoop! Bow your neck and spread!” in the speech of a raftsman in chapter 3 of Life on the Mississippi. Gaines also appears in chapter 1 of “Huck and Tom among the Indians” and in the working notes for “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy” (20 Feb 1870 to Bowen, L4, 50; HF 2003, 110, 407–11; Inds, 33–81, 134–213, 319–20; HH&T, 383). James Finn (d. 1845) was the primary model for Huck’s father. In chapter 56 of Life on the Mississippi, Clemens wrote that he died “a natural death in a tan vat, of a combination of delirium tremens and spontaneous combustion.” He also mentioned Finn in a letter to the San Francisco Alta California published on 26 May 1867 (SLC 1867h), and in chapter 23 of A Tramp Abroad (Inds, 318–19; see also AD, 8 Mar 1906).
214.3–4 The girl was the daughter of a St. Louis surgeon of extraordinary ability and wide celebrity] Joseph Nash McDowell (1805–68), originally from Kentucky, was a brilliant anatomist and teacher who was notorious for his eccentric behavior. (For example, after an armed mob attacked him for robbing a grave, he claimed that the light from a halo worn by his mother’s ghost had helped him to escape.) In 1840 he founded McDowell College in St. Louis, the first medical school west of the Mississippi, where for twenty years he had a thriving surgical practice. During the Civil War he served as a surgeon for the Confederacy. In the 1840s he bought a large cave near Hannibal (the model for “McDougal’s cave” in chapters 29–33 of Tom Sawyer), locked it, and stored his daughter’s corpse there to see if the limestone in the cavern would “petrify” it. In chapter 55 of Life on the Mississippi, Clemens wrote that McDowell turned the cave into a “mausoleum for his daughter” (Ober 2003, 81–93; see AD, 16 Mar 1906, 418.29–419.8 and notes).
215.4–5 Florida doctors, Chowning and Meredith] For Meredith, see “Something about Doctors,” note at 188.19–20. Dr. Meredith’s Florida medical partner was Dr. Thomas Jefferson Chowning (b. 1809), who delivered the premature infant Samuel Clemens (Wecter 1952, 43).
215.20–28 In Mauritius . . . told these things by the people there, in 1896] Clemens visited Mauritius in April 1896 while on his world lecture tour. He wrote about this healer in Notebook 37 (TS p. 54, CU-MARK), but omitted the passage from Following the Equator, where he described his Mauritius visit in chapters 62 and 63.
215.31 Mrs. Utterback] The “faith-doctor” was Polly Rouse Utterback (1792?–1870). She is said to have treated Jane Clemens for neuralgia as well as toothache. She was the prototype for “Mother Utterback” in “Captain Montgomery,” where Clemens quoted a sample of her “quaint conversation” (SLC 1866a). He also recalled Mrs. Utterback, though not by name, in “Christian Science and the Book of Mrs. Eddy” (SLC 1899c; Portrait 1895, 447; Ralls Census 1850, 156; Ellsberry 1965b, 1:35; Varble 1964, 180–81).
216.41 simblins] A type of squash with a scalloped ridge (Ramsay and Emberson 1963, 207).
217.25–27 immortal tales which Uncle Remus Harris . . . ghost story of the “Golden Arm”] Joel Chandler Harris (1848–1908), a native of Georgia, pursued a successful career as a journalist, but achieved literary fame as the author of Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings (1880), a collection of animal folktales told in the voice of an elderly slave. Clemens became acquainted with Harris after writing him, probably in July 1881, to praise the book but did not meet him until April 1882, when he traveled down the Mississippi River in preparation for writing Life on the Mississippi (Julia Collier Harris 1918, 167; N&J2, 362 n. 21, 434, 468 n. 127, 551 n. 55; see also Gribben 1980, 1:295–96). Clemens wrote Harris again on 10 August 1881, “Uncle Remus is most deftly drawn, & is a lovable & delightful creation; he, & the little boy, & their relations with each other, are high & fine literature” (GEU). Clemens was fond of telling “The Golden Arm,” and sent his own version to Harris, enclosed with this letter:
Of course I tell it in the negro dialect—that is necessary; but I have not written it so, for I can’t spell it in your matchless way. It is marvelous the way you & Cable spell the negro & creole dialects.
Two grand features are lost in print: the wierd wailing, the rising & falling cadences of the wind, so easily mimicked with one’s mouth; & the impressive pauses & eloquent silences, & subdued utterances, toward the end of the yarn (which chain the attention of the children hand & foot, & they sit with parted lips & breathless, to be wrenched limb from limb with the sudden & appalling “YOU got it!”) I have so gradually & impressively worked up the last act, with a “grown” audience, as to create a rapt & intense stillness; & then made them jump clear out of their skins, almost, with the final shout. It’s a lovely story to tell.
Old Uncle Dan’l, a slave of my uncle’s aged 60, used to tell us children yarns every night by the kitchen fire (no other light); & the last yarn demanded, every night, was this one. By this time there was but a ghostly blaze or two flickering about the back-log. We would huddle close about the old man, & begin to shudder with the first familiar words; & under the spell of his impressive delivery we always fell a prey to that climax at the end when the rigid black shape in the twilight sprang at us with a shout.
When you come to glance at the tale you will recollect it—it is as common & familiar as the Tar Baby. Work up the atmosphere with your customary skill & it will “go” in print.
218.25 My uncle and his big boys . . . the youngest boy and I] John Quarles had two “big boys”: Benjamin L. (1826–1902) and James A. (1827–66). “Fred” was a younger son, William Frederick (1833–98), who was about two years older than Clemens (Selby 1973, 23).
220.16 sardines] The manuscript contains the incomplete text of an anecdote that Clemens evidently deleted on the missing typescript. It begins, “An appetite for almost any delicacy can be permanently destroyed by a single surfeit of it. It is so with salt pork. One of my oldest friends has had proof of this. He ate too much salt pork in the Adirondacks one summer, twenty years ago, and has not liked it since.” Clemens gives a full account of this incident in the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 October 1906, where he identifies his friend as Joseph Twichell (see also N&J2, 379 n. 67).
The Latest Attempt; The Final (and Right) Plan; Preface. As from the Grave
220 title–221 title The Latest Attempt . . . As from the Grave] This three-part preface, like the “Early Attempt” preface, was written in mid–1906. With the exception of the middle section, it survives in manuscript. The text “I will construct a text . . . cannot be written” is a 1906 typescript with Clemens’s insertions and revisions on it. The pages are all reproduced in facsimile in the Introduction (figures 5–12).
[John Hay]
222.9 I was visiting John Hay, now Secretary of State] John Milton Hay (1838–1905) and Clemens probably first met in 1867 through a mutual friend, David Gray of the Buffalo Courier. Hay, like Clemens, grew up in a small town on the Mississippi River—Warsaw, Illinois, which is less than sixty miles from Hannibal, Missouri—and this common background fostered their friendship. Hay graduated from Brown University and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1861. But he soon gave up the law to work as assistant private secretary to Abraham Lincoln (1861–65), living in the White House and becoming his intimate companion. At the end of the war Hay was appointed secretary to the U.S. legation in Paris, then chargé d’affaires at Vienna (1867–68), and secretary of legation at Madrid (1869–70). In 1870 he accepted an editorial position on the New York Tribune under Horace Greeley, and then, after Greeley’s death in 1872, assisted the new editor, Whitelaw Reid. He gave up his Tribune position in 1875 and pursued a literary career as a poet, novelist, and biographer of Lincoln (see the note at 224.14–15). He achieved his chief fame, however, as a diplomat and statesman, serving as assistant secretary of state (1878–81), ambassador to Great Britain (1897–98), and secretary of state (1898–1905) (31 Dec 1870 to Reid, L4, 292–93, n. 3; 26 Jan 1872 to Redpath, L5, 35 n. 2; Thayer 1915, 1:83, 330–35).
222.9–11 Whitelaw Reid’s house in New York . . . editing Reid’s paper, the New York Tribune] Whitelaw Reid (1837–1912), a native of Ohio, joined the staff of the New York Tribune in 1868. After the death of Horace Greeley, its founder and editor, he became the owner as well as the editor-in-chief, and soon solicited contributions from Clemens. Reid was married in April 1881 and for six months, while he traveled in Europe with his bride, Hay replaced him as editor and lived in his New York house. Reid later served as minister to France (1889–92) and ambassador to Great Britain (1905–12) (link note following 20–22 Dec 1872 to Twichell, L5, 263; Thayer 1915, 1:405, 451–55).
222.27–28 a succession of foreign difficulties on his hands] In 1898 Hay inherited from his predecessor a dispute with Canada over Alaska’s boundaries, which was not finally resolved until 1903. He helped to negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish-American War. During the Boxer Rebellion (1900) he took action to rescue the Peking hostages, while successfully promoting the “Open Door Policy” toward China. Most recently, he had been responsible for several treaties (1900–1903) that allowed the United States to build the Panama Canal and secure its control over the Canal Zone (Thayer 1915, 2:202–49).
222.30–31 not any more scarable by kings and emperors and their fleets and armies] Clemens alludes to the conflict in 1901–3 with the German kaiser and his allies, who sent a fleet of warships to blockade Venezuelan ports and threatened to invade the country, in violation of the Monroe Doctrine (Thayer 1915, 2:284–90).
223.3 Mrs. Hay] Hay was married on 4 February 1874 to Clara L. Stone (1849–1915), whose father, Amasa Stone, was a wealthy contractor, railroad magnate, and philanthropist in Cleveland, Ohio. The couple had four children, and by Hay’s own account, their marriage was a happy one. In 1905, shortly before his death, he recorded in his diary, “I have lived to be old, something I never expected in my youth. I have had many blessings, domestic happiness being the greatest of all” (Thayer 1915, 1:351, 2:408).
223.27–28 I confessed to forty-two and Hay to forty] At the time of his residence in Reid’s New York house, Hay was forty-two and Clemens was forty-five. It is likely that Clemens’s recollection here conflated more than one discussion with Hay, and that their conversation about autobiography took place several years earlier, in 1877 or 1878.
224.14–15 the historian of Mr. Lincoln] Hay and a collaborator, John G. Nicolay (1832–1901), published several works about Lincoln. Their association began in 1860, when Nicolay was appointed Lincoln’s private secretary and recruited Hay to be his assistant. During their tenure in the White House they began to select materials for a biography of Lincoln, and in 1874 began to solicit additional material from Lincoln’s son, Robert. In 1885 they signed a contract with the Century Company, receiving an unprecedented fifty thousand dollars for the serialization rights. Their biography was published in the Century Magazine from 1886 to 1890, and in the latter year was issued in ten volumes as Abraham Lincoln: A History. In a review of the work William Dean Howells wrote, “We can be glad of the greatest biography of Lincoln not only as the most important work yet accomplished in American history, but as one of the noblest achievements of literary art” (Howells 1891, 479). Four years later, in 1894, Hay and Nicolay published Abraham Lincoln: Complete Works (Thayer 1915, 2:16–18, 49).
Notes on “Innocents Abroad”
225.3–5 Mr. Goodman, of Virginia City, Nevada, on whose newspaper I had served ten years before, . . . walking down Broadway] After Clemens joined the staff of the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise in the fall of 1862, Joseph T. Goodman was quick to recognize his talent, and the two became lifelong friends (see AD, 9 Jan 1906, note at 252.32–253.1). The meeting described here took place in late December 1869 or early January 1870, when Goodman stopped in New York City en route to Europe (L1: 9 Sept 1862 to Clagett, 241 n. 5; 21 Oct 1862 to OC and MEC, 242 n. 2; 18 and 19 Dec 1869 to OLL, L3, 432 n. 2). In his original dictation, after the word “before,” Clemens added, “and of whom I have had much to say in the book called ‘Roughing It’—I seem to be overloading the sentence and I apologize—.” He deleted the remark when revising the typescript for publication in the North American Review (NAR 12). It is also omitted here, because he did not make the revision as a “softening” to accommodate a contemporary readership.
225.17–19 dainty little blue and gold edition of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes’s poems . . . exposed their dedications] Starting in 1856, the Boston firm of Ticknor and Fields published a series of handy volumes containing the best contemporary and classic literature, distinctively bound in blue cloth with gilt spine and edges. Poems, by physician and author Oliver Wendell Holmes, was first printed in this “Blue and Gold” series in 1862. The dedication Clemens refers to was that of the section entitled “Songs in Many Keys”: “TO | THE MOST INDULGENT OF READERS, | THE KINDEST OF CRITICS, | MY BELOVED MOTHER, | ALL THAT IS LEAST UNWORTHY OF HER | IN THIS VOLUME | Is Dedicated | BY HER AFFECTIONATE SON” (Holmes 1862). Clemens’s dedication in The Innocents Abroadre3.d:”To | My Most Patient Reader | and | Most Charitable Critic, | MY AGED MOTHER, | This Volume is Affectionately | Inscribed” (SLC 1869a, iii; Winship 1995, 122–23).
225.29–31 letter from the Rev. Dr. Rising . . . Sandwich Islands six years before] The Reverend Franklin S. Rising (1833?–68) arrived in Virginia City in April 1862 to become the rector of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church. Suffering from poor health, he sailed for the Sandwich Islands in February 1866 to convalesce. Clemens was in the islands from March to July 1866, writing travel letters for the Sacramento Union, which he later used as the basis for chapters 63–74 of Roughing It (see “My Debut as a Literary Person,” note at 128.22–24). Rising appears in chapter 47 of Roughing It as the naive minister baffled by the slang of Scotty Briggs. Since Rising died in a steamboat accident in December 1868, Clemens must have misremembered the year of his letter, which is not known to survive (30 July, 6, 7, 10, and 24 Aug 1866 to JLC and PAM, Ll, 352, 354 n. 3; 19 and 20 Dec 1868 to OLL, L2, 333, 337 n. 2; RI 1993, 669).
226.12–13 I wrote to Dr. Holmes and told him the whole disgraceful affair] No such letter has been found, although in 1869 Clemens sent a copy of The Innocents Abroad to Holmes, who replied with a warm letter of appreciation (30 Sept 1869 to Holmes, L3, 364–65, 365–66 n. 1).
226.31–32 the proprietors of the Daily Alta California having “waived their rights” in certain letters] The preface concluded: “In this volume I have used portions of letters which I wrote for the Daily Alta California, of San Francisco, the proprietors of that journal having waived their rights and given me the necessary permission” (SLC 1869a). Clemens’s dispute over his right to reuse his travel letters—which he describes in more detail below—took place in February and late April or early May 1868 (L2: 22? Feb 1868 to MEC, 198–99; 5 May 1868 to Bliss, 215–16; 27 and 28 Feb 1869 to Fairbanks, L3, 125 n. 3).
226.36–37 Early in ’66 George Barnes . . . San Francisco Morning Call] Clemens worked as the local reporter for the Morning Call from June to October 1864 (not 1866). His boss, George Eustace Barnes (d. 1897), was a Canadian who moved to New York City as a boy and began his career there as a printer for the Tribune. Although he recognized Clemens’s “peculiar genius,” he soon discovered that his new employee was not suited for his tedious but demanding assignment to provide news about theaters, law courts, and other items of local interest. In chapter 58 of Roughing It Clemens noted, “I neglected my duties and became about worthless, as a reporter for a brisk newspaper. And at last one of the proprietors took me aside, with a charity I still remember with considerable respect, and gave me an opportunity to resign my berth and so save myself the disgrace of a dismissal” (RI 1993, 404; CofC, 11–25; see also AD, 13 June 1906).
226.41–227.1 Thomas Maguire, proprietor of several theatres . . . a lecture on the Sandwich Islands] Maguire (1820–96), originally from Ireland, was San Francisco’s best-known theatrical manager for several decades. He arrived in California in 1849 and in 1850 opened his first theater. In the 1860s he owned the Opera House, on Washington Street near Montgomery, as well as Maguire’s Academy of Music, a more splendid theater on Pine Street near Montgomery, where Clemens made his lecture debut on 2 October 1866. The lecture, which he later repeatedly revised, held a place in his platform repertoire for nearly a decade. For his own earlier account of the experience see chapter 78 of Roughing It (RI 1993, 532–36, 741–43; Lloyd 1876, 153–54).
227.2–3 “Admission one dollar; doors open at half past 7, the trouble begins at 8.”] The advertisement in the San Francisco Alta California offered “Dress Circle” seats at one dollar, and “Family Circle” seats at fifty cents: “Doors open at 7 o’clock. The trouble to begin at 8 o’clock” (“Maguire’s Academy of Music,” 2 Oct 1866, 4). The phrase soon became proverbial. Less than a year later Clemens found it scrawled on the cell wall of a New York City jail (SLC 1867i).
227.7–9 I lectured in all the principal Californian towns and in Nevada . . . retired from the field rich . . . go around the world] Clemens toured the towns of northern California and western Nevada Territory, accompanied by his friend and agent Denis E. McCarthy, from 11 October to 10 November 1866. He lectured again in San Francisco on 16 November, and then in several other Bay Area towns, before making a final appearance in San Francisco on 10 December. According to Paine, Clemens earned about four hundred dollars from his first San Francisco lecture, after paying his expenses, but his profit from the ensuing tour is not known. His intention to visit the Orient and then circumnavigate the world grew out of an invitation from Anson Burlingame, the U.S. minister to China, who befriended him in the Sandwich Islands in June 1866 and urged him to visit Peking in early 1867 (see chapter 79 of Roughing It; RI 1993, 537–42, 743–45; MTB, 1:294; 27 June 1866 to JLC and PAM, Ll, 347–48; see also AD, 20 Feb 1906).
227.9–12 proprietors of the Alta . . . twenty dollars per letter] For an analysis of how much Clemens was paid see 15 Apr 1867 to JLC and family, L2, 23–24 n. 1.
227.13–14 prospectus of Captain Duncan of the Quaker City Excursion] Charles C. Duncan (1821–98) of Bath, Maine, went to sea as a boy and took command of a ship while still a young man. In 1853 he became a New York shipping and commission merchant, but his business went bankrupt in 1865. Hoping to recover from this loss, in 1867 he arranged an excursion to Europe and the Holy Land sponsored by the parishioners of Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth Church in Brooklyn. Duncan leased the Quaker City and had the ship completely refitted to provide the passengers with comfortable accommodations. The prospectus described the planned itinerary for the voyage (which was to last from early June to late October), the available shipboard amenities, the guidelines for side trips ashore, the cost of passage ($1,250 in currency), and estimated personal expenses ($5 per day in gold). All passengers were required to obtain the approval of a “committee on applications” (for details of the excursion see L2: 15 Apr 1867 to JLC and family, 23–26 nn. 1–4; “Prospectus of the Quaker City Excursion,” 382–84).
227.15–16 I wrote and sent the fifty letters . . . complete my contract] For Clemens’s list of the letters he thought he had written, and the number actually published, see 1–2 Sept 1867 to JLC and family, L2, 89–90 n. 1.
227 footnote MacCrellish] Frederick MacCrellish (1828–82) went to California from Pennsylvania in 1852 and worked on two San Francisco newspapers, the Herald and the Ledger. In 1854 he became the commercial editor of the Alta California, and a part owner two years later (2? Mar 1867 to the Proprietors of the San Francisco Alta California, L2, 17 n. 1).
228.3–6 Noah Brooks . . . praises of the generosity of the Alta people] Brooks (1830–1903) began his journalism career in Boston, and during the Civil War corresponded from Washington for the Sacramento Union. Clemens met Brooks in 1865 or 1866, when he was the managing editor of the Alta California. After returning East in 1871, Brooks worked for both the New York Tribune and the Times, and throughout his life wrote books on travel and history, as well as personal memoirs (7 Mar 1873 to Reid, L5, 313 n. 2). He is known to have written only one biographical sketch of Clemens: “Mark Twain in California,” published in the Century Magazine in 1898. His account of the dispute, however, defends Clemens, not the “Alta people”:
During the summer of that year, while Clemens was in the Eastern States, there came to us a statement, through the medium of the Associated Press, that he was preparing for publication his letters which had been printed in the “Alta California.” The proprietors of that newspaper were wroth. They regarded the letters as their private property. Had they not bought and paid for them? Could they have been written if they had not furnished the money to pay the expenses of the writer? And although up to that moment there had been no thought of making in San Francisco a book of Mark Twain’s letters from abroad, the proprietors of the “Alta California” began at once their preparations to get out a cheap paper-covered edition of those contributions. An advance notice in the press despatches sent from California was regarded as a sort of answer to the alleged challenge of Mark Twain and his publishers. This sent the perplexed author hurrying back to San Francisco in quest of an ascertainment of his real rights in his own letters. Amicable counsels prevailed. The cheap San Francisco edition of the book was abandoned, and Mark Twain was allowed to take possession of his undoubted copyright, and his book of letters, entitled “The Innocents Abroad,” was published in the latter part of that year—1868. (Brooks 1898, 99)
228.27–29 remark attributed to Disraeli . . . statistics.”] This remark was first attributed to British statesman and author Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81) in the London Times on 27 July 1895. Although the quip appeared in print as early as 1892, it has not been traced with certainty to Disraeli. For a full discussion, see Shapiro 2006, 208.
[Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich]
228.30 Louis Stevenson] Clemens met Stevenson (1850–94) in April 1888. Ill with lung disease, Stevenson had spent the winter with his wife and stepson at a well-known health resort at Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks. He wrote to Clemens on 13 April, proposing that they meet in New York City, where he planned to stay from 19 to 26 April. Clemens, an admirer of Treasure Island and Kidnapped, was pleased when Stevenson wrote him that he had read Huckleberry Finn “four times, and am quite ready to begin again tomorrow” (13? Apr 1888, CU-MARK). Later in the year Stevenson left on a Pacific cruise, spending the rest of his life on various islands in the South Seas (15 and 17 Apr 1888 to Stevenson, CLjC; Baetzhold 1970, 203–6).
229.6 I said that I thought he was right about the others] The “others” were presumably mentioned in the portion of the text that Clemens omitted, signaled by the line of asterisks. Another omission occurs below (at 229.22). The two gaps may have been part of the original 1904 typescript (now lost), but it is more likely that they were the result of Clemens’s revisions before it was retyped in 1906.
229.7 Harte was good company and a thin but pleasant talker] See “Ralph Keeler,” note at 150.2–4. Clemens’s friendship with Harte had ended acrimoniously in 1877 with the failure of Ah Sin, the play on which they collaborated. In a later dictation Clemens explained that Harte’s character spoiled his “sharp wit,” which “consisted solely of sneers and sarcasms; when there was nothing to sneer at, Harte did not flash and sparkle” (AD, 4 Feb 1907; N&J3, 2).
229.8 Thomas Bailey Aldrich] Aldrich (1836–1907), an immensely popular poet and novelist and a pillar of the New England literary establishment, grew up in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, which served as the setting for many of his literary works. In 1852, lacking the funds to attend Harvard, he moved to New York City to work as a clerk in his uncle’s business. He soon began to publish poems, and joined the editorial staffs of several journals. During 1861–62 he was a Civil War correspondent for the New York Tribune. He married Lilian Woodman in 1865 and moved to Boston, where in 1866 he became editor of the literary magazine Every Saturday, a post he held through 1874. He succeeded William Dean Howells as editor of the Atlantic Monthly in 1881, a position he retained until 1890. Clemens first met Aldrich, after some months’ correspondence, in November 1871, and the two enjoyed a lifelong friendship. Among Clemens’s tributes to Aldrich as a conversationalist is a remark recorded by Paine: “When Aldrich speaks it seems to me he is the bright face of the moon, and I feel like the other side” (MTB, 2:642 n. 1; 15 Jan 1871 to the Editor of Every Saturday, L4, 304 n. 1).
229.28–31 “Davis’s Selected Speeches,” . . . I have forgotten] No such series of books by “Davis” has been found. Possibly Stevenson (or Clemens) misremembered the name of William Brisbane Dick (1826–1901), coproprietor of Dick and Fitzgerald, a publishing firm founded in 1858. Compilations of prose and poetry, as well as books for entertainment or self-improvement, bulked large in their catalog, which included Dick’s Recitations and Readings, American Card Player, Dick’s Comic Dialogues, Dick’s Irish Dialect Recitations, Dick’s Art of Wrestling, and Dick’s Society Letter-Writer for Ladies, all issued between 1866 and 1887. In 1867 Clemens himself had considered offering the publishers a collection of his Sacramento Union letters from the Sandwich Islands (Cox 2000, 85–86; N&J1, 176–77 n. 166).
[Villa di Quarto]
230.22 January] The first part of this dictation, through “under Providence” (237.8), survives in a typescript made by Jean Clemens in 1904 and revised by Clemens, now in the Mark Twain Papers. It is the only one of Jean’s Florentine typescripts known to survive.
230.24 Villa Reale di Quarto] Olivia’s doctors having advised a milder climate, Clemens removed his family to this Tuscan villa in the autumn of 1903. The family party consisted of Samuel, Olivia, Clara, and Jean, together with Katy Leary, their longtime servant, and Margaret Sherry, a trained nurse. They left New York in the steamer Princess Irene on 24 October, arriving at Genoa on 6 November. They made their way by train to Florence and were installed in the Villa di Quarto by 9 November. Later that month they were joined by Isabel V. Lyon, who had been hired in 1902 as Olivia’s secretary, but had since assumed more general duties; Lyon’s mother accompanied her (MTB, 3:1209; Notebook 46, TS p. 28, CU-MARK; Hartford Courant: “Clemens Family at Genoa,” 7 Nov 1903, 15; “Mr. Clemens in Florence,” 9 Nov 1903, 1; before 1 Nov 1903 to Unidentified, CU-MARK).
230.30 King of Würtemberg] After the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire in 1814, the Villa di Quarto was the home of Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), Napoleon’s youngest brother and the former king of Westphalia. He was not the king of Württemberg, but his wife, Princess Catherine, was a daughter of Frederick I, the first king of Wiirttemberg (1754–1816).
230.31 a Russian daughter of the imperial house] The Grand Duchess Maria Nicolaievna (1819–76), a daughter of Tsar Nicholas I, purchased the villa in 1865 (“The Home of an American Countess in Italy,” Town and Country, Sept 1907, 10–13).
230.35 Baedeker says it was built by Cosimo I, by [ ], architect] The typescript leaves a blank space for the name, and Clemens added the brackets, fulfilling his promise, further on in the text, to “suppress” the name of the architect (231.35–36). Clemens’s likely source of information, the 1903 Baedeker guide to northern Italy, stated that the Villa di Quarto was built by Niccolò Tribolo (1500–1550) for Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74), grand duke of Tuscany. Other sources indicate that the building dates from the preceding century (Baedeker 1903, 525; “The Home of an American Countess in Italy,” Town and Country, Sept 1907, 10–13).
231.13 Countess Massiglia] The Countess Massiglia (1861–1953), whom Clemens called “the American bitch who owns this Villa,” was born Frances Paxton, in Philadelphia (25–26 Feb 1904 to Rogers, Salm, in HHR, 557; U.S. National Archives and Records Administration 1950–54). She had been married and divorced before meeting Count Annibale Raybaudi-Massiglia, an Italian diplomat whom she married in about 1891. In addition to his remarks here, Clemens wrote about the countess in an unpublished sketch entitled “The Countess Massiglia” (SLC 1904a), and in his letters and notebooks. His only published mention of her during his lifetime was a glancing blow in a 1905 article, “Concerning Copyright” (Hartford Courant: “Mr. Clemens in Florence,” 9 Nov 1903, 1; “Twain and Countess at Law,” 22 Aug 1904, 7; “The Home of an American Countess in Italy,” Town and Country, Sept 1907, 10; SLC 1905b, 2). By a strange coincidence, Isabel Lyon had known the countess slightly
in Philadelphia about 15 years ago. I came in contact with her because Mr. John Lockwood boarded with her mother at 20th & Cherry Streets. The mother was vicious; & the daughter who was then Mrs. Barney Campau, behaved abominably with Mr. Fred. Lockwood, ruining the happiness of that family. . . . When I saw her as I did the evening of the day that we arrived here—she of course said she had never seen me. I soon made it quite plain to her that she had— But enough— Here she remains, although she said she was going to spend the winter in Paris. She has furnished an apartment over the stables for herself & the big Roman steward of the place—& they two live there together to the annoyance of society. . . . Here she remains, a menace to the peace of the Clemens household, with her painted hair, her great coarse voice—her slitlike vicious eyes—her dirty clothes—& her terrible manners. (Lyon 1903–6, 36–38)
233.23 contadini] Peasants, farmers.
235.14 Blackwood] Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, a British literary monthly.
236.29–30 without her witness was not anything made that was made] Compare John 1:3, “and without him was not any thing made that was made.”
238.34 majestic view, just mentioned] Clemens deleted the passage mentioning the view, which originally ended the previous paragraph. It described a “charming room” from which “one has a far stretching prospect of mountain and valley with Florence low-lying and bunched together far away in the middle distance.”
239.23–24 Professor Willard Fiske . . . Walter Savage Landor villa] Fiske (1831–1904) was a scholar of Northern European languages whom the Clemenses had met through their mutual friend Charles Dudley Warner. A seasoned traveler, Fiske twice helped the Clemenses with their arrangements to lease Florentine villas, in 1892 and 1903. Having inherited a vast fortune, in 1892 he purchased a villa that had once belonged to English poet and essayist Walter Savage Landor (1775–1864) (Horatio S. White 1925, 3, 393–95; “Like a Romance,” Hartford Courant, 27 May 1890, 3; see also AD, 10 Apr 1906).
240.42–241.1 little shiny white cherubs which one associates with the name of Della Robbia] The Florentine sculptor Luca della Robbia (1400?–1482) was the principal member of a family of artists who specialized in the use of glazed terra cotta to decorate walls and ceilings.
241.9 lesson in art lest the picture . . . perfection] At this point in the text Clemens dictated the following instruction to himself, “Here Insert Rhone Voyage.” He clearly referred to a manuscript entitled “The Innocents Adrift,” a highly fictionalized account of his ten-day boat trip down the Rhône River in September 1891. Clemens never finished it, but he continued to revise it and consider mining it for extracts; a brief one appears in chapter 55 of Following the Equator. In 1923, Paine published an abridged and rewritten version as “Down the Rhône.” Clemens probably did not intend to interpolate it in its entirety. He may have meant to use the section of it wherein his fictive fellow voyagers debate the proper qualifications for the appreciation of high art. But clearly he did not follow through on his intention (SLC 1891a; SLC 1923, 129–68; Arthur L. Scott 1963).
242.22 our old Katy] Household servant Katy Leary had sailed with the Clemenses from New York in October 1903. At the time of this dictation she had been in their service for twenty-three years and had long been “regarded,” as Clemens wrote, “as a part of the family” (Notebook 39, TS p. 51, CU-MARK; see also AD, 1 Feb 1906).
243.21 podere] Property, estate.
244.29 a good friend, Mrs. Ross, whose stately castle was a twelve minutes’ walk away] Janet Duff Gordon Ross (1842–1927), the daughter of a baronet, lived at Poggio Gherardo, a villa that she and her husband had purchased in 1888. She enjoyed a wide social circle of writers and artists, and published several books of her own—a family biography, sketches of Tuscan life, and collections of autobiographical essays. She described her 1892 meeting with Clemens:
In May our friend Professor Fiske, who lived near Fiesole, brought a delightful man to see us, Mr. Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. We at once made friends. The more we saw of him the more we liked the kindly, shrewd, amusing, and quaint man. He asked whether there was any villa to be had near by, and from our terrace we showed him Villa Viviani, between us and Settignano. I promised to get him servants and have all ready for the autumn. (Ross 1912, 318–19)
244.31 year spent in the Villa Viviani] The Clemenses stayed at the villa from late September 1892 to late March 1893.
244.35 When we were passing through Florence] The source of the text from here to the end is Clemens’s manuscript, now in the Mark Twain Papers.
246.46 the Magnificent Lorenzo] Lorenzo de’ Medici, known as “the Magnificent” (1449–92), was the effectual ruler of Florence from 1469 to his death.
Autobiographical Dictation, 9 January 1906
250.19–21 you are going to collect from that mass of incidents . . . and then write a biography] Clemens was speaking to Albert Bigelow Paine (1861–1937), who planned to write his biography. Paine grew up in Iowa and Illinois, leaving school at fifteen. At twenty he went to St. Louis, where he worked as a photographer; several years later he operated a photographic supply business in Kansas. After one of his stories was accepted by Harper’s Weekly, he moved to New York in 1895, where he wrote for periodicals and published books for both children and adults. In 1899 he became an editor of St. Nicholas, a magazine for young people, and in 1904 published Th. Nast: His Period and His Pictures, the first of his many biographies. His Mark Twain: A Biography appeared in 1912, and was followed by editions of the Letters (1917), Autobiography (1924), and Notebook (1935). Paine explained in his edition of the autobiography:
It was in January, 1906, that the present writer became associated with Mark Twain as his biographer. Elsewhere I have told of that arrangement and may omit most of the story here. It had been agreed that I should bring a stenographer, to whom he would dictate notes for my use, but a subsequent inspiration prompted him to suggest that he might in this way continue his autobiography, from which I would be at liberty to draw material for my own undertaking. We began with this understanding, and during two hours of the forenoon, on several days of each week, he talked pretty steadily to a select audience of two, wandering up and down the years as inclination led him, relating in his inimitable way incidents, episodes, conclusions, whatever the moment presented to his fancy. (MTA, 1:ix–x)
Paine devoted a chapter of his biography to an account of his conversation with Clemens at The Players club dinner on 3 January 1906, and the “arrangement” they agreed on three days later (see MTB, 4:1257–66; AD, 10 Jan 1906). Clemens’s secretary, Isabel V. Lyon, made a note of their discussion in her diary on 6 January 1906:
Albert Bigelow Paine came this morning to talk over the matter of writing Mr. Clemens’s Biography—Mr. Clemens has consented to have some shorthander come & take down the chat that is to flow from Mr. Clemens’s lips—I hope it may prove inspirational—The commercial machine (Columbia Graphophonic) that Mr. Clemens was looking upon as a boon—hasn’t proved so—He dictated his birthday speech into it—and a few letters—but that is all—There is something infinitely sad in the voice as it is reproduced from the cylenders—and how strickening it would be to hear the voice of one gone—(Lyon 1906, 6)
The “shorthander,” one of the “select audience of two” for the Autobiographical Dictations, was stenographer and typist Josephine S. Hobby (1862–1950), formerly a secretary to Mary Mapes Dodge, the editor of St. Nicholas magazine from 1872 until her death in 1905 (for the “birthday speech” see AD, 12 Jan 1906; Lyon 1906, 47, 71–72; “Aide to Mark Twain Dies,” New York Times, 31 Jan 1950, 21; see also the Introduction, pp. 25–27).
251.19–29 I want to read . . . quoted six years later at $160,000,000] The article Clemens “read” from has not been found in the New York Times. His account is substantially confirmed by independent sources, however, including the astonishing rise in the 1874–75 stock prices (see Lord 1883, 309, 314–15). John W. Mackay (1831–1902) was born in Ireland and came to America as a boy. From 1851 until 1859 he was a miner in California and then moved to Nevada. In January 1872, in partnership with James G. Fair (1831–94), also originally from Ireland, and two others (see the note at 252.25), Mackay took control of the Consolidated Virginia mine, whose stock in the previous year had fallen below $2 per share. The “Big Bonanza” silver strike in the Consolidated Virginia and the adjacent California mine, made in October 1874, was ultimately valued as high as $1.5 billion (L6: 24 Mar 1875 to Bliss, 425 n. 2; 29 Mar and 4 Apr 1875 to Wright, 439 nn. 5, 9).
251.32–38 when I came to Virginia in 1862 . . . forty dollars a week attached to it] Clemens arrived in Aurora, in the rich Esmeralda mining district claimed by both Nevada Territory and California, in April 1862. There, living hand to mouth, he immediately set about wielding pick and shovel while energetically speculating in mining “feet,” or shares, to the extent his limited funds allowed. That April he also began contributing letters, under the pen name “Josh,” to the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. Before the end of July, partly on the strength of the “Josh” letters, none of which survive, he was offered the post of local reporter, as a temporary substitute for the paper’s local editor, William Wright (1829–98), best known under his pen name, “Dan De Quille.” By late September 1862, having failed to strike it rich in Aurora, Clemens had relocated to Virginia City and was reporting for the Enterprise. His earliest extant articles appeared in the paper on 1 October 1862 (see ET&S1, 389–91). He remained on the Enterprise staff until he left Virginia City for San Francisco in late May 1864. For his vivid accounts of his experiences in Aurora and Virginia City see his letters of the period (10? Apr 1862 to OC through 28 May 1864 to Cutler, L1, 184–301) and chapters 35–37, 40–49, 51–52, and 54–55 of Roughing It.
251.41–42 one column of leaded nonpareil every day] Nonpareil was a small (six point) type, commonly used in newspapers.
252.1–9 I met John Mackay . . . I will try to get a living out of this] It is not known when Mackay and Clemens first became acquainted. According to the Second Directory of Nevada Territory, by sometime in 1863 Mackay was living on C Street and was working as the superintendent of the Milton Silver Mining Company (Kelly 1863, 254). Clemens gave a similar account of their Virginia City encounter in an 1897 interview (Budd 1977, 78).
252.10–11 I left Nevada in 1864 to avoid a term . . . have to explain that] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 19 January 1906.
252.21 chimney] A “chimney,” or “ore-shoot,” was “a body of ore, usually of elongated form, extending downward within a vein” (Raymond 1881, 19, 20).
252.25 O’Brien—who was a silver expert in San Francisco] William Shoney O’Brien (1826–78), like Mackay and Fair a native of Ireland, had come to San Francisco in 1849 where he had a succession of businesses—including a tobacco shop, a newspaper agency, a ship chandlery, and a saloon—before becoming a dealer in silver stocks. He and his San Francisco partner, James Clair Flood (1826–89), along with Mackay and Fair, came to be known as the “Bonanza Firm” and together controlled the Comstock Lode (Oscar Lewis 1947, 222–23; Hart 1987, 358–59).
252.30–31 John P. Jones . . . thirty years] See “The Machine Episode,” note at 104.16–17.
252.32–253.1 Joseph T. Goodman . . . Williams . . . sold the paper to Denis McCarthy and Goodman] Goodman (1838–1917) emigrated from New York to California in 1854 and worked as a compositor and writer on San Francisco newspapers. He and McCarthy (1840–85) were fellow typesetters on two journals there, the Mirror and the Golden Era, before buying into the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, then owned by Jonathan Williams (d. 1876), in March 1861. By 1865 Goodman was the sole proprietor; he sold out at a considerable profit in February 1874, not to “some journeyman” but to the Enterprise Publishing Company (21 Oct 1862 to OC and MEC, L1, 242 n. 2; Angel 1881, 317).
253.20–22 And when the Bonanza . . . to San Francisco] Following his February 1874 sale of the Enterprise, Goodman had at least two opportunities to see Clemens that year. In April, after moving to San Francisco, he and his first wife, Ellen (1837?-93), stopped in the East on their way to Europe; they returned in October, the same month the “Big Bonanza” silver discovery was made. Although Goodman could have met with Clemens in April, it is more likely that he would have needed a loan at the trip’s conclusion if he found himself temporarily short of ready cash for the return to San Francisco (L6: 23 Apr 1874 to Finlay, 115–16 n. 5; 29 Mar and 4 Apr 1875 to Wright, 439 n. 8).
253.27–254.4 Denis . . . never got a start again] After selling his interest in the Enterprise in 1865, McCarthy went to San Francisco, where he invested unsuccessfully in the stock market and soon lost his considerable profit. He was working as the managing editor of the San Francisco Chronicle when the “Big Bonanza” was discovered in 1874, and through successful speculation earned another fortune. He returned to Virginia City and bought the Evening Chronicle, which became, within a year, the most widely circulated newspaper in Nevada history. Goodman told Clemens in 1881 that McCarthy’s strong “appetite for liquor” had made him seriously ill, and his death four years later was apparently the result of “dissipation” (Goodman to SLC, 11 Dec 1881, CU-MARK; Angel 1881, 326–27; “Death of D.E. McCarthy,” Virginia City Evening Chronicle, 17 Dec 1885, 2).
254.5–14 Joe Goodman . . . several times what he paid for it originally] Goodman was a member of the San Francisco Stock and Exchange Board from 1877 to 1880 and then became a raisin farmer in Fresno, southeast of the city. He had informed Clemens of the change in occupations in a letter of 9 March 1881:
I got busted in San Francisco—dead broke. Mackay (who owns half of the Enterprise) offered to buy the other half and give it to me; but I saw no profit in it,—Virginia City will soon be as desolate a place as Baalbec,—and, besides, my health was too poor to undertake literary work; so I borrowed $4,000 from Mackay and have started in to vine-growing in this region. I don’t know how it will turn out—and don’t care much. We are about 200 miles from San Francisco, in the San Joaquin Valley. Four or five years ago it was all a desert, but they have brought in irrigating ditches and the land is being rapidly settled—some places already being marvelously fine. I have only 130 acres, but it is quite as much as I shall be able to get under cultivation. At present it is the merest and most desolate speck in the desert you can imagine. Mrs. Goodman gets so homesick she almost cries her eyes out. But, if I live, I will make it a paradise—on a small scale. If you and Mrs. Clemens should ever come to California you will want to see this wonderful southern country, and I extend you a hearty invitation to come and visit us. Should you chance to come soon there would be only the original desert prospect, so far as my ranch is concerned, but there shall be a fountain of welcome for you, and an oasis of hospitality, and—to make the picture complete—I will import a bird for the occasion to sing in the solitude. (CU-MARK)
Goodman remained in Fresno until 1891, when he moved to Alameda, California (Goodman to Alfred B. Nye, 6 Nov 1905, CU-BANC; Joseph L. King 1910, 59, 339, 344).
254.16–23 Before this eastern visit . . . published in about 1901] In a letter of 24 May 1902, Goodman informed Clemens:
Eighteen years ago my attention was called to the inscriptions on the ruins of Central America and Yucatan, and I inconsiderately said I could decipher them. I worked seven years without accomplishing a thing, but then I succeeded in breaking an opening into the mystery. In 1895 they sent for me to come to London and publish the results of my studies up to then. I telegraphed you from Chicago to try to meet me in New York, but as I heard nothing from you I supposed you didn’t get the message in time. Since then I’ve kept on working at the glyphs until I have the whole thing pretty well thrashed out, and am now putting it into book form. So far as concerns me and mine, the pursuit has been a sheer waste of time, money and nerve force. There is no hope of profit in it. Not a thousand persons care anything about the study. The only compensation is that I found out what nobody else could, and that my name will always be associated with the unraveling of the Maya glyphs, as Champollion’s is with the Egyptian. But that is poor pay for what will be twenty years’ hard work. I will send you a copy of the London volume—not that I think it will interest you at all, but as a curiosity. I have since discovered that I made a few mistakes in it, but the bulk of it will stand the test of all time. (CU-MARK)
At the urging of prominent archaeologist Alfred P. Maudslay (1850–1931), Goodman traveled to London in 1895. There in 1897 he published his findings as The Archaic Maya Inscriptions, a book-length work that Maudslay later made the appendix to his own multivolume Archaeology. In 1898 Goodman published a monograph, The Maya Graphic System: Reasons for Believing It to Be Nothing but a Cipher Code, and in 1905 he published an article, “Maya Dates” (Tozzer 1931, 403, 407–8; Goodman 1897; Goodman 1898; Goodman 1905; Maudslay and Goodman 1889–1902). Modern scholarship has validated Goodman’s confidence in his discoveries. Michael D. Coe, in Breaking the Maya Code, noted that Goodman “made some truly lasting contributions,” among them “calendrical tables . . . still in use among scholars working out Maya dates” and his “amazing achievement” in proposing “a correlation between the Maya Long Count calendar and our own” (Coe 1999, 112, 114). Jean François Champollion (1790–1832), considered the father of Egyptology, was the first to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics.
254.24 account in the New York Times] The article referred to at 251.20, which has not been found.
254.24–29 strike in the great Bonanza . . . now confessedly exhausted] The total value of the Consolidated Virginia, the California, and the other mines of the Comstock Lode declined from more than $393 million in 1875 to just under $7 million in 1880 (Angel 1881, 619–20).
Autobiographical Dictation, 10 January 1906
254.30–31 I have to make several speeches . . . last two months] Between 10 November 1905 and 11 April 1906, Clemens spoke on at least twenty-five occasions. The events included a Washington, D.C., dinner attended by members of the Roosevelt administration (25 November); his own seventieth birthday dinner (5 December); a benefit for Russian Jews (18 December); a dinner for him at The Players (3 January); a Tuskegee Institute fundraiser at Carnegie Hall (22 January); a meeting of the Gridiron Club in Washington, attended by Theodore Roosevelt (27 January); remarks on copyright to the House of Representatives (29 January); a New York Press Club dinner in memory of Charles Dickens (8 February); a Barnard College reception (7 March); a meeting of the New York State Association for Promoting the Interests of the Blind (29 March); a Vassar College Students’ Aid Society benefit (2 April); and a dinner for Russian author Maxim Gorky (11 April) (see Schmidt 2008a for a full list; texts of several of the speeches can be found in Fatout 1976; New York Times: “Choate and Twain Plead for Tuskegee,” 23 Jan 1906, 1; “President in ‘Panama’ Has a Jolly Time,” 28 Jan 1906, 4; “Twain on Rockefeller, Jr.,” 8 Feb 1906, 9; “Three New Plays at Vassar Aid Benefit,” 3 Apr 1906, 9; “Gorky and Mark Twain Plead for Revolution,” 12 Apr 1906, 4).
255.18–19 my friends of ancient days in the Players Club gave me a dinner] The dinner for Clemens was held on 3 January 1906 at a house at 16 Gramercy Park in New York, which actor Edwin Booth (1833–93) had given to the club for its headquarters. Booth had conceived of the club as a place where actors could “associate on intimate and equal terms with the foremost authors, painters, sculptors, architects, musicians, editors, publishers, and patrons of the arts” (Lanier 1938, 47). Clemens was a charter member and had attended the organizational luncheon convened by Booth at Delmonico’s restaurant on 6 January 1888. Walter Oettel, Edwin Booth’s former valet and the longtime majordomo of The Players club, recalled that at the 3 January 1906 dinner “the table decorations and favors were stuffed frogs, à propos of his tale, ‘The Jumping Frog.’ ” Oettel reported that the dinner was hosted by some two dozen club members, among them Brander Matthews (see the note at 255.24), who presided; John H. Finley (1863–1940), author, former Harper’s Weekly editor, and president of City College of New York; Daniel Frohman (see the note at 255.19–22); poet and Century Magazine editor Richard Watson Gilder (see “About General Grant’s Memoirs,” note at 77 footnote); poet and Century Magazine associate editor Robert Underwood Johnson (1853–1937); Francis D. Millet (see the note at 255.28–29); David A. Munro, who was unable to attend (see AD, 16 Jan 1906, and note at 284.7); Albert Bigelow Paine; and Robert Reid (see AD, 16 Jan 1906, note at 284.7–8; Oettel 1943, 53–54, 94; N&J3, 429 n. 73; Lanier 1938, passim; “Players Dine Mark Twain,” New York Times, 4 Jan 1906, 2).
255.19–22 an absence of three years, occasioned by the stupidity of the Board . . . it amounted to the same] The original board members were Booth; actor Lawrence Barrett (1838–91); merchant William Bispham (d. 1909); brothers Augustin (1838–99) and Joseph F. Daly (1840–1916), the former an eminent playwright, producer, and theater owner, the latter a lawyer and judge; actor Henry Edwards (d. 1891); dramatic critic, biographer, and Harper’s Magazine literary editor Laurence Hutton (1843–1904); actor Joseph Jefferson (1829–1905); and theatrical manager Albert M. Palmer (1838–1905). Bispham, Joseph F. Daly, Jefferson, and Palmer were still on the board in 1903 when Clemens withdrew from the club (see AD, 21 Mar 1906, for Clemens’s further account of his “expulsion”). The other board members then were author Charles E. Carryl (1841–1920); actor John Drew (1853–1927); theatrical manager and producer Daniel Frohman (1851–1940); actor and theatrical manager Frank W. Sanger (1849–1904); and actor Francis Wilson (1854–1935). Carryl had sent Clemens a form letter, dated 12 January 1903, expelling him for “non-payment of dues.” In the top margin of the letter Clemens wrote: “Expelled! (by the mistake of an idiot Secretary)” (CU-MARK). The invitation to return, sent on 10 November 1904, slightly misquoted Carolina Oliphant’s popular lyric, addressed to Bonnie Prince Charlie: “Will ye no com back again? / Better lo’ed ye canna be” (Reid et al. to SLC, NNWH). On 11 November Clemens replied, on mourning stationery, “Surely those lovely verses went to Prince Charlie’s heart, if he had one, & certainly they have gone to mine. I shall be glad & proud to come back again. . . . It will be many months before I can foregather with you, for this black border is not perfunctory, not a convention; it symbolizes the loss of one whose memory is the only thing I worship” (11 Nov 1904 to Reid and The Players, NNWH). In her 1906 diary, Lyon noted Clemens’s triumphant return from the dinner:
Mr Clemens has just come home at midnight, from a dinner at “The Players” where he was made an honorary member. It was a great night for all the rest of them, because he had stayed away so long.
At midnight he stood at the foot of my flight of stairs in happy mood, with a Japanese paper frog hanging by a hind leg from his coat lapel, & this he handed to me as I went down the stairs to greet him. He knew I would be up & waiting to register his safe return. (Lyon 1906, unnumbered leaf inserted after p. 2)
255.24 Brander Matthews] Matthews (1852–1929), a prominent writer and critic, was a professor of literature and drama at Columbia University (1892–1924). He and Clemens first met in March 1883 when Clemens joined the Kinsmen club, of which Matthews was a founding member (see “Travel-Scraps I,” note at 113.10). In 1887 and 1888 the two men had disagreed in print about international copyright, which placed a temporary strain on their friendship. In 1922 Matthews recalled that episode and other details of their acquaintance in “Memories of Mark Twain” (Matthews 1922; see also Matthews 1917, 231, and N&J3, 345–46, 348, 362–68, 373).
255.28–29 Frank Millet (painter)] Francis D. Millet (1846–1912) was born in Massachusetts. He earned a degree in literature from Harvard University, but decided to study art in Antwerp, Venice, and Rome. He later served as an artist-correspondent during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78). Many of his portraits and murals depicted historical subjects. He died on the Titanic.
255.33–36 Sculpture . . . make a speech in Saint-Gaudens’s place] Sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens (see AD, 16 Jan 1906, note at 284.7–8) was one of three Players who were unable to attend and sent telegrams of regret; the others were David Munro and author Thomas Bailey Aldrich (see “Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich”). It is not known who spoke extemporaneously “in Saint-Gaudens’s place” (“Players Welcome Mark Twain,” New York Tribune, 4 Jan 1906, 7).
256.5–6 For I came without a text, and these boys furnished plenty of texts for me] The texts of the other speeches have not been found. Clemens “told the amusing story of English Mary,” which is reprinted in his “Speech at The Players, 3 January 1906” (Oettel 1943, 54–57; see the Appendix, pp. 662–63). Clemens had first told this story in three letters of 17 July 1877 to his wife in Elmira, as the actual events were unfolding in their Hartford household. In 1897 or 1898 he fictionalized the episode in a tale he called “Wapping Alice,” which he did not succeed in publishing in his lifetime. Then he reworked it again in his Autobiographical Dictation of 10 April 1907 (for the early versions see SLC 1981, 7–24, 39–67). Appropriately, he read the “Jumping Frog” story (SLC 1865) as an encore.
256.17–19 one which I am to attend in Washington on the 27th . . . President and Vice-President of the United States] At the 27 January annual dinner of the Gridiron Club, a prestigious and convivial journalistic society organized in 1885, “Mr. Samuel L. Clemens was in his happiest vein, and spoke for nearly twenty minutes. He was introduced by an alleged roustabout on a Mississippi steamboat who heaved the lead and shouted ‘mark twain’ as he reported the depth of the water” (“A Night in Panama,” Washington Post, 28 Jan 1906, 1, 6). The Gridiron Club forbade reporting of speeches, and no text of Clemens’s remarks is known to survive. President Theodore Roosevelt also spoke, as did other members of his administration, and numerous congressmen and other luminaries attended, but Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks (1852–1918) was not among them.
256.26 Morris incident] See Clemens’s account below and the note at 258.34.
257.6–9 Even yesterday . . . in banks] On 6 September 1905, a New York State legislative committee had begun an investigation of longtime and widespread abuses in the life insurance industry, including extravagant executive salaries; illegal political contributions, both to finance electoral campaigns (especially to Republican presidential candidates) and to influence legislation; illicit dealing in stocks and bonds; and entangling alliances with banks. The investigation—reported exhaustively in the New York press—focused primarily on the Mutual Reserve Life Insurance Company, the New York Life Insurance Company, and the Equitable Life Assurance Society. On 22 February 1906 the committee issued its report to the New York State legislature, along with twenty-five proposed reform bills, all of which were signed into law by 27 April 1906. The executives who came under fire were Richard A. McCurdy and his son Robert H. McCurdy, president and foreign manager, respectively, of Mutual Life (these two, and the senior McCurdy’s son-in-law, collected $4,643,926 in salaries and commissions between 1885 and 1905); John A. McCall and his son John C. McCall, president and secretary, respectively, of New York Life; Chauncey M. Depew, Republican senator from New York and for years the highly paid special counsel of Equitable Life and a member of its executive committee; and James W. Alexander and James H. Hyde, president and first vice-president of Equitable Life, respectively. The influence of these men extended far beyond the three insurance companies. In October 1905, for example, Hyde was reported to be a director of forty-five corporations and Depew a director of seventy-four. As a result of the investigation at least some of those connections were severed. By 10 January 1906 the McCurdys, Depew, the elder McCall, Alexander, and Hyde had all resigned from—or failed to be reelected to—bank directorships (New York Times, numerous articles, 15 Aug 1905–28 Apr 1906). Clemens returns to the subject in his Autobiographical Dictation of 16 February 1906.
257.9–13 we have to-day . . . Standard Oil Corporation . . . how much crippled] The Standard Oil Company and its subsidiaries were being sued in the New York Supreme Court by Missouri Attorney General Herbert S. Hadley, in support of his ongoing suits in Missouri courts for Standard’s violation of that state’s antitrust laws. On 10 January 1906, the New York Times reported at length on the previous day’s New York proceedings, highlighting the evasive testimony and arrogant demeanor of the vice-president of Standard Oil, Clemens’s good friend Henry H. Rogers (New York Times: “H. H. Rogers Summoned to the Supreme Court,” 10 Jan 1906, 1; “Herbert S. Hadley—the Man from Missouri,” 14 Jan 1906, SM4; see also “Henry H. Rogers”).
257.13–15 we have Congress threatening to overhaul the Panama Canal Commission . . . recently added eleven millions] In mid-December 1905 Congress had “added” $11 million to the $59 million already expended since 1904 on preparatory work and to acquire the rights and assets of the failed French Panama Canal company. Nevertheless, the New York Times observed on 21 December, the commission had “not yet decided what kind of canal it will build. Neither the engineers nor the Commissioners knowwhetherwe are to spend $150,000,000 more, or $200,000,000 more. Nobody knows how much the canal will cost.” On 9 January 1906, the Senate voted to investigate “all matters relating to the Panama Canal.” Actual construction began later in 1906. The canal opened in 1914, at a total cost of about $375 million (New York Times: “Money for the Canal,” 12 Dec 1905, 8; “Taft Agrees to Accept $11,000,000 for Canal,” 13 Dec 1905, 4; “A Rooseveltian Episode,” 21 Dec 1905, 8; “Panama Investigation Voted by the Senate,” 10 Jan 1906, 4; “The President’s Responsibility,” 22 Jan 1906, 6; Panama Canal Authority 2008).
257.16–17 Church and State separated in France] A bill providing for the separation had become effective on 7 December 1905. It marked “the culmination of the strained relations which have long existed between the French Government and the Vatican” and ended a system dating “from 1801, when the Concordat was signed by Pius VII. and Napoleon. Under the Concordat the churches were Government property, and the clergy was paid by the State.” The change was not universally welcomed: there was rioting and other protest “encouraged and indirectly fomented by leaders of the anti-Republican Party, and probably to some extent by the priests of the Roman Church” (New York Times: “End of State Church Declared in France,” 7 Dec 1905, 8; “The Religious Troubles in France,” 4 Feb 1906, 6).
257.17–18 we have a threat . . . Morocco question] Since late 1905 France and Germany had been moving toward war over political control of (and commercial access to) Morocco. Germany had not joined a 1904 agreement in which Great Britain, Spain, and Italy had accepted French domination, and now objected to France’s “special privileges”—especially in policing the country (New York Times: “The Conference of Algeciras,” 6 Jan 1906, 8; “Clash in Moroccan Conference Expected,” 7 Jan 1906, 3). The conflict was resolved diplomatically on 31 March 1906 with a new agreement, largely brokered by the United States, that addressed the commercial issues and provided for shared police responsibility without undermining French hegemony (“Morocco Conference Ends with Agreement,” New York Times, 1 Apr 1906, 4).
257.18–21 we have a crushed revolution in Russia . . . three centuries] The Russian Revolution of 1905 began in January, on “Bloody Sunday,” when troops fired on a peaceful protest march in St. Petersburg, killing more than a thousand participants. Rebellion against the tyranny of Tsar Nicholas II (1868–1918) then spread, culminating in September and October of that year in a general strike that paralyzed the entire country. Nicholas was forced to issue his October Manifesto, providing for a parliament and freedom of speech, the press, and assembly. He soon reneged on these reforms, however, and by December 1905 the revolt was over, with its leaders under arrest.
257.21–26 we have China furnishing a solemn and awful mystery . . . convulsion is impending there] In January 1906 a “curious unrest in parts of China” seemed “a puzzle” to the Western world: “There are two elements clearly enough present in this feeling. One is distrust and dislike of foreigners from the Occident; the other is discontent with the Imperial Government. But it is by no means certain that each of these sentiments is felt by all who feel the other” (“The Outlook in China,” New York Times, 8 Jan 1906, 8). It was feared that there might even be “a general uprising of the people against the entire political system of the empire.” Consequently, two U.S. infantry regiments and two batteries of field artillery were dispatched to the Philippines (which the United States had controlled since the end of the Spanish-American War in 1898), to be ready in the event that troops had to be “landed in China for the protection of American lives and property” (“America Preparing for Crash in China,” New York Times, 7 Jan 1906, 1). One of the infantry brigades was under the command of General Frederick Funston, who captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Filipino insurgents (see AD, 14 Mar 1906, 408.30–42 and note). Although China remained newsworthy well into 1906, the anticipated explosion did not come and no U.S. brigades were sent.
258.34 There you have the facts] Clemens’s account is consistent in its details with the report in the New York Times of 5 January 1906 (“Drag Hull’s Sister from White House,” 1). On 4 January Mrs. Minor Morris had gone to the White House, hoping to convince President Theodore Roosevelt to intervene to have her physician husband restored to his post at the Army Medical Bureau, from which he had been abruptly dismissed. She alleged that the dismissal had been instigated by her brother, Republican Congressman John A. T. Hull of Iowa, with whom Mrs. Morris was bitterly disputing the settlement of their father’s estate. After she was carried and dragged from the White House at the order of Benjamin F. Barnes, an assistant presidential secretary, she was imprisoned on a charge of disorderly conduct. To prevent her immediate release on bail, a charge of insanity also was brought against her. After two examining physicians pronounced her sane, however, she was released after several hours and allowed to return to her room at the Willard Hotel, where she was soon under medical care for bruising, shock, and nervous prostration. Her own “calm and mild, unexcited and well worded account” of the incident appeared in the New York Times on 6 January (“Mrs. Morris Tells of White House Expulsion,” 1). The Morris incident remained a national cause célèbre for more than six months, with attempts at congressional inquiries, all deflected, and with repeated calls for the president to accept responsibility, disavow Barnes’s actions, and apologize, all rejected. In April Roosevelt confirmed his faith in Barnes by appointing him Washington postmaster. And in May, during Barnes’s Senate confirmation hearings, the White House was charged with using false testimony, from a physician who never actually treated Mrs. Morris, to impugn her reputation and question her sanity (New York Times: numerous articles, Jan–June 1906).
259.3–6 Morris incident . . . the President’s character] In the margin of the typescript alongside this passage, Paine wrote, “Not to be used for 50 years from 1920—.” Nevertheless, he included the passage in his 1924 edition of Mark Twain’s Autobiography (MTA, 1:288).
259.13 It is the Roosevelts that have the Barneses around] Clemens was not alone in seeing Roosevelt’s imperiousness behind Barnes’s behavior. The Hartford Times, for example, condemned the “new spirit of high mightiness in the White House, which differs widely from anything which has been seen there heretofore” (“From the Hartford Times,” New York Times, 12 Jan 1906, 8).
259.32–36 He flies from one thing to another . . . opinion] On 7 January 1906, Lyon recorded in her diary another of Clemens’s vivid descriptions of Roosevelt: “This morning Mr. Clemens was speaking of Roosevelt & his great blustering—& he said that ‘he is magnificent when his ears are pricked up & his tail is in the air & he attacks a lightning express, only to be lost in the dust the express creates’ ” (Lyon 1906, 7).
260.2 these joyous ebullitions of excited sincerity] Clemens was not always so tolerant of Roosevelt’s “opinions and feelings and convictions.” In 1907, in his copy of a volume of Roosevelt’s “ideas expressed on many occasions,” Clemens altered the title page from A Square Deal to “BANALITIES,” and the title of the publisher’s introductory remarks from “Foreword” to “A PUKE BY A DISINTERESTED PUBLISHER” (Roosevelt 1906, volume in CU-MARK). He was always careful, however, to avoid any public criticism, as he explained in a letter to his daughter Clara in February 1910:
Roosevelt closed my mouth years ago with a deeply valued, gratefully received, unasked favor; & with all my bitter detestation of him I have never been able to say a venomous thing about him in print since—that benignant deed always steps in the way & lays its consecrated hand upon my lips. I ought not to allow it to do this; & I am ashamed of allowing it, but I cannot help it, since I am made in that way, & did not make myself. (21, 22, and 23 Feb 1906 to CC, photocopy in CU-MARK)
Autobiographical Dictation, 11 January 1906
260 title January 11, 1906] The first page of this dictation is reproduced in facsimile in the Introduction (figure 14).
261.11–16 Address of Samuel L. Clemens . . . as published in the BOSTON EVENING TRANSCRIPT, December 18, 1877] This heading was not in the Boston Evening Transcript’s lengthy account of the dinner and speeches (“The Atlantic Dinner,” 1, 3). It must have been supplied by the unidentified “Boston typewriter” (i.e., typist) who transcribed the speech from the newspaper. The Transcript text was based (probably indirectly) on Clemens’s own manuscript. On 19 December, the Boston Globe reported, “At the Atlantic dinner, Monday night, a reporter sent a note to Mr. Samuel L. Clemens asking him for the manuscript of his speech. In reply ‘Mark’ wrote: ‘Yes, if you will put in the applause in the right places, especially if there isn’t any’ ” (“Table Gossip,” 4). Several newspapers printed the text on the morning after the speech, any one of which could have been the source of the Transcript’s version in the evening edition (see the Textual Commentary, MTPO).
261.18 Mr. Chairman—] Henry O. Houghton (1823–95), publisher of the Atlantic Monthly and the “chief host” of the dinner, gave the opening address. He introduced William Dean Howells, editor of the magazine and Clemens’s close friend, as the man who would “take charge of the proceedings” (see “A Call with W. D. Howells on General Grant,” note at 70.19). Howells spoke and then introduced each of the other speakers (“The Atlantic Dinner,” Boston Evening Transcript, 18 Dec 1877, 1, 3).
261.21–24 I am reminded of a thing which happened . . . California] In May of 1864, having achieved fame and notoriety during twenty months as local reporter and editor for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, Clemens left Nevada for San Francisco, where he worked as local reporter for the San Francisco Morning Call and also contributed to the Californian, a literary weekly. In early December 1864 (“thirteen years ago,” in 1877) Clemens accepted an invitation from his friend Steve Gillis to leave San Francisco and join his brother James Gillis and Dick Stoker at their cabin at Jackass Hill, Tuolumne County. Steve had recently been jailed for fighting, and Clemens signed a $500 bond for his bail; when Steve decided to return to Virginia City rather than face trial, Clemens became liable for the whole amount. Clemens, out of work save for a few articles in the Californian, was short of funds himself, having lost or cashed in his valuable shares of the Hale and Norcross Silver Mining Company. It was this trip to Jackass Hill and nearby Angels Camp (in Calaveras County) that he refers to here as an “inspection tramp of the southern mines.” The visit turned into a twelve-week retreat during which he stayed with Gillis and Stoker, helped them “pocket-mine,” and listened to tales like the “Jumping Frog” and the blue-jay yarn. Clemens returned to San Francisco in late February 1865. The notebook he kept during the trip is in the Mark Twain Papers (L1: link note following 28 May 1864 to Cutler, 302–3; 18 Oct 1864 to OC, 317; link note following 11 Nov 1864 to OC, 320–21; N&J1, 63–82).
262.1–4 “ ‘Through . . . soul!’] From Holmes’s “The Chambered Nautilus” (1858).
262.9–12 “ ‘Give me . . . altitudes.’] From Emerson’s “Mithridates” (1847).
262.16–17 “ ‘Honor . . . Pau-Puk-Keewis—’] From Longfellow’s “The Song of Hiawatha” (1855). The verses are not consecutive: the first is the opening line of book 2; the second is the opening line of book 16.
262.22–23 “ ‘Flash . . . days.’] From Holmes’s “Mare Rubrum” (1858).
262.33 “ ‘This . . . primeval.’] The opening line of Longfellow’s “Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie” (1847).
262.35–36 “ ‘Here . . . world.’] From Emerson’s “Concord Hymn” (1837).
262.41–263.3 “ ‘I am . . . again!’] Rearranged and adapted lines from Emerson’s “Brahma” (1857).
263.8–9 “I tire . . . played!’] Adapted from Emerson’s “Song of Nature” (1859), where the first line actually reads “I tire of globes and races.”
263.11–12 “ ‘Thanks . . . taught’] From Longfellow’s “The Village Blacksmith” (1841).
263.13 and blamed if he didn’t down with another right bower] A “right bower” was the jack of trumps, the highest card in the game of euchre, and therefore unique in each deck of cards.
263.15–16 “ ‘God help . . . palm!’] From Holmes’s “A Voice of the Loyal North” (1861).
263.21 All quiet on the Potomac] The famous Civil War song “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight” was from a poem by Ethel Lynn Beers (1827–79) entitled “The Picket-Guard,” which had first appeared in Harper’s Weekly in 1861. In 1863 it was set to music by John Hill Hewitt (1801–90).
263.22 how-come-you-so] Drunk.
263.23–24 Barbara Frietchie . . . Biglow Papers . . . Thanatopsis] “Barbara Frietchie” (1863) was actually by John Greenleaf Whittier. “The Biglow Papers” (1846–67) were by James Russell Lowell. “Thanatopsis” (1817, revised 1821) was by William Cullen Bryant. Neither Lowell nor Bryant attended the dinner.
263.27–28 “ ‘Is yonder . . . breed?’] From Emerson’s “Monadnoc” (1847).
263.31 ‘When Johnny Comes Marching Home’] This popular Civil War song was by bandmaster and composer Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (1829–92), who published it in 1863 under the pseudonym “Louis Lambert” (Library of Congress 2008).
263.36–39 “ ‘Lives . . . Time.’] From Longfellow’s “Psalm of Life” (1838).
264.9–19 Mr. and Mrs. A. P. Chamberlaine . . . I had been irreverent beyond belief, beyond imagination] The Clemenses had met Augustus P. Chamberlaine and his wife in Venice in October 1878. The Chamberlaines’ acquaintance with Emerson permitted them to assure Clemens then that his Whittier dinner speech had not given offense to the venerable poets (see N&J2, 220–21). There had in fact been some negative comments in the press in the days following the dinner. The Boston Transcript, for example, noted that the speech “was in bad taste and entirely out ofplace” (19 Dec 1877, 4); and the Worcester Gazette opined that “Mark’s sense of propriety needs development, and it is not his first offense” (reprinted in the Boston Evening Traveller, 26 Dec 1877, 1). Several other newspapers, however, gave Clemens positive reviews. The Boston Advertiser noted that “the amusement was intense, while the subjects of the wit, Longfellow, Emerson and Holmes, enjoyed it as much as any” (“Whittier’s Birthday,” 18 Dec 1877, 1). The Boston Globe reported that the speech “produced the most violent bursts of hilarity” and that “Mr. Emerson seemed a little puzzled about it, but Mr. Longfellow laughed and shook, and Mr. Whittier seemed to enjoy it keenly” (“The Whittier Dinner,” 18 Dec 1877, 8). The Boston Journal observed that Clemens’s speech “soon aroused uproarious merriment” (“Whittier’s Birthday,” 18 Dec 1877, unknown page), and the Evening Traveller noted that Clemens “served up a characteristic series of parodies on Longfellow, Emerson, and Holmes, ‘setting the table in a roar’ as is his wont” (“A Bard’s Birthday Banquet,” 18 Dec 1877, 1). Nevertheless, on 27 December 1877, in the depths of his remorse, and with Howells’s encouragement, he wrote letters of apology addressed to Holmes, Emerson, and Longfellow. On 29 December Holmes replied that “it grieves me to see that you are seriously troubled about what seems to me a trifling matter. It never occurred to me for a moment to take offence, or to feel wounded by your playful use of my name” (CU-MARK). On 31 December Ellen Emerson replied for her father—not to Clemens himself, but to Olivia—saying that although the family was “disappointed” in Clemens’s speech, “no shadow of indignation has ever been in any of our minds. The night of the dinner, my Father says, he did not hear Mr Clemens’s speech he was so far off, and my Mother says that when she read it to him the next day it amused him” (CU-MARK). And on 6 January 1878 Longfellow wrote Clemens that the incident was “a matter of such slight importance. The newspapers have made all the mischief. A bit of humor at a dinner table is one thing; a report of it in the morning papers is another” (CU-MARK). By 5 February 1878 Clemens had rebounded sufficiently from his initial embarrassment to write his Quaker City mentor, Mary Mason Fairbanks:
I am pretty dull in some things, & very likely the Atlantic speech was in ill taste; but that is the worst that can be said of it. I am sincerely sorry if it in any wise hurt those great poets’ feelings—I never wanted to do that. But nobody has ever convinced me that that speech was not a good one——for me; above my average, considerably. (Letters 1876–1880)
(For an extended discussion of the Whittier dinner speech and its aftermath, including texts of Clemens’s letter of apology and the responses to it, see Smith 1955; see also AD, 23 Jan 1906, for additional comments on the speech.)
264.38–39 I can see those figures with entire distinctness across this abyss of time] There were sixty Atlantic contributors and associates at the dinner. Whittier, Emerson, Holmes, Longfellow, Houghton, and Howells were at the head of the table. Clemens’s good friend James R. Osgood was seated on one side of him, and on the other was their mutual friend Charles Fairchild, a Boston paper manufacturer. Elsewhere were seated Charles Dudley Warner and James Hammond Trumbull (see AD, 12 Jan 1906, note at 272.31–32). Other more casual acquaintances of Clemens’s were present, including agriculturist and sanitary engineer George E. Waring (1833–98), Unitarian minister Thomas W. Higginson (1823–1911), and poet and fiction writer John T. Trowbridge (1827–1916). Many of the guests, including Clemens, had also attended the Atlantic’s 15 December 1874 dinner for its contributors (see the link note following 14 Dec 1874 to Howells, L6, 317–20).
264.40–265.5 Willie Winter . . . did love to recite those occasional poems] William Winter (1836–1917) was dramatic critic of the New York Tribune from 1865 to 1909 and also the author of several biographies of actors. He did not attend the Whittier birthday dinner. The occasion Clemens recalled was the 3 December 1879 Atlantic Monthly breakfast for Oliver Wendell Holmes. In a well-received speech intended to redeem his 1877 performance, Clemens described how he had committed “unconscious plagiarism” by echoing Holmes’s dedication to “Songs in Many Keys” in The Innocents Abroad (see “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad,’ ” note at 225.17–19). Winter appeared later in the roster of speakers and read his thirteen-stanza tribute, “Hearts and Holmes” (“The Holmes Breakfast,” Boston Advertiser, 4 Dec 1879, 1), which concluded:
True bard, true soul, true man, true friend!
Ah, lightly on that reverend head
Ye snows of wintry age descend,
Ye shades of mortal night be shed!
Peace guide and guard him to the end,
And God defend!
266.9–10 Howells, who was near me . . . couldn’t get beyond a gasp] Howells was seated at the head table, not close to Clemens. Nevertheless, given that newspaper reports do not confirm that Clemens’s speech was generally perceived to be a “disaster,” it is likely that it was chiefly Howells’s reaction that persuaded Clemens that it was.
266.12–13 If Benvenuto Cellini’s salamander . . . autobiography] See “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 209.41.
266.15–17 Bishop . . . a most acceptable novel . . . in the Atlantic Monthly] William Henry Bishop (1847–1928) was the author of Detmold: A Romance, serialized in the Atlantic Monthly from December 1877 through June 1878 and published in book form in 1879 (Bishop 1877–78; Bishop 1879).
266.32–33 at last he slumped down in a limp and mushy pile] Bishop’s speech did not follow Clemens’s. According to press reports, several speakers intervened, including poet Richard H. Stoddard and Charles Dudley Warner. Bishop spoke “last on the regular list,” well past midnight, and after Whittier, Emerson, Holmes, and Longfellow had all left (“Whittier’s Birthday,” Boston Advertiser, 18 Dec 1877, 1; Boston Evening Transcript, “The Atlantic Dinner,” 18 Dec 1877, 3). No account of Bishop’s speech is known to survive, other than the Boston Journal’s observation that he was one of those who talked “briefly and suitably” (“Whittier’s Birthday,” 18 Dec 1877, unknown page) and the Boston Evening Traveller’s remark that he “closed very gracefully the list of regular speakers” (“A Bard’s Birthday Banquet,” 18 Dec 1877, 1).
266.34–35 the program . . . ended there] The program did not conclude prematurely, as Clemens implied. By most newspaper accounts, following Bishop’s satisfactory delivery of the last “regular” speech, there was just one additional speaker before the festivities ended around 1 A.M. on 18 December.
267.22–23 Even the Massacre did not produce a like effect, nor the Anthony Burns episode] The Boston Massacre occurred on 5 March 1770, when British troops opened fire on a rioting crowd and killed five colonists. Anthony Burns (1834–62) was a slave who fled from Richmond, Virginia, to Boston in 1854. That same year he was arrested and convicted under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, occasioning mass protests on a scale unknown since the days of the Revolution. After his forced return to Virginia, Boston supporters purchased his freedom and paid for his education at Oberlin College; he later became a Baptist minister.
267.27 the New Hampshire hills] Clemens spent the summer of 1906 at Upton Farm, near Dublin, New Hampshire, dictating his autobiography.
267.28–29 I will go before . . . Twentieth Century Club] The Twentieth Century Club (since 1934 the Twentieth Century Association for the Promotion of a Finer Public Spirit and a Better Social Order) was begun in Boston in January 1894. Membership was open to
men and women over the age of 21 who had “rendered some service in the fields of science, art, religion, government, education or social service; and those who in their business, home life, or civic relations have made some contribution to the life of the community, state or nation, worthy of recognition. . . .” Club activities centered around Saturday Luncheons. Begun as men-only affairs, they were opened to women by 1895. . . . Speakers were told to expect vigorous questioning. . . . Speakers included: newspaper editors, reformers, missionaries, socialists, educators, authors, labor leaders, economists and others. (Massachusetts Historical Society 2008)
Clemens had appeared before the club on 4 November 1905, speaking satirically on peace, missionaries, and statesmanship (SLC 1905f). He is not known to have resurrected the Whittier dinner speech before the club. For his additional remarks on that speech, see the Autobiographical Dictation of 23 January 1906.
Autobiographical Dictation, 12 January 1906
267 title January 12, 1906] The first page of this dictation is reproduced in facsimile in the Introduction (figure 15).
267.35 Colonel Harvey] George Brinton McClellan Harvey (1864–1928) worked as a reporter for the Springfield (Mass.) Republican and the Chicago News before he became managing editor of Pulitzer’s New York World while still in his twenties. He made a very large fortune building electric railways, and in 1899 he purchased the venerable North American Review and became its editor. The following year he became president of the financially troubled Harper and Brothers, and in 1901 he also became editor of Harper’s Weekly. It was he who negotiated with Clemens and Rogers to secure the 1903 contract that gave Harper essentially exclusive rights to everything Clemens wrote or had written. In an interview published on 3 March 1907 by the Washington Post Harvey identified Clemens as the best-paid writer in the United States, thanks to this contract, which guaranteed payment for “everything he wrote, whether it was printed or thrown away” (“Mark Twain’s Exclusive Publisher Tells What the Humorist Is Paid,” A12). His title of “Colonel” was civilian rather than military, and was the rank he held from 1885 to 1892 as an aide-de-camp on New Jersey gubernatorial staffs (HHR, 513 n. 2).
268.15–16 President and the Governors had to have my birthday—the 30th—for Thanksgiving Day] In 1789 George Washington created the first nationally designated Thanksgiving Day, held on 26 November that year. Subsequently, the holiday was appointed by presidential and gubernatorial proclamation, but irregularly and not on a uniform date. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln proclaimed that a national Thanksgiving Day henceforth would be celebrated on the last Thursday in November, which in 1905 was the fifth Thursday, and also Clemens’s birthday. In 1939 Franklin D. Roosevelt changed the date to the third Thursday of November, and in 1941 Congress passed legislation definitively establishing Thanksgiving as the fourth Thursday in November.
268.23–24 several vicious and inexcusable wars] In addition to the Russian Revolution (see AD, 10 Jan 1906, note at 257.18–21), Clemens doubtless alludes to the Russo-Japanese War and possibly to uprisings in Yemen, Crete, the French Congo, and German East Africa (Tanzania), all in 1904–5.
268.24–25 King Leopold . . . slaughters and robberies in the Congo State] Leopold II (1835–1909) had been king of Belgium since 1865. Between 1878 and 1884, with the help of explorer Henry M. Stanley, he had personally acquired treaty rights to a vast section of central Africa (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), which he organized into the Congo Free State and then, over the next decade, brought under his ruthless control. He ruled it as his private commercial empire, enriching himself while exploiting and brutalizing the Africans compelled to work for the mining and rubber companies that were his concessionaires. Clemens’s scathing satire, King Leopold’s Soliloquy, written in 1905, helped bring these cruelties under scrutiny (SLC 1905a). In 1908 Leopold was forced to relinquish control of the Congo Free State to the Belgian government.
268.25 Insurance revelations in New York] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 January 1906.
268.28 birthday celebration . . . 5th of December] The lavish banquet to commemorate Clemens’s birthday was held at Delmonico’s restaurant in New York. Following this paragraph he dictated the instruction “(Here paste in the proceedings of the Birthday Banquet).” This was not done in any of the later typescripts, however, where the instruction was merely retranscribed. The “proceedings,” including photographs of the guests as well as texts of the speeches and other tributes, filled thirty-two pages in the 23 December 1905 “Mark Twain’s Birthday Souvenir Number” of Harper’s Weekly (SLC 1905g). In his Autobiographical Dictation of 16 December 1908, Clemens again noted, “I think I will insert here (if I have not inserted it in some earlier chapter of this autobiography) the grand account of the banquet.” A facsimile of the publication is available at MTPO.
268.30 In the speech which I made were concealed many facts] Clemens’s speech is reprinted in the Appendix, pp. 657–61.
269.1–6 when I was fifty . . . 1891] The Hartford Monday Evening Club held its first meeting on 18 January 1869. Horace Bushnell (1802–76), the minister of Hartford’s North Church of Christ (later Park Congregational Church) from 1833 to 1859 and the author of numerous important theological works, was the prime mover in the club’s creation. The constitution adopted in February 1869 set the membership at twenty. Despite Clemens’s recollection, the essayists did not regularly follow each other in alphabetical order. Clemens became a member in 1873 and continued on the membership roll until his death in 1910, although he ceased to attend meetings after the family left Hartford in June 1891. The Reverend Francis Goodwin (1839–1923), a prominent Protestant Episcopal clergyman who served several Hartford churches, and was also an architect, became a member in 1877. The topic of the evening at Goodwin’s house that Clemens recalled here, “Dreams,” indicates that the meeting took place on 21 January 1884, when he was forty-eight. Most of the men present were founding members; five joined later, as noted below. Like Clemens, they all remained on the membership list until their deaths (Howell Cheney 1954, passim; “Francis Goodwin” in “Hartford Residents” 1974).
269.14–16 The wives . . . were not allowed to throw any light upon the discussion] “It was the early rule that the wife of the host invited two or three of her intimates to sit with her. . . . At rare times the hostess engaged in the conversation. . . . The predominance of the feeling of members is that the Club should be limited in its audience to men” (Howell Cheney 1954, 6).
269.24–26 J. Pierpont Morgan’s cigars . . . at dinner in Mr. Dodge’s house] John Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913) was the preeminent American banker, financier, and art collector of his day. William E. Dodge (1832–1903) had succeeded his father of the same name (1805–83) as a partner in Phelps, Dodge and Company, leading wholesalers of copper and other metals, and also continued his father’s numerous charitable, religious, and philanthropic activities.
269.34 George, our colored butler] George Griffin. See the Autobiographical Dictation of 6 February 1906.
269.38 Wheeling long nines] Wheeling, West Virginia, had been a center for the manufacture of cigars, particularly cheap cigars, since the 1820s. “Long nine” as a generic term for a cheap cigar was in use at least by 1830 (Ohio County Public Library 2008; Mathews 1951, 2:1000).
270.1 When I was . . . late ’50s] Clemens first boarded the Paul Jones, piloted by Horace Bixby, in Cincinnati bound for New Orleans on 16 February 1857. He returned to St. Louis working informally as Bixby’s apprentice, or steersman, on 15 March aboard the Colonel Cross-man. He received his license on 9 April 1859, and continued as a pilot until mid-May 1861, when the Civil War put an end to commercial traffic on the river. He recounted his experiences on the river in Life on the Mississippi, especially chapters 4–21 (see also the link note following 5 Aug 1856 to HC through 26 Apr 1861 to OC, L1, 69–121; Branch 1992, 2–3).
270.12 Rev. Dr. Parker] Edwin Pond Parker (1836–1920), a Congregational clergyman, was pastor of Hartford’s Second Church of Christ from 1860 until 1912, when he became pastor emeritus.
270.15 Rev. Dr. Burton] Nathaniel J. Burton (1824–87) was pastor of Hartford’s Fourth Congregational Church (1857–70) and Park Congregational Church (1870–87).
270.18 Rev. Mr. Twichell] Joseph H. Twichell, pastor of Hartford’s Asylum Hill Congregational Church from 1865 to 1912, was one of Clemens’s closest friends (see “Grant and the Chinese,” note at 73.13).
270.34–35 you can start at the front door and . . . tread on one of them cigars every time] Clemens had included many of the details of this story of the long nines in “Conversations with Satan,” written in 1897–98 (see SLC 2009, 42–44).
271.6–8 the late Colonel Greene . . . President presently] Jacob L. Greene (1837–1905) was breveted lieutenant colonel for distinguished gallantry and faithful and meritorious service during the Civil War. A lawyer, he was secretary of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company from 1871 until 1878 and in the latter year became its president. He joined the Monday Evening Club in 1883 (Heitman 1903, 1:475).
271.29–32 elder Hamersley . . . his son, Will Hamersley . . . Supreme Court] William James Hamersley (1808–77) was a journalist, book publisher, and former Hartford mayor (1853–54, 1862–64). For William Hamersley, see “The Machine Episode,” note at 101.23 (Trumbull 1886, 1:117–18, 385, 612, 620, 624; “Death of the Hon. William James Hamersley,” Hartford Courant, 16 May 1877, 2).
272.8–9 Charles E. Perkins] For about ten years (until 1882), Perkins (1832–1917) was Clemens’s Hartford attorney. He became a club member in 1871 (12 Aug 1869 to Bliss, L3, 294 n. 4; 8 May 1872 to Perkins, L5, 84 n. 1).
272.29 Penitentiary down there at Wethersfield] The Wethersfield (Connecticut) State Prison opened in 1827 and remained in operation until 1963 (Connecticut State Library 2008b).
272.31–32 J. Hammond Trumbull, the most learned man in the United States] Hartford historian James Hammond Trumbull (1821–97) provided the multilingual chapter headings for The Gilded Age.
272.36–37 Governor Henry C. Robinson] Robinson (1832–1900), an attorney and business executive, was mayor of Hartford from 1872 to 1874. Although twice nominated by the Republican Party for governor of Connecticut (in 1876 and 1878), he never held that office (Burpee 1928, 3:41; Connecticut State Library 2008a).
272.39–40 A. C. Dunham . . . capitalist] Austin Cornelius Dunham (1833–1917), awool merchant, inventor, and founder and since 1882 president of the Hartford Electric Light Company, joined the Monday Evening Club in 1870 (3 Oct 1874 to Howells, L6, 248 n. 3; Connecticut Light and Power 2008).
Autobiographical Dictation, 13 January 1906
273.3–5 Franklin was a . . . West Pointer . . . Mexican war . . . Civil War at the time that McClellan was commander-in-chief ] General William Buel Franklin (1823–1903) graduated first in the West Point class of 1843, then served capably with the army’s Topographical Engineers, and in the Mexican War (1846–48). His Civil War service, in part under General George B. McClellan, was checkered, however. Despite successes, he was blamed, evidently unfairly, for the Union loss at Fredericksburg (1862) and served the rest of his army career in relative obscurity. After his resignation from the army in 1866 he became vice-president of Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company in Hartford, a post he held until 1888. He joined the Hartford Monday Evening Club in 1871 (“Franklin Dead,” Hartford Courant, 9 Mar 1903, 13).
273.11–12 Johnson was a member of Trinity . . . most brilliant member of the Club] Charles Frederick Johnson (1836–1931), a literary historian, critic, and poet, was a professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy from 1865 to 1870 and then a professor of English literature, active and emeritus, at Trinity College in Hartford from 1883 until his death. He became a member of the Monday Evening Club in 1886 (“Prof. Charles F. Johnson,” New York Times, 10 Jan 1931, 11).
273.38 not able to sink the shop] Not able to refrain from “talking shop.”
274.14–22 In 1858 I was a steersman . . . never wanted my mother to know about that dream] Clemens recounted his and his nineteen-year-old brother Henry’s employment aboard the steamer Pennsylvania in chapters 18–20 of Life on the Mississippi. He began his temporary service under Captain William Brown in November 1857. On 13 June 1858 three or four of the Pennsylvania’s boilers exploded and the boat sank, causing the deaths of between fifty and a hundred and fifty passengers and crew, including Henry and Captain Brown (see also the note at 275.20–21). Mentioned in this passage are Captain John S. Klinefelter (1810–85) and Horace E. Bixby (1826–1912), who supervised Clemens’s piloting apprenticeship (for Clemens’s on-the-spot account of the Pennsylvania disaster and Henry’s death, see 15 June 1858 to Moffett through 21 June 1858 to Moffett, L1, 80–86; see also Branch 1985). At the time of this dictation, Clemens had not described his prophetic dream of Henry in that book or elsewhere; he later published this account in the North American Review, as part of the series of “Chapters from My Autobiography,” in April 1907 (NAR 16). Clemens’s niece, Annie Moffett, said in recollections published by her son in 1946 that Jane Clemens did know of the dream, and
often talked about it. He had told them about it before he went away, but the family were not impressed; indeed they were amused that he took it so seriously.
The story as the family used to tell it was not quite like Uncle Sam’s version. They said his dream occurred in the daytime. The family including Henry were in my mother’s room and Sam was asleep in the next room. He came in and told them what he had dreamed. My grandmother said he went back and dreamed the same dream a second and third time, but I think that was her embellishment. (MTBus, 37)
274.32 our brother-in-law, Mr. Moffett] William A. Moffett, a St. Louis commission merchant, married Clemens’s older sister, Pamela Ann, in 1851 (link note preceding 24 Aug 1853 to JLC, L1, 2; see the Appendix “Family Biographies” (p. 655).
275.20–21 I had the fight . . . I be left ashore at New Orleans] In chapter 19 of Life on the Mississippi Clemens recalled his fight with Brown. In order to prevent him from assaulting Henry with “a ten-pound lump of coal,” he had used “a heavy stool” to hit “Brown a good honest blow which stretched him out.” The incident evidently occurred on 3 June 1858. Although Captain Klinefelter was sympathetic to Clemens, his inability to replace Brown, and Brown’s refusal to continue supervising Clemens, led to his being left in New Orleans (L1: link note following 1 June 1857 to Taylor, 75; 18 June 1858 to MEC, 82 n. 2).
275.28 hurricane-deck . . . wheel-house] The hurricane deck usually was the third deck. “The name was derived from the ever-present breeze that made it a favorite viewing place on warm evenings. It was the location of the boat’s large signal bell.” Wheelhouses covered the paddlewheels (“Glossary of Steamboat Terms” 2008; for diagrams of a typical Mississippi River steamboat, see HF 2003, 405).
275.33–34 I have already told in “Old Times on the Mississippi.”] In chapter 20 of Life on the Mississippi, Clemens wrote that after Henry was thrown into the river by the explosion, he returned to the burning boat to help others before he was overcome by his own injuries. But in an article written in late June or early July 1858, in which he precisely reconstructed the effect of the explosion on Henry, Clemens made no mention of this heroism (reproduced in facsimile in Branch 1985, 36). Here, as elsewhere, Clemens refers to Life on the Mississippi as “Old Times on the Mississippi,” the series of Atlantic Monthly articles that were reprinted in chapters 4–17 and form the core of the book (SLC 1875a; see 18 June 1858 to MEC, L1, 84 n. 7).
276.3–4 Dr. Peyton . . . fatal effects were soon apparent. I think he died about dawn] Clemens recalled Thomas F. Peyton in an 1876 letter: “What a magnificent man he was! What healing it was just to look at him & hear his voice!” (25 Oct 1876 to Unidentified, Letters 1876–1880). Henry died on 21 June 1858; Clemens’s identification of the immediate cause of death as an inadvertent overdose of morphine has not been confirmed.
Autobiographical Dictation, 15 January 1906
277.37 his daughter, Mrs. Wood] Julia Curtis Twichell (b. 1869) had been married to New York lawyer Howard Ogden Wood (1866–1940) since 1892 (“Twichell,” in “Hartford Residents” 1974; New York Times: “Wood–Twichell,” 27 Apr 1892, 5; “Howard Ogden Wood, a Philanthropist, 74,” 17 June 1940, 15).
277.41–278.11 house of James Goodwin . . . granite mansion for his father] James Goodwin (1803–78) had owned a mail stage line and afterward was a director of the Hartford and New Haven Railroad and an incorporator and president of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, the largest of Hartford’s insurance firms and one of the largest in the United States, with assets of over $40 million by 1875. The house his son designed and built for him on Woodland Street in Hartford was “one of the most extensive private houses in the city, and one of marked architectural importance” (see 3 July 1874 to OLC, L6, 176–77 n. 4).
279.7 Morris paper] Wallpaper designed by English author and artist William Morris (1834–96) and produced by his firm.
279.24 MRS. MORRIS’S ILLNESS TAKES A SERIOUS TURN] Clemens’s allusion to William Morris, in the previous paragraph, evidently triggered his recall of the completely unrelated Mrs. Minor Morris, and prompted him to have this article from the 11 January 1906 New York Times pasted into the typescript of this dictation. He had discussed Mrs. Morris’s experience in the White House of President Theodore Roosevelt at length in his dictation of 10 January. The article mentions William Howard Taft (1857–1930), at this time secretary of war; John Morris Sheppard (1875–1941), Democratic congressman from Texas; Charles Henry Grosvenor (1833–1917), Union veteran and Republican congressman from Ohio; Sereno Elisha Payne (1843–1914), chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, one of the most powerful Republican congressmen; and Marlin Edgar Olmsted (1847–1913), Republican congressman from Pennsylvania, an authority on parliamentary procedure.
280.13 Philippine Tariff bill] The bill, sponsored by Congressman Sereno E. Payne, proposed to permit Philippine sugar to enter the United States for three years at one-fourth of current duties, and subsequently to establish free trade between the islands and the United States. Vigorously opposed by the domestic sugar industry, the bill nevertheless passed by a wide margin in the House of Representatives on 16 January 1906, only to be buried in committee in the Senate on 2 March. Attempts to revive it later in 1906 and in 1907 failed (New York Times: numerous articles, 3 Jan 1906–27 Dec 1907).
281.36–37 Quaker City Excursion . . . “The Innocents Abroad,”] See “The Chicago G. A. R. Festival,” note at 67.6–13.
281.39–41 So I started . . . John Swinton] William Swinton (1833–92), brother of journalist and social reformer John Swinton (1829–1901), was a controversial Civil War correspondent for the New York Times. He later was a professor of English at the University of California at Berkeley (1869–74), and the author of military histories as well as textbooks on geography, grammar, and literature. Clemens roomed for a time with Swinton in Washington in the winter of 1867–68, while he worked for Senator William Stewart of Nevada and contributed letters to the New York Tribune and Herald, the San Francisco Alta California, the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, and the Chicago Republican. Although it is possible that they collaborated on a “Newspaper Correspondence Syndicate,” no firm evidence of it has been found (4 Dec 1867 to Young, L2, 125–26 n. 1).
282.12–13 six letters for the New York Tribune . . . got back] Clemens’s six Quaker City letters to the Tribune were: “The Mediterranean Excursion,” published on 30 July 1867; “The Mediterranean Excursion,” published on 6 September; “Americans on a Visit to the Emperor of Russia,” published on 19 September; “A Yankee in the Orient,” published on 25 October; “The American Colony in Palestine,” published on 2 November; and “The Holy Land. First Day in Palestine,” published on 9 November. The “pretty breezy one for the New York Herald” was “The Cruise of the Quaker City,” which poked bitter fun at the “pilgrims” and their activities and was published on the morning of 20 November 1867, the day after the excursion ended and just hours after Clemens wrote it (SLC 1867l, 1867m, 1867n, 1867o, 1867p, 1867r, 1867s; L2: 20 Nov 1867 to JLC and family [1st], 104; enclosure with 20 Nov 1867 to JLC and family, 399–406).
282.14–15 Every now and then I was able to get twenty-five dollars for a magazine article] Only one such article published in the winter of 1868 has been identified: “General Washington’s Negro Body-Servant. A Biographical Sketch,” which appeared in the February 1868 Galaxy magazine (SLC 1868b). How much the Galaxy paid for it is not known.
282.15–18 Riley and I . . . I will speak of him another time] John Henry Riley (1830?-72) was a newspaper reporter in San Francisco in the early 1860s when Clemens met him. In late 1865 he moved to Washington, where he was the regular correspondent for the San Francisco Alta California, also contributed to other papers, and served as clerk to the House Committee on Mines and Mining. In 1870 Clemens concocted a plan for Riley to visit the recently discovered diamond fields of South Africa to gather material for a book that Clemens would write. Subsidized by Clemens, Riley undertook the trip, and submitted travel notes to Clemens, but Clemens postponed work on the book, and then abandoned it entirely when Riley died of cancer in September 1872 (for further details, see L4, especially 2 Dec 1870 to Bliss and 2 Dec 1870 to Riley, 256–66, and L5). Clemens depicted Riley in “Riley—Newspaper Correspondent” in the November 1870 Galaxy magazine and modeled the “mendicant Blucher,” in chapter 59 of Roughing It, on him (SLC 1870e; RI 1993, 702). He did not, however, speak of him again in the Autobiographical Dictations.
282.19–24 I had a chance . . . “Concerning the Great Beef Contract.”] The article described here was “The Facts in the Case of George Fisher, Deceased,” published in the January 1871 issue of Galaxy magazine. Clemens confused it with “The Facts in the Case of the Great Beef Contract,” about an unpaid 1861 military supply obligation, published in the May 1870 Galaxy. He included both sketches in his 1875 collection, Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old (SLC 1871b, 1870b, 1875c).
282.25–26 A. R. Spofford . . . Librarian of Congress then] Ainsworth Rand Spofford (1825–1908), former associate editor of the Cincinnati Commercial, became chief assistant to the librarian of Congress in 1861 and then became librarian himself in 1864. He remained in the post until 1897, when he became chief assistant once again, for the remainder of his life. Clemens probably first met him in Washington in the winter of 1867–68. He corresponded with Spofford about copyright on more than one occasion (see L4, LS, and L6).
282.29 Tooke on Prices] Thomas Tooke’s A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, from 1793 to 1837; Preceded by a Brief Sketch of the State of the Corn Trade in the Last Two Centuries (Tooke 1838–57).
Autobiographical Dictation, 16 January 1906
283.13–14 When you arrive . . . at eleven] Clemens was addressing his stenographer, Josephine Hobby.
283.36–284.1 Did I dictate something about John Malone . . . my acquaintance] For Malone, see the note at 286.38–39. Volney Streamer (1850–1915), librarian of The Players club since December 1905, had been an actor in Edwin Booth’s company, was a literary adviser at Brentano’s (the famed New York booksellers), and compiled several collections of literary excerpts, including Voices of Doubt and Trust (Streamer 1897), copies of which Clemens acquired in February 1902 and December 1905. Both were gifts; the second might well have been presented personally by Streamer. Clemens also owned In Friendship’s Name (Streamer 1904), possibly another 1905 gift from the author (see Gribben 1980, 2:673–74; “Volney Streamer,” New York Times, 15 Apr 1915, 13).
284.5 And some time . . . about that] He already had; see the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 January 1906, especially the note at 255.19–22.
284.7 David Munro . . . editor of the North American Review] Munro (1844–1910) was born in Scotland and attended Edinburgh University. After emigrating to the United States as a young man, he worked in the literary department of Harper and Brothers. He became the manager of the North American Review in 1889, and seven years later became an editor as well. Since George Harvey’s purchase of the journal in 1899, Munro had served as his assistant editor. In addition, he was a Greek scholar who contributed to a comparative Greek-English New Testament and other publications (“David A. Munro Dead,” New York Times, 10 Mar 1910, 9).
284.7–8 Robert Reid, the artist; Saint-Gaudens, the sculptor] Reid (1862–1929), an American Impressionist painter and muralist, was born in Massachusetts and attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, completing his studies in New York and Paris. Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848–1907) was born in Dublin but grew up in New York City. He took art classes there at the Cooper Union, and then studied in Paris under François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts and later in Rome. He was known primarily for his public sculptures of famous people.
284.31 John McCullough] McCullough (1832–85) emigrated from Ireland at the age of fourteen. He settled in Philadelphia, where he taught himself to read and write, studied drama, and at twenty-four made his stage debut. In 1861 he joined the touring company of actor and playwright Edwin Forrest (1806–72). Later he was for a time a theatrical manager as well as an actor in San Francisco, then performed extensively throughout the United States, becoming one of the most eminent and popular actors of the day.
285.18–19 President of the New York City College] John H. Finley (see AD, 10 Jan 1906, note at 255.18–19).
285.36 he is providing another, for the 6th of February] No information about this dinner has been discovered.
286.27 Bishop Greer] David Hummell Greer (1844–1919), Episcopal clergyman and rector at St. Bartholomew’s Church in New York (1888–1903), became bishop coadjutor of New York in 1904.
286.31 Dr. Hawkes] Forbes Robert Hawkes (1865–1940), a prominent surgeon, was a professor of clinical surgery at the Post-Graduate Hospital in New York from 1901 to 1905.
286.38–39 John Malone . . . passing from this life] Like Clemens, Malone had been an incorporator and charter member of The Players club. Isabel Lyon wrote in her diary on 16 January, “John Malone is dead—Mr. Clemens had me telephone to Volney Streamer at the Players that if they are short of pall bearers, he will be one—Yesterday Mr Clemens was talking with Mr Twichell about John Malone: & now he is dead” (Lyon 1906, 16). Twichell had cut Malone’s obituary from the New York Times of 16 January. When inserting it into this dictation, Clemens corrected the Times’s “Mr. Malone was 78 years old,” but how accurately is unknown. The New York Tribune’s obituary noted that Malone “was fifty-six years old, though many supposed him older” (“Apoplexy Kills Actor,” 16 Jan 1906, 7). Clemens was in fact one of the pallbearers at Malone’s funeral, on 18 January, at the Church of St. Francis Xavier, on West Sixteenth Street (“Funeral of Actor John Malone,” New York Times, 19 Jan 1906, 11; Lanier 1938, 358).
287.1–5 I started to say . . . happened] About 1893 Clemens drafted a prospectus for The Back Number. He noted there that the idea had come to him “when I was a newspaper correspondent in Washington,” that is, in the winter of 1867–68 (SLC 1893, 1; see also AD, 17 Jan 1906).
Autobiographical Dictation, 17 January 1906
287.7–11 I have tried to get publishers . . . latest effort three years ago] Clemens’s first attempt to make The Back Number a reality evidently came in November 1893, shortly after he prepared a prospectus for it (SLC 1893). He tried, unsuccessfully, to enlist the support of John Brisben Walker, editor of Cosmopolitan magazine. Clemens thought that Samuel E. Moffett, his nephew, could edit the magazine. Nothing is known of his 1903 effort to interest a publisher (Notebook 33, TS pp. 37, 38, 39a, CU-MARK).
287.26–32 Twichell and I stepped across the street . . . I was there at the time] Clemens and Twichell visited Daniel Edgar Sickles (1823–1914) at his home at 23 Fifth Avenue (Clemens lived at 21 Fifth Avenue on the corner of 9th Street) on the evening of 15 January 1906. Sickles was a former lawyer, Democratic congressman from New York (1857–61, 1893–95), and a controversial diplomat and Civil War general. On 27 February 1859 he fatally shot Francis Scott Key’s son on Pennsylvania Avenue, near the White House, because the younger Key had had an affair with his wife. Sickles was acquitted on the grounds of temporary insanity by a jury that shared the widespread public opinion that he had acted justifiably. This was the first time that the temporary-insanity defense was used. On the day of the shooting Clemens had arrived in St. Louis on the Aleck Scott, serving as a cub pilot under Bixby (“Steamboat Calendar,” L1, 388; Twichell 1874–1916, 2:117–18; New York Times: “Dreadful Tragedy,” 28 Feb 1859, 1; “The Sickles Tragedy,” 27 Apr 1859, 1; “The Acquittal of Mr. Sickles,” 28 Apr 1859, 4; “Gen. Sickles Dies; His Wife at Bedside,” 4 May 1914, 1).
287.34 Twichell was a chaplain in Sickles’s brigade in the Civil War] The regiment in which Twichell served as chaplain from 1861 to 1864 was part of the Excelsior Brigade commanded by Sickles, which saw action in several important battles (Twichell 2006, 1, 4).
288.5–6 The late Bill Nye . . . Wagner’s music is better than it sounds] Edgar Wilson (Bill) Nye (1850–96) was a journalist and then a popular humorist and lecturer. Clemens himself is often mistakenly credited with this remark.
288.12–26 Sickles lost a leg at Gettysburg . . . Twichell quoted that speech] The bloody Union victory at Gettysburg consumed the first three days of July 1863. Twichell described the battle in a letter of 5 July to his sister, Sarah Jane, in which he gave an account of Sickles that must have been very like the one he later gave to Clemens during one of their regular walks in the Hartford woods:
At a little before sunset the sad intelligence spread that Gen. Sickles was wounded. He had been the master-spirit of the day and by his courage, coolness and skill had averted a threatened defeat. All felt that his loss was a calamity. I met the ambulance in which he had been placed, accompanied it, helped lift him out, and administered the chloroform at the amputation. His right leg was torn to shreds, just below the knee—so low that it was impossible to save the knee. His bearing and words were of the noblest character. “If I die,” said he, “let me die on the field,” “God bless our noble cause,” “In a war like this, one man isn’t much,” “My trust is in God,” were some of the things he said. I loved him then, as I never did before. He has been removed, but we are informed that he is doing well. (Twichell 2006, 2, 249)
Joseph O’Hagan (1826–78), a Jesuit, was Twichell’s Catholic counterpart with Sickles’s Excelsior Brigade. He and Twichell remained close after the war (see 1 Feb 1875 to Stoddard, L6, 367 n. 6).
288.39–42 There was General Fairchild . . . grew to be well acquainted with him and his family] Lucius Fairchild (1831–96) lost his left arm at Gettysburg on 1 July 1863. A few months later he was mustered out of the Union army with the rank of brigadier general. He subsequently served three terms as governor of Wisconsin (1866–72) and then entered the diplomatic service. One of his postings, from 1878 to 1880, was as the U.S. consul general in Paris. The Clemenses became friendly with him and his wife while living there, sometime between late February and early July 1879, during the European excursion that became the basis of A Tramp Abroad (N&J2, 48, 287,315–16).
289.4 General Noyes . . . lost a leg in the war] Edward Follansbee Noyes (1832–90) interrupted his law career in 1861 to join the Union army, rising to the rank of brigadier general. His left leg was amputated as a result of a wound he suffered in battle on 4 July 1864. After the war he served as a judge, as governor of Ohio (1871–73), and then as U.S. minister to France (1878–81).
Autobiographical Dictation, 18 January 1906
292.3–4 Senator Tillman . . . frank and intimate criticism of the President] Democratic Senator Benjamin Ryan Tillman (1847–1918) delivered his furious attack on Theodore Roosevelt in a packed Senate chamber on 17 January 1906 (“Tillman Fiercely Attacks Roosevelt,” New York Times, 18 Jan 1906, 1).
292.10 matter of the expulsion of Mrs. Morris from the White House] For details of the Morris expulsion and Roosevelt’s indifference to it, see the Autobiographical Dictations of 10 and 15 January 1906. According to the New York Times report of Tillman’s speech, which Clemens probably saw, women in the Senate galleries “wept as Tillman told of the treatment accorded to Mrs. Morris. At times Tillman himself shed tears and in a broken voice appealed for the cause of honor and truth. Not a sound of applause was heard. The Senate and the spectators were simply breathless as one intense furious blast after another came from the Senator” (“Tillman Fiercely Attacks Roosevelt,” 18 Jan 1906, 1).
292.18 I was already arranging a scheme in another matter of public concern] The “scheme” has not been identified.
292.29 His second cousin killed an editor] On 15 January 1903, Benjamin Tillman’s nephew (not his second cousin), James H. Tillman (1869–1911), the lame duck lieutenant governor of South Carolina, shot Narciso Gener Gonzales (b. 1858), editor of the Columbia State, on Main Street in Columbia. Gonzales died four days later. He had been a bitter political opponent of James Tillman’s and in 1902, during Tillman’s unsuccessful campaign for governor, used the State to denounce him repeatedly, and truthfully, as a debauched liar and drunkard. Although Benjamin Tillman was not on good terms with his nephew at the time and regarded him as a political opponent, he made a show of supporting him. On 15 October 1903 a jury acquitted James Tillman, who had justified his premeditated attack on Gonzales with a bogus claim of self-defense (New York Times: numerous articles, 16 Jan-30 Oct 1903; Monk 2003).
292.38–293.2 He reminds the Senate . . . a note of compliment and admiration to a prize-fighter in the Far West] Tillman noted that Roosevelt had written “a letter of sympathy to Fitzsimmons, the prize fighter . . . made public about the time Mrs. Morris was treated so brutally” (“Tillman Fiercely Attacks Roosevelt,” New York Times, 18 Jan 1906, 1). The letter to Robert Fitzsimmons was in the news in late December 1905, several days before the Morris incident. Reportedly it was “simply to extend the season’s greetings” and was not in sympathy for Fitzsimmons’s loss of his world light-heavyweight championship in San Francisco on 20 December (New York Times: “O’Brien Wins Fight in Thirteenth Round,” 21 Dec 1905, 7; “Roosevelt to Fitzsimmons,” 31 Dec 1905, 5).
293.12 We buried good old John Malone the actor, this morning] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 16 January 1906.
293.15–30 funeral of the Empress of Austria . . . ecstasy of delight through me] On 10 September 1898, while Clemens and his family were living in Austria, Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie (b. 1837), the empress of Austria, was assassinated in Geneva by Luigi Luccheni, “a demented Italian anarchist without nationalistic motives.” The state funeral, on 17 September 1898, “furnished one of the most extravagant displays of funereal pomp ever seen in the history of European royalty” (Dolmetsch 1992, 81). Clemens wrote about it in “The Memorable Assassination,” first published in 1917 (SLC 1917, 167–81).
294.6–7 in Virginia City . . . borders of California] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 January 1906, note at 251.32–38.
Autobiographical Dictation, 19 January 1906
294.21–22 serving as city editor . . . for a matter of two years] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 January 1906.
294.28 Plunkett . . . R. M. Daggett was on the staff] J. R. (Joe) Plunkett was a native of New York who had migrated to California in 1852 and to Nevada Territory in 1860, settling in Virginia City, where he was a miner and an editorial writer for the Territorial Enterprise. Rollin M. Daggett (1831–1901), also from New York, had been a journalist in San Francisco, founding the weekly Golden Era (1852) and the daily Evening Mirror (1860). Moving to Virginia City in 1862, he became a partner in a mining stock brokerage and also a part-time reporter for the Enterprise. In 1864 he joined the paper’s editorial staff and in 1874 succeeded Goodman as editor-in-chief. Later he served as a Republican congressman from Nevada (1879–81) and U.S. minister resident to Hawaii (1882–85) (Marsh, Clemens, and Bowman 1972, 467 n. 27; Wright 1893; 17 Sept 1864 to Wright, L1, 310–11 n. 3).
294.29–33 Goodman was the only one . . . Tom Fitch . . . modified him with a bullet] Thomas Fitch (1838–1923), born and raised in New York City, had been a Milwaukee newspaper editor and a California newspaper editor, lawyer, and assemblyman before relocating to Virginia City in 1863. That year he became the editor of the Virginia City Union. The details of his dispute with Goodman are not known. On 1 August 1863 Virginia City police foiled their first attempt at a duel, an incident Clemens reported for the Enterprise of 2 August and for the San Francisco Morning Call of 2 August and 6 August. On 28 September 1863 the two editors succeeded in dueling, in California, so as to avoid prosecution under Nevada territorial law (see the note at 298.12–13). Fitch was wounded in the right leg below the knee, but survived to employ his famed powers of oratory as Washoe County, Nevada, district attorney (1865–66) and as a Republican congressman from Nevada (1869–71). Clemens may have written the 29 September 1863 Enterprise report of the duel (see ET&S1, 262–66; L1: 26 May 1864 to OC, 300 n. 3; 11 Nov 1864 to OC, 319 n. 4).
294.38–295.2 He had been a major under Walker . . . campaign in Central America] In 1855 William Walker (1824–60), a physician, lawyer, and journalist, led a small volunteer military force on an expedition to assist a revolutionary faction in Nicaragua. In 1856 the government he established was recognized by the United States, and Walker had himself inaugurated as president. In 1857, however, after less than a year in office, he was defeated by an alliance of Central American countries and forced to leave Nicaragua. He made an abortive attempt to return that same year, and another in 1860 that ended with his death by firing squad in Honduras.
295.5–15 I knew the Gillis family . . . Steve, George, and Jim, very young chaps] Stephen E. Gillis (1838–1918) was one of Clemens’s closest Nevada friends. A typesetter by training, he was the foreman of the Territorial Enterprise when Clemens joined the paper in 1862. Gillis remained principally in Virginia City, working as a news editor on the Enterprise and then on the Virginia City Chronicle, until 1894. He then moved to Jackass Hill, California, where he lived with his brothers James (1830–1907) and William (1840–1929), both of them miners and friends of Clemens’s. Clemens was visiting Jim and Billy Gillis on Jackass Hill and in Angels Camp when, in February 1865, he first heard a version of the “Jumping Frog” tale that he made, and that made him, famous (see AD, 11 Jan 1906, note at 261.21–24). Late in 1864 and again in 1865 he lived with Steve and Billy Gillis and their father, Angus (1800–1870), in San Francisco. The brother who died campaigning with William Walker was Philip H. Gillis (1834–56). According to the family genealogy assembled by Billy Gillis in 1924, there was no brother named George (L1: 21 May 1864 to Laird, 291–92 n. 3; 25 Sept 1864 to JLC and PAM, 313–14 n. 3; 28 Sept 1864 to OC and MEC, 316 n. 3; link note following 11 Nov 1864 to OC, 320–22; 26 Jan 1870 to Gillis, L4, 35–39; N&J1, 63–90; William R. Gillis to H. A. Williams, 31 May 1924, photocopy in CU-MARK courtesy of Peter A. Evans; for more on Jim Gillis, see AD, 26 May 1907).
295.20 Bob Howland] Clemens met Robert Muir Howland (1838–90), a native of New York State, in Carson City, Nevada Territory, in 1861. Howland was a mine superintendent and a mine and foundry owner in Aurora who also served as the town marshal. In 1864 he was appointed warden of the territorial prison at Carson City, and in 1883 became a U.S. deputy marshal for California. In chapter 21 of Roughing It he appears briefly, but dramatically, as Bob H——, who, during a windstorm, springs “up out of a sound sleep,” knocks over his fellow boarders’ live spider collection, and shouts, “Turn out, boys—the tarantulas is loose!” Clemens and Howland remained friendly, corresponding regularly, until Howland’s death (RI 1993, 145; 29 Oct 1861 to Phillips, L1, 142 n. 2).
296.7–18 Goodman went off to San Francisco . . . things he had really accomplished] On 18 March 1864, writing from Virginia City, Clemens informed his sister that he was filling in as editor of the Enterprise because “Joe Goodman is gone to the Sandwich Islands” (18 Mar 1864 to PAM, L1, 275). In chapter 55 of Roughing It he gave an account of his stint as Goodman’s replacement that did not explicitly mention an editorial on Shakespeare:
Mr. Goodman went away for a week and left me the post of chief editor. It destroyed me. The first day, I wrote my “leader” in the forenoon. The second day, I had no subject and put it off till the afternoon. The third day I put it off till evening, and then copied an elaborate editorial out of the “American Cyclopedia,” that steadfast friend of the editor, all over this land. The fourth day I “fooled around” till midnight, and then fell back on the Cyclopedia again. The fifth day I cudgeled my brain till midnight, and then kept the press waiting while I penned some bitter personalities on six different people. The sixth day I labored in anguish till far into the night and brought forth—nothing. The paper went to press without an editorial. The seventh day I resigned. On the eighth, Mr. Goodman returned and found six duels on his hands—my personalities had borne fruit. (RI 1993, 377–78)
Goodman actually returned to Virginia City on 8 April 1864, well before Shakespeare’s birthday. There is no evidence that there were any challenges awaiting him (18 Mar 1864 to PAM, L1, 280 n. 15).
296.21–297.9 That theme was Mr. Laird . . . Laird accepted] The dispute between James L. Laird and Clemens occurred in May 1864, not in March–April while Clemens was the substitute editor of the Territorial Enterprise. It had at its heart an exchange of inflammatory columns in the Virginia City Union and the Enterprise, the latter written by Clemens, about funds raised in Nevada Territory for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, which aided sick and wounded Union soldiers (for full details, including Clemens’s challenge to Laird and the response, see 20 May 1864 to MEC through 28 May 1864 to Cutler, L1, 287–301).
298.12–13 two years apiece in the penitentiary . . . brand-new law] This law was not “brand-new” in May of 1864. It was section 35 of “An Act concerning Crimes and Punishments,” which had been passed on 26 November 1861. It established a penalty of from two to ten years’ imprisonment for both the sending and delivering of a challenge (26 May 1864 to OC, L1, 300 n. 2).
298.13 Judge North] John W. North (1815–90) was an associate justice of the territorial supreme court from 1862 to 1864 (L1: 29, 30, and 31 Jan 1862 to MEC, 145–46 n. 2; 13 Apr 1862 to OC, 189 n. 12).
298.22–36 That was a Mr. Cutler . . . immediately left for Carson] William K. Cutler, whose wife, Ellen, was president of the Carson City committee that had raised funds for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, had been offended by some of Clemens’s remarks in the Territorial Enterprise and had written to him in protest. Clemens responded defiantly on 28 May 1864, inviting Cutler to challenge him to a duel. It is not known whether Cutler obliged or, if he did, how much of the present account is accurate. What is known is that Clemens himself abruptly departed Nevada Territory on 29 May 1864 (see L1: 23 May 1864 to Cutler, 296–97; 25 May 1864 to OC and MEC, 297–99; 26 May 1864 to OC, 299–301; 28 May 1864 to Cutler and the link note that follows, 301–3).
299.1–6 In 1878 . . . I think it was correct and trustworthy] On 21 November 1878, two French politicians, the Republican Léon Gambetta (1838–82) and the Bonapartist Marie François Oscar Bardy de Fourtou (1836–97), fought a duel in which shots were exchanged but no one was injured. In 1880 Clemens ridiculed the encounter in “The Great French Duel,” chapter 8 of A Tramp Abroad. One of his “inaccuracies” was his claim that his “long personal friendship with M. Gambetta” resulted in his acting as Gambetta’s second “under a French name,” which accounted “for the fact that in all the newspaper reports M. Gambetta’s second was apparently a Frenchman” (New York Times: “The Latest Foreign News,” 22 Nov 1878, 1; “General Foreign News,” 23 Nov 1878, 1; “Belligerents of the Day,” 7 Dec 1878, 1; Child 1887, 521–24).
299.9–11 Italian Ambassador, M. Nigra . . . Signor Cavallotti’s adventures in that line] Constantino Nigra (1828–1907) was the Italian ambassador to Vienna from 1885 to 1904, one of several diplomatic posts he held. Felice Carlo Emmanuele Cavallotti (1842–98) was an Italian politician, author, and journalist known for fighting duels (see the notes at 302.14 and 302.30–33).
299.12–13 the unfinished chapter] The sixteen-page manuscript of his “unfinished chapter” was pasted onto the pages of the typescript. Entitled “Dueling,” it was written in Vienna on 8 March 1898; Paine published it in 1923 in Europe and Elsewhere (SLC 1898a).
299.39–42 Some months ago Count Badeni . . . the State forbids dueling] On 25 September 1897, Kasimir Felix Badeni (1846–1909), the Galician-born Austrian premier, fought a duel with Karl Hermann Wolf (1862–1941), a German Nationalist leader who had called him a “Polish pig.” Badeni suffered a superficial wound to his right wrist. Although dueling was illegal and considered a mortal sin by the church, neither man was prosecuted or excommunicated (New York Times: “Premier Badeni Wounded,” 26 Sept 1897, 5; “The Badeni-Wolff Duel,” 27 Sept 1897, 5; “Count Badeni Not to Be Punished,” 28 Sept 1897, 7; Dolmetsch 1992, 67).
300.41–42 unter sehr schweren Bedingungen] Under very severe conditions.
302.3–12 duel between Colonels Henry and Picquart . . . the duel then terminated] French army colonels Georges Picquart (1854–1914) and Hubert-Joseph Henry (1846–98) were among the principal figures in the Dreyfus Affair, a long controversy that began with the 1894 rigged conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935), a Jew victimized by anti-Semitic elements in the army and the press, for passing secret information to Germany. Picquart discovered that Dreyfus was not responsible for the treason and came to his defense, despite official warnings to conceal the discovery. In February 1898 Picquart and Henry testified for and against Èmile Zola, respectively, in Zola’s trial for libel for his writings in support of Dreyfus. During testimony Henry called Picquart a liar, which resulted in their 5 March 1898 duel. Henry subsequently confessed to forging much of the evidence against Dreyfus and then, on 31 August 1898, committed suicide. Picquart, whose defense of Dreyfus had led to his dismissal from the army, was reinstated when Dreyfus was finally exonerated in 1906. Arthur Ranc (1831–1908) was a French politician, novelist, and writer on history and politics (“Col. Picquart Wins a Duel,” New York Times, 6 Mar 1898, 7).
302.14 fatal duel of day before yesterday in Italy] Clemens alludes to the 6 March 1898 duel in Rome in which Felice Cavallotti was killed by a political and journalistic adversary. Sources differ as to whether it was his thirty-second or thirty-third duel (“Roman Duel Ends Fatally,” New York Times, 7 Mar 1898, 1).
302.19 I did not disturb him] Clemens’s “Dueling” manuscript ends here; there was no additional text in the first typed version of this dictation. But the presence of pinholes on the last leaf indicates that there was originally a newspaper clipping appended: below these words on the second, revised typescript, the following instruction is typed: “Here insert—and translate—the German article about Caval[l]otti’s duels.” When Clemens later read this second typescript he canceled the instruction and below it wrote the paragraph that follows, dated 13 May 1907. It is possible that the added paragraph includes his own paraphrase of the unidentified “German article.”
302.30–33 He held his sword . . . Death was instantaneous] According to the New York Times, when the duel began, Cavallotti “attacked his opponent vigorously”:
The first two engagements were without result, but in the third Signor Cavallotti received a thrust in the throat that severed his jugular. At first it was thought he was injured only slightly, but the gravity of the wound was perceived on his putting his hand to his mouth. He withdrew it covered with blood, and thereafter he could not utter a word. . . . Signor Cavallotti expired in ten minutes without speaking again. (“Roman Duel Ends Fatally,” 7 Mar 1898, 1)
Autobiographical Dictation, 23 January 1906
302.37–38 Booker Washington’s Tuskegee Educational Institute] Washington (1856–1915), born into slavery in Virginia, taught himself to read. He attended Hampton Institute and became a teacher there. Chosen to head the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama in 1881, he was a prominent advocate for the education and advancement of African Americans. Espousing a policy of “separate but equal” facilities for the races, he secured white as well as black support for the institute and his larger goals, while clandestinely supporting more militant efforts to achieve full civil rights for African Americans.
303.2–10 Mr. Choate presided . . . Fourth of July reception in Mr. Choate’s house in London] Renowned lawyer, diplomat, and wit Joseph H. Choate (1832–1917) was U.S. ambassador to Britain from 1899 to 1905. Clemens had been acquainted with him since at least 1876, and they had shared the platform on several occasions. Clemens first met Washington at Choate’s reception on Independence Day 1899—where there were over fifteen hundred guests. The day before, Choate had introduced Washington’s lecture on the “condition and prospects of the coloured race in America” at Essex Hall, London (“The Coloured Race in America,” London Times, 4 July 1899, 13; New York Times: “Forefathers’ Day,” 23 Dec 1876, 1; “Independence Day Abroad,” 5 July 1899, 7).
303.29 CHOATE AND TWAIN PLEAD FOR TUSKEGEE] Clemens dictated the instruction “Here insert the newspaper account of the meeting at Carnegie (of Jan. 22nd). The future editor of this biography can use what he chooses of it, or leave it out.” Hobby transcribed the entire article, which is also reproduced here. In the Autobiographical Dictation of 3 April 1906 he again wrote “[Insert Carnegie Hall speech here.]” on the typescript.
303.40 Robert C. Ogden] Ogden (1836–1913), a businessman and philanthropist, was a trustee of Tuskegee Institute and the Hampton Institute as well.
304.3–4 last November, when District Attorney Jerome . . . packing Carnegie Hall] William Travers Jerome (1859–1934), the district attorney of New York County, opposed the corrupt Tammany Hall “bosses.” He held rallies at Carnegie Hall on 18 October and 1 November 1905; at the latter he was introduced by “attendant spellbinder” Joseph H. Choate (New York Times: “Jerome Forces Expect a Big Crowd To-Night,” 18 Oct 1905, 5; “Whip the Bosses, Choate’s Bugle Call,” 2 Nov 1905, 1).
304.11 wealthy men who swear off tax assessments] Under New York City tax laws of the time, “a person assessed for personal property may ‘swear off’ the assessment by making oath that he does not own so much” (Hoxie 1910, 59).
304.22 William Jay Schieffelin] Schieffelin (1866–1955), a prominent businessman and civic reformer, was a trustee of Tuskegee Institute (“W. J. Schieffelin of Drug Firm Dies,” New York Times, 1 May 1955, 88).
304.26–27 Secretary of War Taft, President Eliot of Harvard, Bishop Galloway, and Andrew Carnegie] William Howard Taft, secretary of war since 1904 and later president (1909–13); Charles William Eliot (1834–1926), president of Harvard University (1869–1909), which granted Washington an honorary degree in 1896; Bishop Charles B. Galloway (1849–1909) of the Methodist Episcopal Church South in Mississippi; and Scottish-born industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919) (“Bishop Galloway Dead,” New York Times, 13 May 1909, 7).
305.6–8 I read in a book . . . by Mr. Murphy, Secretary of the Southern Education Board . . . wiped away more than one half ] Edgar Gardner Murphy (1869–1913), an Episcopal clergyman and amateur astronomer, was the board’s executive secretary from 1903 to 1908. Choate referred to Problems of the Present South, in which Murphy claimed that “the illiteracy of the negro males of voting age has been reduced in the Southern States from 88 per cent in 1870 to 52 per cent in 1900” (Murphy 1904, 165; Bailey 2009).
307.37 Dr. Parkhurst] In 1892, New York Presbyterian clergyman Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842–1933) preached a sermon attacking the Tammany government’s complicity in crime and vice. A grand jury decided that his charges were made without sufficient evidence; but Parkhurst rose to the empirical challenge, researching New York’s underworld in person and through detectives, obtaining enough data to instigate the Lexow Investigation and Tammany’s defeat (1894).
308.8–9 historian John Fiske, whom I knew well and loved] The historian John Fiske (1842–1901) published many works on evolutionary theory, and was a popular lyceum circuit lecturer. He lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts; Clemens knew him through Howells (MTHL, 1:36–37, 181 n. 5).
308.12–15 his wife . . . little son] Fiske married Abby M. Brooks (1840–1925) in 1864 and they had six children (“Obituary Notes,” New York Times, 13 Jan 1925, 19).
308.29 Henry Clay Trumbull] James Hammond Trumbull’s brother was a Hartford Congregational minister and author (1830–1903).
308.39 Thomas Dixon, Jr.] Dixon (1864–1946), born in North Carolina but a resident of New York City, was an actor, lawyer, politician, and Baptist minister before becoming an immensely popular and controversial author. At the time of this Tuskegee benefit, his latest novel was The Clansman (1905), in which the Ku Klux Klan free the South from “negro rule”; the book was ultimately the basis of D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation (1915).
310.12 Langdons, the family into which I married] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 1 February 1906, note at 321.25–27.
310.20–22 reference was made . . . in Washington, day after to-morrow] Clemens spoke at the meeting of the Gridiron Club on 27 January 1906. Its tradition of inviting the president and other officials for an annual satirical “roast” continues to this day. In 1906 the target of fun was the Panama Canal; President Roosevelt, Secretary of War Taft, and Colonel Harvey were among the invited guests. Evidently Clemens considered reviving his Whittier dinner speech for this occasion; earlier he had spoken of delivering it at Boston’s Twentieth Century Club (“A Night in Panama,” Washington Post, 28 Jan 1906, 1, 6).
310.37–38 Reverend Charles Stowe, a son of Harriet Beecher Stowe] Charles Edward Stowe (1850–1934), a Congregationalist minister, was the youngest of the seven children of fellow Nook Farm residents Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–96), the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) and other works, and her husband, Calvin Ellis Stowe (1802–86), a retired professor of theology (10 and 11 Jan 1872 to OLC, L5, 20 n. 4; “Rites Set for Rev. C. E. Stowe, Son of Author,” Los Angeles Times, 26 July 1934, 6; “Nook Farm Genealogy” 1974, 5, 28–29).
310 footnote *May 25 . . . I gave it a final and vigorous reading . . . my former admiration of it. M. T.] On his copy of the Whittier dinner seating plan, Clemens later wrote: “Note, 1907. This is Mr. Whittier’s 70th birthday dinner—that disastrous cataclysm! See account of it in my Autobiography. SLC” (CU-MARK). Given his praises of the speech in the present dictation and in the dictation of 11 January 1906, it is likely that “disastrous cataclysm” was ironic hyperbole.
311.3–4 Rev. Dr. Burton’s “Remains,” . . . your remarks at his funeral] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 12 January 1906. By “Burton’s ‘Remains’ ” is meant the posthumous collection of his lectures, which was prefaced with the funeral orations by both Twichell and Parker (Burton 1888, 27).
312.21 The Character of Man] Clemens dictated the instruction, “Put old MS. here.” He wrote this essay in 1884 or 1885, and revised the manuscript in January 1906 before Hobby transcribed it. The essay was first published in Paine’s edition of the autobiography (MTA, 2:7–13; see also WIM, 60–64, 586).
312.26–27 Creator. * * * *] Here, and below at 313.1 and 313.26, Clemens canceled passages in his manuscript and substituted asterisks to indicate the omissions. The canceled passages are transcribed in the Textual Commentary, MTPO.
313.32–35 one single independent man . . . to breed his fellow] In his manuscript Clemens interlined “H. L. Goodwin” in pencil above “fellow” and then canceled the interlineation in ink. Henry Leavitt Goodwin (1821–99) was a longtime resident of East Hartford, a member of the Connecticut general assembly in the early 1870s, and always much involved in public affairs. Over the course of years he “protested irregularities in the Hartford transit system and the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company” (WIM, 537; “Henry L. Goodwin Dead,” Hartford Courant, 17 Mar 1899, 1). It has not been determined when this “one single independent man” took his stand for seating.
313.35–36 Asylum street crossing] In Hartford.
313.42 Mrs. Grundy] An imaginary personage, proverbially standing for the threat of society’s disapproval; derived originally from Thomas Morton’s play Speed the Plough (1798).
314.15–18 Hartford clergyman . . . relative of mine] Clemens probably refers to Matthew Brown Riddle (1836–1916), professor at Hartford Theological Seminary from 1871 to 1887. Well known locally as one of the principal American contributors to the Revised Version of the New Testament (1881), he seems also to have been related to James G. Blaine (WIM, 537; “Dr. M. B. Riddle Dead, Aged 80,” Hartford Courant, 2 Sept 1916, 18).
314.22–23 the Cid, and Great-heart, and Sir Galahad, and Bayard the Spotless] These paragons of virtue are drawn variously from legend, literature, and history. The Cid, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar (ca. 1030–99), is Spain’s great hero of medieval romance; Great-heart is from Part Two of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678); Sir Galahad, in Arthurian legend, is the knight whose purity enables him to attain the Holy Grail; Bayard the Spotless is French knight Pierre du Terrail (1475–1524).
314.35 The preacher who casts a vote for conscience’ sake, runs the risk of starving] Clemens expands on this comment in the Autobiographical Dictations of 24 January and 1 February 1906.
314.38–315.1 Mr. Beecher may be charged with a crime . . . stand by him to the bitter end] In 1872 Henry Ward Beecher, the world-famous preacher of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, was accused of committing adultery with Elizabeth Tilton, one of his parishioners. In August 1874 Beecher was officially exonerated by a church council, whose verdict was strongly approved by the parishioners. That same month, Theodore Tilton sued Beecher for alienation of affections; the trial ended in a hung jury in 1875 (29? July 1874 to Twichell, n. 2, L6, 202–3; Applegate 2006, 440–42).
314 footnote Blaine] James G. Blaine (1830–93), the Republican presidential candidate in 1884, was accused by many, including some in his own party, of graft during his terms as congressman. Clemens joined with the faction of Republicans (the “mugwumps”) who repudiated Blaine and pledged to vote for Grover Cleveland, or another candidate, in protest. Their objections to Blaine are set forth in the public letter “To the Republican Voters of Connecticut,” which was signed by some one hundred Connecticut Republicans, including Clemens and Twichell (“Connecticut Independents,” New York Times, 13 Oct 1884, 1; N&J3, 77–78 n. 39; see AD, 24 Jan 1906).
314 footnote Hammond Trumbull] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 12 January 1906, note at 272.31–32.
315.1–2 but who so poor to be his friend . . . a vote for conscience’ sake] In 1884 Beecher, formerly a staunch Republican, declared he could not vote for Blaine, and campaigned for Cleveland, despite the revelation that Cleveland had fathered an illegitimate child. Beecher’s support of Cleveland—and the suspicion it engendered that he felt for Cleveland as a fellow adulterer—earned him public mockery and private threats (Chicago Tribune: “Campaign Chronicles,” 30 Sept 1884, 2; “Beecher’s Support of Cleveland,” 20 Oct 1884, 7; Beecher and Scoville 1888, 576–81; Applegate 2006, 462–64).
315.2 Take the editor so charged] Clemens apparently alludes to Charles Dudley Warner, who was editor and part owner of the Hartford Courant (see AD, 24 Jan 1906, and note at 317.35–40).
Autobiographical Dictation, 24 January 1906
315.14 this old article] That is, “The Character of Man” (AD, 23 Jan 1906).
315.23–24 father of the William R. Hearst of to-day, and therefore grandfather of Yellow Journalism] George Hearst (1820–91) was born into a family of farmers in Franklin County, Missouri. He migrated West with the Gold Rush and by the 1860s owned several silver and copper mines, which he would develop into a colossal mining empire. In 1886 he was appointed to the seat vacated by the death of California Senator John Miller, and was subsequently elected for a full term. In 1880 he acquired the San Francisco Examiner, chiefly for the propagation of his political opinions and ambitions; his son William Randolph Hearst (1863–1951) made it the cornerstone of a newspaper empire whose publications were frequently criticized as sensationalist and irresponsible. On Clemens’s attitude toward “yellow journalism,” see Budd 1981.
316.13–14 Sam Dunham . . . Edward M. Bunce] Samuel G. Dunham (b. 1849), brother of Austin Dunham, was a Hartford wool merchant at the time of Blaine’s nomination, and later vice-president of the Hartford Electric Light Company and a director of the Aetna Life Insurance Company (Dunham 1907, 38–39; Geer 1882, 65). Like Ned Bunce, he played billiards regularly at Clemens’s house. Bunce (1841–98), also of a prominent Hartford family, was for many years a cashier at the Phoenix National Bank and a director of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company (N&J2, 382 n. 76, 426 n. 229; “Edward M. Bunce,” Hartford Courant, 22 Nov 1898, 5). He was a close friend of the Clemens family; after his early death, Clemens wrote, “Ned was nearer & dearer to the children than was any other person not of the blood” (2 Dec 1898 to Bunce, CtHMTH).
316.17 George] George Griffin.
317.23–24 General Hawley, the editor-in-chief . . . of the paper . . . his post in Congress] In addition to being editor and part owner of the Hartford Courant, Joseph Roswell Hawley (1826–1905) was a lawyer, antislavery crusader, founder of the Connecticut Republican party, Civil War veteran (retired as a brevet major-general), and, briefly, governor of Connecticut (1866). At the time of Blaine’s nomination he was a U.S. senator (13 and 14 Feb 1869 to OLL, L3, 97 n. 5).
317.33 Charles Hopkins Clark’s editorship] Clark (1848–1926) became editor-in-chief in 1900; he had been on the editorial staff since 1871, the year he graduated from Yale (29 Apr 1875 to Holland, L6, 471 n. 2).
317.35–40 Charles Dudley Warner . . . election day] Clemens was in error: Warner neither refused to toe the Courant’s party line nor resigned as editor. In an 1884 letter Clemens chastised Warner, along with others, for concealing his private reservations: “Even I do not loathe Blaine more than they do; yet Hawley is howling for Blaine, Warner & Clark are eating their daily crow in the paper for him” (31 Aug 1884 to Howells, NN-BGC, in MTHL, 2:500–503; Kenneth R. Andrews 1950, 115).
317.41 conversation with the learned American member] Probably Matthew Riddle (see AD, 23 Jan 1906, 314.15–18 and note).
318.3–4 James G. Batterson . . . Travelers Insurance Company] Batterson (1823–1901) was also president of the New England Granite Works and an amateur Egyptologist (“James G. Batterson,” New York Times, 19 Sept 1901, 7).
318.23–24 At that time the voting was public] Only in the 1890s did the secret ballot begin to be used in the United States. In Connecticut in 1884, the voter was observed; he was permitted to fold the ballot so that it could not easily be read, but social and political pressures guaranteed that this option was seldom exercised (Lynde Harrison 1890).
318.37–319.1 Twichell had most seriously damaged himself . . . his vote for Cleveland] Clemens’s extended account of Twichell’s vote and its aftermath is distorted. In the first place, Twichell is represented as having voted for Cleveland; in fact, he could not bring himself to support the Democrats in any cause, and cast his vote for the Prohibition Party candidate. Furthermore, although Twichell’s vote did cause “displeasure,” as he put it, “among my friends and parishioners,” there is no evidence that he was ever asked to resign his pastorate (Kenneth R. Andrews 1950, 115–16; Strong 1966, 87–88; Courtney 2008, 216–20).
Autobiographical Dictation, 1 February 1906
319.22–23 Mr. Hubbard . . . business manager and part owner of the Courant] Stephen A. Hubbard (1827–90) had been part owner and managing editor of the Hartford Courant since 1867 (McNulty 1964, 91; “Obituary,” Hartford Courant, 13 Jan 1890, 1).
320.4–6 fortieth anniversary . . . weeks ago] Twichell’s fortieth year as pastor of Asylum Hill Congregational Church was celebrated on 13 December 1905 (“Rev. Mr. Twichell 40 Years Pastor,” Hartford Courant, 14 Dec 1905, 12).
320.32–34 I saw her first in the form of an ivory miniature . . . the following December] Olivia’s brother, Charles Langdon, was a youth of seventeen when his parents sent him on the Quaker City excursion as a safe alternative to a traditional grand tour. He struck up a friendship with Clemens near the end of the voyage, and showed him the miniature of Olivia on 5 or 6 September 1867, when the ship was in the Bay of Smyrna (link note following 8 June 1867 to McComb, L2, 63–64). Clemens’s Autobiographical Dictations leave some room for doubt about the dates of his first meetings with Olivia. The dictation of 13 February 1906 states that they were introduced on 27 December 1867 and met again five days later; this ignores a known meeting on 31 December, when Clemens went with the Langdons to hear Dickens read at Steinway Hall (see AD, 12 Oct 1907). It is possible that this, and not the twenty-seventh, was the day he met Olivia (L2: 8 Jan 1868 to JLC and PAM, 145–46 n. 3; “Itinerary of the Quaker City Excursion,” 394–95; “Mr. Dickens’ Readings,” New York Times, 31 Dec 1867, 4; for the excursion see “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad,’ ” note at 227.13–14).
321.7–8 nine years that we spent in poverty and debt] Clemens paid his debts in full in 1898, with the proceeds from his 1895–96 world lecture tour and the book based on it, Following the Equator (see “Something about Doctors,” note at 190.10–12).
321.18 As I have already said in an earlier chapter] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 13 January 1906.
321.25–27 her father’s house in Elmira, New York . . . with the whole Langdon family] Jervis Langdon (1809–70), a native of New York State, married Olivia Lewis in 1832, and the pair settled in Elmira in 1845. He became prosperous in the lumber business and then wealthy in the coal trade, which he entered in 1855. His extensive operations included mines in Pennsylvania and Nova Scotia, and a huge rail and shipping network supplying coal to western New York State, Chicago, and the Far West. An ardent abolitionist, Jervis Langdon served as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, and counted Frederick Douglass, whom he had helped to escape from slavery, among his friends. He died in 1870 of stomach cancer, leaving bequests totaling a million dollars. Olivia’s inheritance was to remain central in the life of the Clemens family. Charles Jervis Langdon (1849–1916), Olivia’s brother, succeeded his father in the management of the family’s coal business; he also exercised considerable responsibility for his sister’s inherited investments. In 1880 he served on Governor Alonzo B. Cornell’s staff as commissary general, and was for many years one of Elmira’s police commissioners (24 and 25 Aug 1868 to JLC and family, L2, 244 n. 3; “In Memoriam,” Elmira Saturday Evening Review, 13 Aug 1870, 5; Towner 1892, 615).
321.28–29 I was to be one of the editors of the Buffalo Express, and a part owner of the paper] With the financial assistance of Jervis Langdon, Clemens purchased a one-third interest in the Buffalo Express in August 1869, becoming at the same time “associate editor” (MTB, 1:385–89; see 14 Aug 1869 to Bliss, L3, 296 n. 2).
321.30 a friend] John D. F. Slee, chief officer of Langdon’s coal firm, played a part in the “conspiracy” described by Clemens. In December 1869 Slee wrote to Clemens that “boarding anyhow is miserable business” but that he had arranged rooms in a respectable boardinghouse and would appreciate advance notice of the couple’s arrival, that he might “meet and accompany you to your ‘Quarters’ ” (Slee to SLC, 27 Dec 1869, CU-MARK; 27 Feb 1869 to OLL, 24 and 25 Nov 1869 to OLL, L3, 119 n. 4, 406 n. 1).
321.37–38 Delaware Avenue, and had laid in a cook] The Clemenses’ new house in Buffalo was at 472 Delaware Avenue. The cook and housekeeper, Ellen White, was a former Langdon family servant (6 Feb 1870 to Bowen, L4, 54–55 n. 5).
322.3 So the comedy ended very pleasantly] For other accounts of the Clemenses’ wedding and the surprise in Buffalo, see the link note following 28–31 Jan 1870 to Twichell, L4, 42–49.
322.27 Patrick’s daughter Nancy] Anne (Nancy) McAleer, born in 1883, was a near contemporary of Jean’s (Hartford Census 1900, 8B; Hartford Census 1910, 7B).
322.31–42 Patrick McAleer, faithful and valued friend of our family . . . served it thirty-six years] McAleer (1844?-1906) was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, and emigrated to America at age sixteen. He married Mary Reagan of Elmira, New York; they had nine children, one of whom evidently died in infancy (“Coachman Many Years for Mark Twain,” Hartford Courant, 26 Feb 1906, 6; Hartford Census 1910, 7B). McAleer moved with the Clemenses from Buffalo to Hartford, working for them, almost without interruption, until 1891. He returned briefly to the Clemens household in Dublin, New Hampshire, in 1905; in a letter of 20 May 1905 to his daughter Clara, Clemens described his delight in seeing him again:
And Patrick! He is a vision out of a time when your mother was a girl & I a lad! And what a pleasure he is to my eye, & how the view of him fits in with the rest of the scenery! The same, same Patrick—trim, shapely, alert, competent for all things, taking two steps to any other man’s one, not a gray hair nor any other sign of age about him, & his voice that same old pleasant sound! He served us twenty-two years & is a youth yet. (MoHM)
323.13–14 They lost one . . . assistant editor of a Hartford daily paper] One of McAleer’s sons, Edward McAleer, a plumber, died in January 1905 at age thirty; nothing is known of a son who worked for a newspaper (“Killed by a Fall,” Hartford Courant, 30 Jan 1905, 5).
Autobiographical Dictation, 2 February 1906
324.32 her uncle and aunt, Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Crane] Susan Langdon Crane (1836–1924) was born Susan Dean, but was orphaned at the age of four and adopted by the Langdon family. Although she was nearly ten years older than Olivia, her foster sister, they remained close throughout their lives. In 1858 she married Theodore Crane (1831–89), who later became a partner in the Langdon family coal business. The Cranes lived at Quarry Farm, outside Elmira. The uncle present during Susy’s final illness was Charles Langdon, not Crane, who had died some years earlier (19 Aug 1896 to OLC [1st], CU-MARK, in LLMT, 321–22; Notebook 39, TS p. 55, CU-MARK).
325.15–25 In one of her own books I find some verses . . . whispered “I am rest.”] As Clemens later discovered (see AD, 22 Jan 1907), this poem was not written by Susy but by Canadian poet William Wilfred Campbell (1860?–1918). Entitled “Love,” it was first published in the October 1891 issue of the Century Magazine, where Susy most likely saw it (Campbell 1891).
326.13–21 Miss Foote (the governess) had been teaching her . . . God and a heaven—or something better] Since about 1880 Susy and Clara’s Hartford governess had been Lilly Gillette Foote (1860–1932), a “recent graduate of Cambridge University’s Newnham College, . . . worldly, well-travelled, and socially progressive,” and also “the niece of Harriet Foote Hawley, one of the five Hartford women who in October 1880 founded the Connecticut Indian Association, a female native rights advocacy organization” (Salsbury 1965, 426; Driscoll 2005, 8). Clemens was not above learning something from his daughter and her governess. In 1884 he extensively annotated Richard Irving Dodge’s Our Wild Indians: Thirty-Three Years’ Personal Experience among the Red Men of the Great West (Dodge 1883), saying at one point that “The Indian’s bad God is the twin of our only God; his good God is better than any heretofore devised by man.” Also: “Our illogical God is all-powerful in name, but impotent in fact; the Great Spirit is not all-powerful, but does the very best he can for his injun and does it free of charge.” And: “We have to keep our God placated with prayers, and even then we are never sure of him—how much higher and finer is the Indian’s God” (HH&T, 90; quoted in Driscoll 2005, 5).
326.22–23 I wrote down this pathetic prayer . . . children’s sayings] In 1881 Clemens did indeed record this exchange in “A Record of the Small Foolishnesses of Susie & ‘Bay’ Clemens (Infants)”:
Susie (9 yrs old,) had been sounding the deeps of life, & pondering the result. Meantime the governess had been instructing her about the American Indians. One day Mamma, with a smitten conscience, said—
“Susie, I have been so busy that I haven’t been in at night lately to hear you say your prayers. Maybe I can come in tonight. Shall I?”
Susie hesitated, waited for her thought to formulate itself, then brought it out:
“Mamma, I don’t pray as much as I used to—& I don’t pray in the same way. Maybe you would not approve of the way I pray now.”
“Tell me about it, Susie.”
“Well, mamma, I don’t know that I can make you understand; but you know, the Indians thought they knew: & they had a great many gods. We know, now, that they were wrong. By & by, maybe it will be found out that we are wrong, too. So, now, I only pray that there may be a God—& a heaven—OR SOMETHING BETTER.”
It was a philosophy that a sexagenarian need not have been ashamed of having evolved. (SLC 1876–85, 89–90)
327.11–13 She had written a play . . . friends in our house in Hartford] Susy’s play, entitled A Love-Chase, was performed in the drawing room of the Hartford house on Thanksgiving night 1889, and repeated twice on later occasions. The cast included Susy, Clara, Jean, and Margaret (Daisy) Warner (1872–1931), the daughter of George and Lilly Warner (3 Dec 1889 to Baxter, NN-BGC). Clemens gave a fuller version in “Memorial to Susy”:
When Susy was nearly seventeen she wrote a play herself—a lovely little fancy, formed upon Greek lines. There were songs in it, & music, & several dances. There were only five characters: Music, Art, Literature, Cupid, & a shepherd lad. Susie was Music, Margaret Warner was Literature, Clara was Art, Fanny Frees was the shepherd lad, & our Jean—what there was of her—was Cupid. She was very little. Susy was a vision. I can see her yet as she parted the curtains & stood there, young, fresh, aglow with excitement, & clothed in a tumbling cataract of pink roses. (SLC 1896–1906, 42–43)
327.14 George] George H. Warner (1833–1919) worked for the American Emigrant Company, which helped foreign settlers. His wife, Lilly (1835–1915), was the former Elisabeth Gillette (link note following 7 Mar 1872 to OC, L5, 56).
327.19 Mrs. Cheney, I think, author of the biography of her father] Mary Bushnell Cheney published Life and Letters of Horace Bushnell in 1880.
327.31 In Munich] The Clemens family—Samuel, Olivia, Susy, and Clara, with family friend Clara Spaulding and the children’s nurse Rosina Hay—toured Europe in 1878–79, visiting Germany, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, and England. They were in Munich from November 1878 through February 1879. This European tour furnished Clemens with material for his travel book A Tramp Abroad (N&J2, 3, 41–43, 48).
327.36 she was “never the one that ate, but always the one that was eaten.”] Clemens recorded Susy’s comment in his manuscript “A Record of the Small Foolishnesses of Susie & ‘Bay’ Clemens (Infants),” where it is given in Susy’s “exact language”: “But mamma, the trouble is, that I am never the bear but always the PERSON” (SLC 1876–85, 31).
327.38 When she was six and her sister Clara four] In “Small Foolishnesses” Clemens dated this incident 7 December 1880, at which time Susy was eight, and Clara six (SLC 1876–85,86).
328.12 Marjorie Fleming] Marjorie (properly Marjory) Fleming, born in Kirkcaldy (Fife, Scotland) in 1803, died of spinal meningitis at the age of eight, leaving behind her a small but precocious body of writing: letters, journals, and poems. In 1858, H. B. Farnie published selections from her works in Pet Marjorie: A Story of Child Life Fifty Years Ago. Dr. John Brown (1810–82), an Edinburgh physician and man of letters best known for his dog story “Rab and His Friends” (1858), published an elaborate essay inspired by Farnie’s book in 1863, developing a sentimental and undocumented friendship between Marjory and Sir Walter Scott. Brown’s essay was frequently reprinted in book form. When the Clemenses befriended Dr. Brown in 1873, he gave Olivia a copy. Clemens’s enthusiasm for this literary child heroine found belated expression in his magazine article “Marjorie Fleming, the Wonder Child” (SLC 1909d). Susy might have reminded Clemens of Marjory for reasons beyond their connection with Dr. Brown: both were precocious literary talents, both died of meningitis, and Clemens was now engaged in publishing Susy’s juvenilia (Fleming 1935, xiii–xxii; Farnie 1858; OLC and SLC to Langdon, 2 and 6 Aug 1873, L5, 428–29 n. 2; John Brown 1863a, 1863b; Gribben 1980, 1:87).
328.16 In 1873 . . . we arrived in Edinburgh] The Clemens family—with Clara Spaulding, Clemens’s secretary (Samuel C. Thompson), and Susy’s nursemaid (Nellie)—arrived in London in May 1873 expecting to stay in England until October. Clemens was greatly lionized, and his social schedule left the family little time for sightseeing, leisure, and the collection of materials for a book. Clemens wrote to Mary Mason Fairbanks on 6 July: “We seem to see nothing but English social life; we seem to find no opportunity to see London sights. . . . nothing, in fact, to make a book of”; and to Warner he complained, “We only dine. We do nothing else.” For relief, they decided to “ ‘do’ Scotland,” and went to Edinburgh (L5: 12 May 1873 to Redpath, 364; OLC and SLC to Langdon, 17 May 1873, 366–67; 6 July 1873 to Fairbanks, 402; 10? July 1873 to Warner, 411).
Autobiographical Dictation, 5 February 1906
328.30–33 Mr. Douglas, the publisher . . . the support of himself and his maiden sister] Brown suffered from depression. On 28 February 1876 George Barclay wrote to Clemens that Brown’s health had “so completely given way under the strain of professional practice, as to make in the opinion of his friends more than doubtful whether Dr Brown will ever be able safely to attempt regular practice as a physician again” (CU-MARK). The friends who took it upon themselves to raise the fund were headed by Barclay and Edinburgh publisher David Douglas. For his part, Clemens gave a public reading with the proceeds going (confidentially) to Brown. In a letter of 5 May, Barclay acknowledged receipt of £40 from Clemens, adding that almost £7,000 had been raised and that Brown had announced his retirement. That same year Brown was awarded a royal pension “for distinguished literary eminence” (CU-MARK). Brown’s sister, Isabella Cranston Brown (1812–88), had managed his household since the marriage of his daughter in 1866 (17 Mar 1876 to Redpath, n. 2, Letters 1876–1880; OLC and SLC to Langdon, 2 and 6 Aug 1873, L5, 427, 429 n. 3).
329.11–12 “Who is it? Some one you know?” He said “No, a dog I don’t know.”] This anecdote comes from Elizabeth T. McLaren’s memoir, Dr. John Brown and His Sister Isabella: Outlines. This little book was published in 1889 by Brown’s half-brother, Alex. Olivia’s copy, signed and dated 1890, is in the Mark Twain Papers (McLaren 1889, 14).
329.14 her big big brown eyes] In the first typescript of this dictation, Susy’s eyes are “blue”; Clemens apparently revised that to “brown,” the reading in the second typescript (his actual inscription is now illegible). He complained that he was almost never able to recall the eye color of others, even those closest to him. On one occasion—which he recalled took place in 1886—it was discovered that he did not know the eye color of any of his three daughters (see AD, 8 Nov 1906).
329.30 that anecdote . . . told some hundreds of times on the platform] Clemens frequently told the “whistling story” in his 1871–74 lectures, and on other occasions as well; he had Colonel Sellers tell it in act four of the Gilded Age play. He usually attributed the story to Artemus Ward (SLC 1874a; link note following 10 Nov 1875 to Seaver, L6, 590–91).
331.12 sale of Joseph by his brethren] Genesis 37.
331.21–27 Once when Susy . . . crooked teeth and spectacles!] The version of this anecdote set down at the time in Clemens’s “Record of Small Foolishnesses” reveals that the “guest” was actually Olivia, and gives Susy’s exclamation as “I wish I could have crooked teeth & spectacles, like mamma!” (SLC 1876–85, 37).
331.31 what the shade of Burns would think] See Robert Burns, “To a Louse, On Seeing One on a Lady’s Bonnet at Church” (Burns 1969, 157):
O wad some Pow’r the giftie gie us
To see oursels as others see us!
It wad frae monie a blunder free us
An’ foolish notion . . .
332.9–22 Schloss gardens . . . “The ‘Slosh,’ at Heidelberg.”] The Schloss (castle) overlooking the town of Heidelberg has been a picturesque ruin since the eighteenth century. Adjoining it are the extensive Schloss Gardens, a place of public recreation, where Susy saw the “wild” snails. The first-class Schloss-Hotel—the subject of the interpolated anecdote—was on a hill above the castle, and was directly connected to the Schloss Gardens; the Clemenses stayed there from May through late July 1878. Clemens wrote about these places in chapters 2 and 4 and appendix B of A Tramp Abroad (Baedeker 1880, 226–29; N&J2, 79 n. 74).
334.11 sicisiors] Clemens reacted to Olivia’s spelling of this word in his letter of 17 January 1869: “ ‘Sicisiors’ don’t spell scissors, you funny little orthographist” (L3, 45). Olivia’s own letter is not extant. Some of Clemens’s remarks here about spelling, and about Susan Crane’s spelling in particular, recast material he had used long before at a spelling bee in 1875 (“Clemens’s ‘Spelling Match’ Speech,” L6, 659–63).
Autobiographical Dictation, 6 February 1906
334.36–37 I took to the platform again . . . in company with George W. Cable] From 1874 to 1884 Clemens made no lecture tours, giving only isolated readings (Fatout 1976, 651–56). His tour with George Washington Cable extended from November 1884 through February 1885.
335.3 General Grant has actually concluded to write his autobiography] See “About General Grant’s Memoirs.”
335.8–9 took her to see him . . . I will return to it by and by] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 26 February 1906.
335.18–21 At once the curtain was drawn . . . Susy Clemens, arrayed in the silks and satins of the prince] The first performance of the family’s Prince and the Pauper play took place on 14 March 1885, after the Clemens-Cable lecture tour had ended. For Susy’s own account of the play and its preparation, see the Autobiographical Dictation of 8 August 1906 (14 Mar 1885 to Pond, NN-BGC).
335.28–32 George . . . had been born a slave, in Maryland . . . body-servant to General Devens all through the war] George Griffin (1849?-97) was the Clemens family’s butler from at least 1875 until their removal to Europe in 1891. He was born in Virginia, not Maryland; during the Civil War he served General Charles Devens (1820–91). After leaving the Clemens family he moved to New York City, where, according to Clemens, he became a waiter at the Union League Club and did business as a private banker (4 Nov 1875 to Howells, L6, 583 n. 5; Grace King 1932, 86; SLC 1906a, 21–23).
336.3 Twichell’s littlest cub, now a grave and reverend clergyman] Joseph Hooker Twichell (1883–1961), Joseph and Harmony Twichell’s eighth child and youngest son, graduated from Yale in 1906 and four years later earned a Bachelor of Divinity degree from the Hartford Theological Seminary (Hartford Seminary Record 1910, 222; Courtney 2008, 224, 261–62). He was the only Twichell child to become a clergyman; presumably Clemens was making a joke about his youth.
336.18 Will Gillette, now world famous actor and dramatist] William Hooker Gillette (1853–1937) was Lilly Warner’s younger brother. After graduating from Hartford Public High School in 1873, he studied acting in St. Louis and New Orleans, playing minor roles with a stock company. In 1875, assisted by Clemens’s personal recommendation and financial support, he secured a role in the touring production of the Gilded Age play, and went on to a long and successful career as an actor and dramatist. He became particularly associated with the role of Sherlock Holmes (OLC and SLC to Langdon, 14 Mar 1875, L6, 413–14 n. 8).
337.12 the divine Sarah] Sarah Bernhardt (stage name of Rosine Bernard, 1844–1923) was the most famous actress of her time. Susy saw her perform at least twice in Florence in 1893, in two of her most famous vehicles, Adrienne Lecouvreur and La Tosca. At the time of this dictation, Clemens had recently spoken at a Bernhardt performance benefiting the Jews of Russia (OSC to CC, 24 Jan 1893, TS in CU-MARK; “Mark Twain Speaks After Bernhardt Acts,” New York Times, 19 Dec 1905, 9).
Autobiographical Dictation, 7 February 1906
337.20–24 When Susy was thirteen . . . writing of a biography of me] Clemens wrote in his notebook in early April 1885, “Susie, aged 13, (1885), has begun to write my biography—solely of her own motion—a thing about which I feel proud & gratified” (N&J3, 112; quoted more fully in the Introduction, p. 9). She worked on the biography until July 1886.
338.8 I shall print the whole of this little biography] Clemens ultimately used most, but by no means all, of Susy’s text.
338.10 The spelling is frequently desperate, but it was Susy’s, and it shall stand] Collation of Susy’s manuscript with Hobby’s typescript demonstrates that the text was transmitted orally to Hobby—that is, Clemens evidently read Susy’s text aloud and directed Hobby to spell many of the words incorrectly, as in the original (see the Textual Commentary for AD, 2 Feb 1906, MTPO). Occasionally Susy spelled something properly that was rendered erroneously in the typescript, and vice versa. Clemens also sometimes adapted her prose to the surrounding dictation.
338.30 John Robards] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 March 1906, note at 401.7–16.
339.17–18 I took the precaution of sending my book, in manuscript, to Mr. Howells, when he was editor of the Atlantic Monthly] William Dean Howells was assistant editor (to 1871) and then editor (1871–81) of the Atlantic Monthly. During that time he reviewed in its pages The Innocents Abroad (1869), Roughing It (1872), Sketches New and Old (1875), Tom Sawyer (1876), and A Tramp Abroad (1880). Of these, the only ones he read “in manuscript” were Tom Sawyer and A Tramp Abroad; he did, however, continue to read many of Clemens’s books in manuscript and review them in other journals (Budd 1999, 71–73, 105–6, 151–52, 157–58, 186–88, 215, 292–95, 407).
339.28–340.5 “The Gilded Age,” . . . Chicago Tribune . . . adopted the view of the humble Daily Graphic, dishonesty-charge and all] Clemens is incorrect in asserting that the New York Daily Graphic “scooped” the Atlantic Monthly in reviewing The Gilded Age. The Atlantic did not review The Gilded Age at all: since Howells felt he could not recommend it, he merely noted it as “received” (Howells 1874b, 374; Howells 1979, 46). As for the Daily Graphic, almost a year earlier its editor, David G. Croly, had given Clemens space to advertise the forthcoming novel. Clemens’s letter, reproduced by the Graphic in facsimile, read in part:
I consider it one of the most astonishing novels that ever was written. Night after night I sit up reading it over & over again & crying. It will be published early in the fall, with plenty of pictures. Do you consider this an advertisement?—& if so, do you charge for such things, when a man is your friend & is an orphan? (17 Apr 1873 to Croly, L5, 341–44; see “Photographs and Manuscript Facsimiles, 1872–73,” L5, 668–71)
The Graphic reviewed The Gilded Age rather roughly, calling it an “incoherent series of sketches” and “a rather dreary failure.” But it seems to have been the Chicago Tribune that originated the charges of “fraud,” “deliberate deceit,” and “abus[ing] the people’s trust.” The imputed offense was the authors’ sale of substandard goods, not the use of Mark Twain’s name to sell Warner’s work (“Literary Notes,” New York Daily Graphic, 23 Dec 1873, 351; “The Twain-Warner Novel,” Chicago Tribune, 1 Feb 1874, 9).
340.28–31 I found this clipping . . . of the date of thirty-nine years ago . . . I will copy it here] The clipping itself does not survive, but the “correspondent of the Philadelphia Press” has been identified as Emily Edson Briggs (1830–1910), who wrote under the pen name “Olivia.” The passage, drawn from her column datelined 2 March 1868 (in Briggs 1906, 45–47), was reprinted in one of the newspapers for which Clemens corresponded from Washington in early 1868—the Chicago Republican, the San Francisco Alta California, or the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise.
Autobiographical Dictation, 8 February 1906
341.19–20 Emmeline . . . an impressionist water-color] This painting was by Italian society portraitist Daniele Ranzoni (1843–89). Clemens bought it in Milan as a birthday present for Olivia in 1878. Its nickname of “Emmeline” may be related to the fictional picture made by Emmeline Grangerford described in chapter 17 of Huckleberry Finn (N&J2, 187 n. 50).
341.22 oil painting by Elihu Vedder, “The Young Medusa.”] American painter Elihu Vedder (1836–1923) had been resident in Rome since 1867. Clemens bought “The Young Medusa” after a visit to Vedder’s studio on 9 November 1878. If the painting was anything like the drawing by Vedder on the same theme, it depicted “the calm face of a woman with flowing locks. Tiny serpents are just springing from her forehead” (Soria 1964, 603–4; N&J2, 244–45 and n. 60).
342.11 Our burglar alarm] By 1877 the Clemenses’ Hartford house had been outfitted with what one newspaper referred to as “Jerome’s famous burglar alarm.” By 1880 the house had an electrically operated system, installed (and repeatedly serviced) by the New York firm of A. G. Newman. Doors and windows were fitted with magnetic contacts linked to an electrical circuit; when the system was armed, opening a door or window closed the circuit and sounded the alarm. A central device called the “annunciator” indicated which door or window had been opened; the annunciator also had switches for disconnecting all or part of the house from the alarm, and a clock for automatic regulation. Clemens’s struggles with the alarm form the basis of his 1882 story “The McWilliamses and the Burglar Alarm” (17 July 1877 to OLC [1st], Letters 1876–1880; “Burglar Alarms,” Hartford Courant, 12 Mar 1878, 2; Newman to SLC, 18 May 1880, CU-MARK; 22 Feb 1883 to Webster, NPV; Houston 1898, 11, 22; SLC 1882b).
342.31 Ashcroft] Ralph W. Ashcroft (1875–1947), born in Cheshire, England, was secretary and treasurer of the Plasmon Company of America in 1905 when Clemens considered legal action against it for mismanagement of his investments. Impressed with Ashcroft, Clemens took him to England in June 1907, and began to rely on him as his business adviser. At Ashcroft’s suggestion, the name “Mark Twain” was registered as a trademark, a step in the formation of The Mark Twain Company (1908). In 1909 Ashcroft married Isabel Lyon, Clemens’s secretary. For a time Ashcroft and Lyon managed Clemens’s business affairs, but in April 1909 he dismissed them. His lengthy and accusatory “Ashcroft-Lyon Manuscript” (SLC 1909b) describes their mismanagement as he saw it. Ashcroft subsequently worked as an advertising director for various Canadian business firms; he and Lyon divorced in 1926 (HHR, 735–36; Ashcroft 1904; Ashcroft to Lyon, 1 Mar 1906, CU-MARK; “Memorandum for Mr. Rogers re. Clemens’ Matter,” CU-MARK; “Business Leader, Friend and Aide of Mark Twain,” Toronto Globe and Mail, 9 Jan 1947, 7; Lystra 2004, 265).
342.33 Henry Butters, Harold Wheeler, and the rest of those Plasmon thieves] Plasmon, a powdered milk extract, was first marketed in Vienna while Clemens was living there in 1897–99. He came to see the product as a remedy for everything from Olivia’s illness to world famine. In his 1909 “Ashcroft-Lyon Manuscript,” he recounted his Plasmon entanglements, which began with an investment in the British branch of the firm:
By May, 1900, we had the enterprise on its feet & doing a promising business. Then some Americans wanted the rights for America. . . . The American company was presently started in New York. Henry A. Butters of California was one of the promoters & directors. He swindled me out of $12,500 & helped Wright, a subordinate, to swindle me out of $7,000 more.
Two of the directors—Butters and another—proceeded to gouge the company out of its cash capital. By about 1905 they had sucked it dry, & the company went bankrupt. (SLC 1909b, 8–9)
Clemens’s grievance was set forth in more detail by his lawyer, John B. Stanchfield:
Mr. Clemens contributed to the enterprise $25,000 . . . and believed that he was purchasing stock in the corporation, and that for every share that he bought, he was entitled to another share as a bonus. This was the arrangement Butters had told him had been made. . . .
It seems that Butters, who was the directing agent of the American corporation at the time, had the avails of Mr. Clemens’ moneys credited to his personal account, and transferred his own shares to the extent of 250 to Mr. Clemens. (Enclosure with Stanchfield to SLC, 4 Mar 1905, CU-MARK)
Henry A. Butters (1830–1908) was a San Francisco capitalist; his associates Howard E. Wright and Harold Wheeler successively managed the American Plasmon Company. Clemens began threatening Butters with a suit for grand larceny early in 1905. He returned to the subject of the Plasmon fiasco in the Autobiographical Dictations of 30 August 1907 and 31 October 1908 (8–9 Apr 1900 to Rogers, Salm, in HHR, 438–42; Ober 2003, 169–72; “Death Claims Railroad Man,” Los Angeles Times, 27 Oct 1908, 15; Ashcroft 1904; 11 and 14 Mar 1909 to CC, MS draft in CU-MARK).
343.28–29 I can’t see how it is ever going to fetch me out right when we get to the door] Clemens’s perplexity in this matter of the spoon-shaped drive of the house in Hartford can be better understood with the aid of a diagram he sketched in an 1892 notebook, reproduced here. No matter which way the buggy rounds the loop, a passenger seated to the right of the driver will end up on the side away from the house (Notebook 31, TS p. 37, CU-MARK).

345.9 ombra] The term that the Clemenses used for the veranda that surrounded the house; it means “shade” in Italian.
346.9 Susy Warner] Charles Dudley Warner’s wife (1838?–1921) was a talented pianist and a close friend of Olivia’s. Susy Clemens’s manuscript biography left a blank for Susan Warner’s name. Clemens supplied it in his dictation, but when he prepared the text for publication in the North American Review, he toyed with a pseudonym (“Tabitha Wilson”) before settling on “your wife” for the text he published there (24 and 25 Nov 1869 to OLL, L5, 407 n. 3; NAR 4).
Autobiographical Dictation, 9 February 1906
349.18–23 His mother is Grandma Clemens . . . F.F.V’s of Virginia . . . always strongly interested in the ancestry of the house] In Clemens’s lifetime the phrase “First Families of Virginia” was used informally to designate those who claimed descent from the earliest settlers of the state. The present-day Order of First Families of Virginia was founded in 1912. Susy apparently read an interview with her grandmother published in the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in March or April 1885 which was widely reprinted. The last paragraph read:
Mrs. Clemens was Miss Jane Lampton before her marriage and was a native of Kentucky. Mr. Clemens was of the F. F. V.’s of Virginia. They did not accumulate property and the father left the family at his death nothing but, in Mark’s own words, “a sumptuous stock of pride and a good old name,” which, it will be allowed, has proved in this case at least a sufficient inheritance. (“Mark Twain’s Boyhood. An Interview with the Mother of the Famous Humorist,” New York World, 12 Apr 1885, 19, reprinting the Chicago Inter-Ocean)
349.23–26 Lambtons of Durham . . . broke into the peerage] The Lambton family’s residence in County Durham, England, can be traced nearly to the time of the Norman Conquest (1066). John George Lambton (1792–1840) was created first earl of Durham in 1833; his grandson, also John George Lambton (1855–1928), became the third earl in 1879. Jane Clemens’s paternal grandfather, William Lampton (1724–90), who evidently belonged to a collateral branch of the family, emigrated to Virginia about 1740 (Burke 1904, 528–29; Debrett 1980, P409; Selby 1973, 112; Keith 1914, 3–4, 7).
349.29–33 Jere. Clemens . . . shot old John Brown’s Governor Wise in the hind leg in a duel] Clemens mistook the identities of both combatants. It was not Jeremiah Clemens but Sherrard Clemens who fought O. Jennings Wise—a son of Henry Alexander Wise, the governor of Virginia from 1856 to 1860, when abolitionist John Brown was active. Sherrard Clemens was severely wounded in the right thigh; Wise was uninjured (see “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 205.18; 21 June 1866 to JLC and PAM, L1, 346 n. 6; “The Wise and Clemens Duel,” New York Times, 24 Sept 1858, 2).
Autobiographical Dictation, 12 February 1906
350.4 trick on Grandma, about the whipping] This incident occurs in chapter 1 of Tom Sawyer.
350.15–17 Grandma couldn’t make papa go to school . . . those who were more studious in early life] Susy found this information in the April 1885 interview with Jane Clemens. She quoted nearly verbatim the last sentence in the following paragraph:
When Sam’s father died, which occurred when Sam was eleven years of age, I thought then, if ever, was the proper time to make a lasting impression on the boy and work a change in him, so I took him by the hand and went with him into the room where the coffin was and in which the father lay, and with it between Sam and me I said to him that here in this presence I had some serious requests to make of him, and that I knew his word, once given, was never broken. For Sam never told a falsehood. He turned his streaming eyes upon me and cried out: “Oh mother, I will do anything, anything you ask of me, except to go to school; I can’t do that!” That was the very request I was going to make. Well, we afterwards had a sober talk, and I concluded to let him go into a printing office to learn the trade, as I couldn’t have him running wild. He did so, and has gradually picked up enough education to enable him to do about as well as those who were more studious in early life. (“Mark Twain’s Boyhood. An Interview with the Mother of the Famous Humorist,” New York World, 12 Apr 1885, 19, reprinting the Chicago Inter-Ocean)
350.30–31 It was Henry . . . the thread . . . had changed color] See Tom Sawyer, chapter 1.
351.5 If the incident of the broken sugar-bowl is in “Tom Sawyer”] It is in chapter 3.
351.39 to give the cat the Pain-Killer] See Tom Sawyer, chapter 12. Perry Davis’s Pain-Killer was invented in 1840 and enjoyed widespread success. The label indicated that it could be taken internally “for Chills, Cramps, Colic” or applied externally for “Sore Throat, Sprains, Bruises, Chilblains.” Its main ingredient was alcohol, with added camphor and cayenne pepper (Ober 2003, 54–60).
351.42–352.1 Mr. Pavey’s negro man] Jesse H. Pavey was the proprietor of a Hannibal tavern until 1850, when he moved his family to St. Louis (Inds, 340).
352.3–6 cholera days of ’49 . . . chose Perry Davis’s Pain-Killer for me] Cholera visited the Mississippi valley perennially throughout Clemens’s youth. After its appearance in New Orleans in February 1849 it soon spread northward along the Mississippi River. Numerous deaths in Hannibal caused fear of a major epidemic like the one that was ravaging St. Louis, and the Pain-Killer was used as a preventive (Holcombe 1884, 297–98; Wecter 1952, 213–14; Ober 2003, 45–54).
352.19–20 I don’t remember what my explanation was . . . may not be the right one] Tom’s “explanation” was as follows:
“Now, sir, what did you want to treat that poor dumb beast so, for?”
“I done it out of pity for him—because he hadn’t any aunt.”
“Hadn’t any aunt!—you numscull. What has that got to do with it?”
“Heaps. Because if he’d a had one she’d a burnt him out herself! She’d a roasted his bowels out of him ’thout any more feeling than if he was a human!” (SLC 1982, 96)
353.3 Tom Nash was a boy of my own age—the postmaster’s son] Clemens’s schoolmate Thomas S. Nash was the son of Abner O. Nash (1804?-59) and his second wife. In “Villagers of 1840–3” (1897) Clemens noted that he became a house painter. Abner Nash was a former storekeeper and president of Hannibal’s Board of Trustees; although his “mother was Irish, had family jewels, and claimed to be aristocracy,” he had been forced to declare bankruptcy in 1844 and accept a low-paying postmastership in 1849 (Inds, 96, 337–38).
353.23 closing one was scarlet fever, and he came out of it stone deaf] In the working notes for the “St. Petersburg Fragment,” the second extant version of “The Mysterious Stranger,” Clemens wrote that “Tom Nash’s mother took in a deserted child; it gave scarlet-fever death to 3 of her children & deaf[ness] to 2” (MSM, 416; see also Inds, 96).
353.28–29 Four years ago . . . receive the honorary degree of LL.D.] Clemens traveled to Missouri in late May–early June 1902, to receive an honorary LL.D. from the University of Missouri at Columbia (4 June). He also spent a few days in both St. Louis and Hannibal, his final visit to the scenes of his childhood and youth (New York Times: “Degree for Mark Twain,” 5 June 1902, 2; “Mark Twain among Scenes of His Early Life,” 8 June 1902, 28; Notebook 45, TS pp. 14–17, CU-MARK).
353.38–40 Papa was about twenty years old . . . he said “Yes, mother, I will,”] Of course this too came from the interview with Jane Clemens:
He was about twenty years old when he went on the Mississippi as a pilot. I gave him up then, for I always thought steamboating was a wicked business, and was sure he would meet bad associates. I asked him if he would promise me on the Bible not to touch intoxicating liquors nor swear, and he said: “Yes, mother, I will.” He repeated the words after me, with my hand and his clasped on the holy book, and I believe he always kept that promise. (“Mark Twain’s Boyhood. An Interview with the Mother of the Famous Humorist,” New York World, 12 Apr 1885, 19, reprinting the Chicago Inter-Ocean)
Autobiographical Dictation, 13 February 1906
354.5–6 I was for a short time a Cadet of Temperance] Started in 1846 in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the Cadets of Temperance was a youth auxiliary of the Sons of Temperance. Initiates pledged to abstain from alcohol and tobacco. The Hannibal “Section” was founded in 1850, and Clemens was among the earliest members; his signature is the first on its manuscript “Constitution.” His friend Tom Nash and his brother Henry were also members. By his own report Clemens resigned in early July 1850. His name figures in a manuscript list of cadets dated “Nov. 25 1850,” possibly recording members delinquent in paying dues. His experience as a cadet is transferred to Tom in Tom Sawyer, chapter 22, and these ritualized temperance meetings are burlesqued in “The Autobiography of a Damned Fool,” chapter 4 (SLC 1877b; Eddy 1887, 340; SLC 1867h; Wecter 1952, 152–54; Cadets of Temperance [1850]; S&B, 149–53).
354.32 Mr. Garth] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 March 1906, note at 401.30–34.
355.2 We used to trade old newspapers (exchanges)] The post office allowed a newspaper publisher to send a single “exchange copy” to an unlimited number of papers, free of postage. This arrangement functioned as a primitive wire service, with news items being picked up and circulated nationwide. Having perused and clipped articles from the “exchanges,” a newspaper office would throw them away (Kielbowicz 1989, 141–61).
355.13–14 However, I feel sure that I have written . . . “Following the Equator.”] See Following the Equator, chapter 1.
355.17–22 papa had been a pilot . . . out to Nevada to be his secretary . . . Quaker City] See the Autobiographical Dictations of 12 January 1906 (note at 270.1) and 29 March 1906, as well as “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad.’ ”
355.30–32 That first meeting . . . five days later] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 1 February 1906, note at 320.32–34.
356.3–4 She became an invalid . . . and she was never strong again while her life lasted] The nature of Olivia’s ailment has been much debated. She became ill earlier, and recovered later, than Clemens allowed for in this dictation. Already “in very delicate health” at the age of fourteen (1860), she was treated by doctors and spent time at the Elmira Water Cure. Showing little improvement, she was sent to a sanatorium in Washington, D.C., and then to the Institute of Swedish Movement Cure in New York City, which prescribed kinesipathy (curative muscle movements). She spent more than two years there before returning home to Elmira. The visit from “Dr.” Newton (see the note at 356.7–8) occurred on 30 November 1864. Olivia’s case was recalled by Newton’s private secretary, writing about the cures wrought during that period:
One of these was at Elmira, N.Y., where Dr. N. went to treat Miss Libbie Langdon, whom he cured, and she has since married the author known as “Mark Twain.” Dr. N. found her suffering with spinal disease; could not be raised to a sitting posture in her bed for over four years. She was almost like death itself. With one characteristic treatment he made her to cross the room with assistance, and in a few days the cure was complete. (Newton 1879, 294)
Langdon family letters and papers, however, show that despite Newton’s visits Olivia’s health was still seriously impaired. She had a second visit from Newton on 3 June 1865, and was still unable to walk almost a year after that. A second stay at the Movement Institute in 1866 recovered her considerably; she regained her mobility but, as Clemens says, her health remained fragile (Skandera-Trombley 1994, 83–85, 90, 92–94).
356.7–8 Dr. Newton, a man who was regarded in both worlds as a quack] James Rogers Newton (1810–83), a businessman from Newport, Rhode Island, performed massively attended public “healings” in both America and England. He was not well regarded by either the scientific or the religious community. He seems to have had no medical training, and attributed his powers variously to “magnetic force,” “controlling spirits,” and “the Father that dwelleth in me.” His usual practice was “the laying on of hands,” but some remedies were less conventional: one patient suffering from tuberculosis was told “Go, take a male chicken, cut off the head, split it in the back, and place it, warm, on your breast” (Newton 1879, 206–71, 112–13, 38; “Rev. Dr. Buckley and Newton the Healer” 1883, 519; Ober 2003, 129–34). There is no independent documentation of Clemens’s own meeting with Newton (356.37–40).
356.11 Andrew Langdon] Langdon (1835–1919) was Olivia’s first cousin.
356.22–27 Newton made some passes . . . “Now we will walk a few steps, my child.”] Paine revised this passage on the typescript as follows, presumably in order to lend the whole transaction a more conventional, Christian cast:
Newton made some passes about her head with his hands; ^opened the windows—long darkened—and delivered a short, fervent prayer;^ then he put an arm behind her shoulders and said “Now we will sit up, my child.”
The family were alarmed, and tried to stop him, but he was not disturbed, and raised her up. She sat several minutes, without nausea or discomfort. Then Newton saidthat that would do for the present, he would come again next morning; which he did. He made some passes with his hands and said, “Now we will walk a few steps, my child.”
Paine partly explained himself in the margin, saying “He came but once ABP” (TS1, 309–10). The historical record shows that Paine was mistaken.
Autobiographical Dictation, 14 February 1906
357.5–8 There were three or four proposals of marriage . . . stay a week] Clemens’s courtship of Olivia was accomplished between his lecturing engagements in the fall of 1868. In early September she turned down his offer of marriage, but by the end of November, after two more refusals, she accepted. Clemens slightly exaggerated when he said his planned visit was extended by three days (357.8, 358.23): Olivia wrote on the day of his departure, 29 September, that he had planned to stay one day, and stayed one more because of his accident (L2: 7 and 8 Sept 1868 to OLL, 247–49; 28 Nov 1868 to Twichell, 293–94; OLL to Hooker, 29 Sept 1868, CtHSD).
357.15 democrat wagon] “A light wagon without a top, containing several seats, and usually drawn by two horses” (Whitney and Smith 1889–91, 2:1526–27).
358.33–38 I had referred him to six prominent men . . . (Stebbins,)] Only two of the men to whom Clemens referred Langdon in late November 1868 are known, both clergymen. The Reverend Horatio Stebbins (1821–1902), pastor of the First Unitarian Church, replied (in Clemens’s paraphrase): “ ‘Clemens is a humbug—shallow & superficial—a man who has talent, no doubt, but will make a trivial & possibly a worse use of it—a man whose life promised little & has accomplished less—a humbug, Sir, a humbug.’ That was the spirit of the remarks—I have forgotten the precise language” (25 Aug 1869 to Stoddard, MTPO [a fuller text than published in L3]). The other clergyman was the Reverend Charles Wadsworth (1814–82), pastor of Howard Presbyterian Church. Langdon himself wrote to James S. Hutchinson, a former employee then working as a bank cashier in San Francisco, asking him to investigate Clemens’s reputation. Hutchinson interviewed James B. Roberts, one of Wadsworth’s deacons, and reported his assessment: “I would rather bury a daughter of mine than have her marry such a fellow” (Hutchinson 1910). On 29 December, even before these troubling estimates could have reached Elmira, Clemens provided the Langdons with ten additional references (L2: 17 June 1868 to Fairbanks, 229 n. 2; 29 Dec 1868 to Langdon, 358–59, 360–61 n. 2).
359.8–13 Joe Goodman . . . Why didn’t you refer me to him?] Clemens had in fact referred Langdon to Goodman and other known friends—but only after he realized what the likely result of the first six names would be, one month after giving them to Langdon (29 Dec 1868 to Langdon, L2, 358).
Autobiographical Dictation, 15 February 1906
360.3 Hawthorne’s love letters . . . are far inferior] Julian Hawthorne included the love letters in his biography of his parents, issued around the time that Susy was writing. All of Clemens’s extant letters are published in Mark Twain’s Letters, Volume 3 (Hawthorne 1885; see “Calendar of Courtship Letters,” L3, 473–80).
362.3–10 He was prematurely born . . . followed by a dangerous illness] The “visitor whose desire Mrs. Clemens regarded as law” was apparently Mary Mason Fairbanks; her visit, and the dash for the station with which it ended, occurred in late October 1870. Langdon was born one month prematurely, on 7 November 1870. Three months later, in early February 1871, Olivia began to show symptoms of typhoid (L4: 5 Nov 1870 to OC, 222 n. 5; 17 Feb 1871 to JLC and family, 332 n. 1; for Langdon’s death see AD, 22 Mar 1906).
362.11 Mrs. Gleason, of Elmira] The Clemenses sent for Dr. Rachel Brooks Gleason (1820–1905), a physician and cofounder of the Elmira Water Cure, a health resort at which Langdon family members had often been treated (22 Feb 1871 to OC, L4, 335 n. 2).
362.21–28 Before Mrs. Clemens was quite over her devastating illness, Miss Emma Nye . . . illness proved fatal] Clemens reversed the actual sequence of events. Emma Nye (1846–70) was staying with the Clemenses on her way from Aiken, South Carolina, to Detroit; she lay ill with typhoid fever in the Clemenses’ own bed for almost a month, dying there on 29 September 1870. Olivia’s illness followed Nye’s death (L4: 31 Aug 1870 to PAM, 186 n. 3; SLC and OLC to Fairbanks, 2 Sept 1870, 189 n. 2; 7 Sept 1870 to Wolcott, 191; 9 Oct 1870 to Redpath, 206 n. 1).
362.35–36 a crude and absurd map of Paris upon it, and published it] In the fall of 1870, newspapers closely followed the reports of the Franco-Prussian War. The German army began advancing on Paris in early September, and many American newspapers published maps showing the city’s fortifications. Mark Twain’s burlesque (reproduced below) was printed in the Buffalo Express on 17 September 1870 (SLC 1870d). Clemens’s inscription on it reads: “Mr. Spofford, could I get you to preserve this work of art among the geographical treasures of the Congressional Library?” (see 10? Oct 1870 to Spofford, L4, 207).

Autobiographical Dictation, 16 February 1906
363.14 Aunt Susy’s] Susan Crane’s.
363.19 dear grandpapa] Jervis Langdon.
363.20–21 (Emma Nigh) . . . typhoid fever] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 15 February 1906, 362.21–28 and note.
363.23–25 (Miss Clara L. Spaulding) . . . great friend of mamma’s] Spaulding (1849–1935) was the daughter of a prosperous Elmira, New York, lumber merchant; in 1886 she married lawyer John Barry Stanchfield (9 and 31 Mar 1869 to Crane, L3, 182 n. 6). She is further discussed in the Autobiographical Dictation of 26 February 1906.
363.32–33 David Gray . . . editor of the principal newspaper] Gray (1836–88) was born in Edinburgh and came to the United States in 1849. Settling in Buffalo in 1856, he worked as a secretary, librarian, and bookkeeper before becoming a journalist. When Clemens moved to Buffalo in 1869, Gray had just married Martha Guthrie and was managing editor of the Courier, a rival paper to Clemens’s Buffalo Express. Gray rose to be editor-in-chief of the Courier, but in 1882 ill health forced him to retire; in 1888 he was fatally injured in a railway accident (SLC and OLC to the Langdons, 27 Mar 1870, L4, 102 n. 9). Clemens talks of him further in the Autobiographical Dictation of 22 February 1906.
364.2–9 bought Mr. Kinney’s share of that newspaper . . . I sold . . . for fifteen thousand dollars] Clemens bought his share of the Buffalo Express not from “Mr. Kinney” but from Thomas A. Kennett (1843–1911) in August 1869, and sold it again in March 1871 (for details of the purchase and sale see 12 Aug 1869 to Bliss, L3, 294 n. 2, and 3 Mar 1871 to Riley, L4, 338–39, n. 3). Clemens returned to Kennett (still calling him Kinney) later in this dictation: see the note at 366.29–32.
364.19 Jay Gould had just then reversed the commercial morals of the United States] Gould (1836–92) was an unscrupulous financier and railroad speculator whose name became a byword for ruthless greed. As a director of the Erie Railroad, with James Fisk (1834–72), he looted the company; his attempt to corner the gold market in 1869 triggered the panic of “Black Friday,” ruining many investors. For part or all of the next two decades he controlled several major railways and the Western Union Telegraph Company, and owned the New York World from 1879 to 1883. At his death his estate was valued at $72 million. Clemens’s attitude toward Gould was not unusual: Gould was denounced early and often as the poisoner of the American republic. And when Daniel Beard pictured the slave driver in A Connecticut Yankee, he used Gould as a model—with Clemens’s enthusiastic endorsement (“Jay Gould’s Will Filed,” New York Times, 13 Dec 1892, 10; see Budd 1962, 44, 84, 114, 204; CY, 17, 405, 567).
364.32–34 McCurdys, McCalls . . . insurance companies of New York] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 January 1906, note at 257.6–9.
364.34–36 President McCall was reported to be dying . . . The others . . . engaged in dying] Clemens presumably refers to reports such as the following, all from the New York Times: “M’Call, on Deathbed, Defends Hamilton,” 15 Feb 1906, 1; “President M’Curdy out of the Mutual,” 30 Nov 1905, 1; “John A. McCall Quits N. Y. Life Presidency,” 1 Jan 1906, 1 (where James W. Alexander is said to be “a physical wreck”).
365.11–17 John D. Rockefeller . . . after his father’s fashion] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 20 March 1906, where Clemens discusses the Rockefellers and their Sunday school classes at length.
366.29–32 Kinney went to Wall Street . . . borrowed twenty-five cents of me] Kennett worked briefly as a Wall Street broker, then returned to journalism, editing various trade publications. He died in a Bronx clinic for destitute consumptives (12 Aug 1869 to Bliss, L3, 294 n. 2; New York Times: “Editor Kennett Dead,” 30 June 1911, 9; “Praise for St. Joseph’s Hospital,” 26 May 1895, 17).
Autobiographical Dictation, 20 February 1906
367.11–12 name of Wilkes, the explorer, was in everybody’s mouth] Charles Wilkes (1798–1877) was captain of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42, the first international maritime expedition that the country had sponsored. Its mission was to explore the Pacific Ocean, the Antarctic regions, and the West Coast of North America. Wilkes commanded a squadron of six vessels, two of which, early in 1840, surveyed a long stretch of Antarctic coastline. The existence of a land mass within the Antarctic circle had been suspected for centuries. British and French explorers had sighted land in the area before the U.S. expedition, but nationalist sentiment made Wilkes, for Clemens as for many other Americans, the “discoverer” of Antarctica. Wilkes retired from the navy with the rank of rear admiral (“Antarctic Discoveries” 1840, 210, 214–19).
367.15–16 in our late day we are rediscovering it, and the world’s interest in it has revived] After a lull of many decades, the “heroic age” of Antarctic exploration began in 1897 with the new goal of reaching the South Pole. The 1901–4 expedition under the Englishman Robert F. Scott penetrated farther south than any previous explorer; during the same years Antarctic expeditions were mounted by Germany, Sweden, Scotland, and France. The pole would be reached by the Norwegian Roald Amundsen in 1911.
367.21 One of the last visits I made in Florence . . . was to Mrs. Wilkes] Born Mary H. Lynch, Mrs. Wilkes was first married to William Compton Bolton, who at the time of his death in 1849 was a commodore in the U.S. Navy. In 1854 she married Wilkes—whose first wife had died in 1848—and they had one child. According to his notebook, Clemens met with Mrs. Wilkes on 4 April 1904 (Notebook 47, TS p. 8, CU-MARK).
367.33–34 article which you wrote once . . . about my grandfather, Anson Burlingame] Clemens eulogized Burlingame in February 1870 in a Buffalo Express article (SLC 1870a; see “My Debut as a Literary Person,” note at 128.30–32).
368.43–369.3 Potter, (that is the name, I think,) the Congressional bully . . . laughter of the nation ringing in his ears] Clemens misremembered the name of Preston S. Brooks (1819–57), known in the North as “Bully” Brooks. A representative from South Carolina, in 1856 he brutally beat Senator Charles Sumner in the Senate chamber in retaliation for perceived insults to his state and kin. Anson Burlingame, then a representative from Massachusetts, denounced Brooks’s assault in a House speech. Brooks promptly challenged him to duel; Burlingame accepted, naming the Canadian side of Niagara Falls as the place and rifles as the weapon. Brooks, who could not with safety travel across the Northern states, declined to pursue the matter (Nicolay and Hay 1890, 2:47–55; “The Brooks Affair; Examination of the Controversy between Mr. Brooks and Mr. Burlingame,” New York Times, 25 July 1856, 2).
369.14 I have already told the rest in some book of mine] Clemens alludes to “My Debut as a Literary Person,” written in 1898, and included in the Preliminary Manuscripts and Dictations section of this volume.
369.19 Mr. Burlingame’s son—now editor of Scribner’s Monthly] Edward L. Burlingame (1848–1922) left his studies at Harvard University to travel to China as his father’s secretary. He later earned a Ph.D. at Heidelberg. He took a position at the New York Tribune in 1871, forming a lifelong friendship with John Hay. In 1872–79 he was one of the editors of the American Encyclopedia, and in 1879 began to work for Charles Scribner’s Sons, becoming the editor of Scribner’s Monthly from its first number in 1887. After his resignation in 1914, he became a general editorial adviser for the publisher (“Edward Burlingame, Editor, Dead at 74,” New York Times, 17 Nov 1922, 16).
369.25–26 “If a man compel thee to go with him a mile, go with him Twain.”] Matthew 5:41, “And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.”
Autobiographical Dictation, 21 February 1906
370.32–33 E. Bliss, junior . . . a later chapter] Elisha P. Bliss, Jr. (1821–80), was born in Massachusetts. He worked in the dry goods business until becoming secretary of the American Publishing Company of Hartford (1867–70, 1871–73), and then its president (1870, 1873–80). During his tenure this subscription house published all of Clemens’s major books from The Innocents Abroad (1869) to A Tramp Abroad (1880). For the “later chapter” see the Autobiographical Dictation of 23 May 1906 (2 Dec 1867 to Bliss, L2, 120 n. 1; Hill 1964, 15).
370.34–40 I told him my terms . . . I showed him letters . . . what they could get out of the book as an advertisement] Clemens’s extant correspondence for that time does not support his contention here that other firms offered him half profits, or more. When Bliss visited Clemens at Elmira in mid-July 1870 to discuss terms for the publication of Roughing It, Clemens claimed only to have been offered “ten per cent” by an unnamed publisher (2 Aug 1870 to Bliss, L4, 179–80; see RI 1993, 806–8).
371.13 contract . . . had nothing in it about half profits] See “A Call with W. D. Howells on General Grant,” note at 71.36–37.
371.22–23 He published that book . . . the next two at 10 per cent] Clemens recounted his royalty arrangements correctly, allowing for a slight shuffling of the books’ publication order. By “that book and the next one” he meant Roughing It (1872) and Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old (1875c); by “the next two” he meant The Gilded Age (1873–74, 10 percent shared with coauthor Charles Dudley Warner) and Tom Sawyer (1876, 10 percent) (RI 1993, 806–8; ET&S1, 435–36; “Contract for the American Publishing Company Gilded Age,” L5, 635–36; royalty statement in Scrapbook 10:77, CU-MARK).
371.35–372.2 he wanted to leave and set up for himself . . . we signed the contract . . . Those are the terms. Take them or leave them] Although in 1879 Elisha Bliss, Jr., did contemplate leaving the American Publishing Company “by & by,” it was actually Francis (Frank) Bliss (1843–1915), Elisha’s son and the treasurer of the company, who resigned and established his own subscription house (Bliss to SLC, 13 Feb 1879, CU-MARK). Before leaving for Europe in 1878, Clemens had signed a contract with Frank—without Elisha’s knowledge—for a proposed travel book (ultimately A Tramp Abroad, published in 1880), stipulating a royalty of 10 percent. Frank agreed to keep detailed records of his costs in order to calculate the “gross profits,” and “if at the end of the first year one half of said gross profits exceeds the amount of said royalty for said year,” Clemens was to receive “the amount of such excess in addition to said royalty” (contract dated 8 Mar 1878, CU-MARK). Frank Bliss’s company did not thrive, however, and in November 1879, when the book was in production, Clemens agreed to transfer the contract to the American Publishing Company. A year later he claimed that “as a consideration for the book,” Elisha Bliss “required them to allow him one-half of the company’s entire profits for 3 years!—& they were exceedingly glad to comply. For it saved the company’s life & set them high on their pins & free of debt” (24 Oct 1880 to OC, Letters 1876–1880; Hill 1964, 127–32, 142–43; for a somewhat different account see AD, 23 May 1906).
372.16–17 Newton Case] Case, a Hartford neighbor, was part owner of a printing and publishing establishment—the Case, Lockwood and Brainard Company—as well as a director of the American Publishing Company (N&J3, 203 n. 67, 456 n. 161).
372.25–27 J. R. Osgood . . . “Old Times on the Mississippi,”] James R. Osgood first solicited a publication in 1872 from Clemens, who could not comply because of his prior contracts with the American Publishing Company. Osgood was likewise unable to publish Sketches, New and Old, and had to settle for the little book A True Story, and the Recent Carnival of Crime (SLC 1877a). For his part, Clemens was eager for the prestige of Osgood’s imprint, and published The Prince and the Pauper with him in 1881—requiring, however, that it be sold by subscription, an approach entirely unfamiliar to Osgood. The next year Osgood issued The Stolen White Elephant, Etc. He traveled with Clemens down the Mississippi, and in 1883 published the book that resulted from that trip, Life on the Mississippi (31 Mar 1872 to Osgood, L5, 72–73 nn. 2–3; ET&S1, 619–20; P&P, 9–11).
372.29–30 these industries of his had cost me fifty-six thousand dollars] Clemens wrote to Osgood on 21 December 1883, “The Prince & Pauper & the Mississippi are the only books of mine which have ever failed. The first failure was not unbearable—but this second one is so nearly so that it is not a calming subject for me to talk upon. I am out $50,000 on this last book—that is to say, the sale which should have been 80,000 . . . is only 30,000” (21 Dec 1883 to Osgood, MH-H, in MTLP, 164). The total cost of the plates, paper, and binding of Life on the Mississippi came to $39,458.78 by Osgood’s mid-March 1884 account. Clemens also paid the cost of renting Osgood’s New York office during this period. His figure of “fifty-six thousand dollars” may include that expense as well (10 Mar 1884 to Webster, CU-MARK; SLC notes on handwritten sheet of printing costs for Life on the Mississippi, NPV).
372.38 check for fifty-four thousand five hundred dollars] Clemens’s figure is not inconsistent with the high sales figures for Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Less than three months after publication, it had sold fifty-one thousand copies at prices ranging from $2.75 to $5.50 a volume (Webster to Moffett, 6 May 1885, CU-MARK; HF 2003, 660–61).
Autobiographical Dictation, 22 February 1906
373.9–10 Aunt Susy] Susan Crane.
373.15 to-day’s report of General Grant] The newspapers closely followed Grant’s battle with cancer. On 16 April 1885 the New York Times described “the General . . . serenely conversing with his family, his voice good, his appearance indicative of returning health, walking about with as firm steps as in bygone months, and the family free from worry about him” (“A Day of Hopefulness,” 16 Apr 1885, 4).
373.16 Judge Smith] H. Boardman Smith, an attorney with Smith, Robertson and Fassett of Elmira, was a witness to the will, not an executor. Presumably he later became a judge. The executors included Clemens himself, Theodore Crane, Charles J. Langdon, John D. F. Slee, and Langdon’s widow, Olivia L. Langdon (Boyd and Boyd 1872, 195; “Last Will and Testament of Jervis Langdon,” photocopy in CU-MARK).
373.28 Mr. Atwater] Dwight Atwater (1822–90) was born in a rural area near Ithaca, New York. He engaged in the lumber business in New York and Pennsylvania before settling in Elmira. In later years he owned a boot and shoe factory there (“Death of Dwight Atwater,” Elmira Advertiser, 2 Jan 1890, unknown page).
375.2 Norman Hapgood’s palace up-town] Hapgood (1868–1937), a writer and journalist, had been editor of Collier’s Weekly since 1903. His house was on East 73rd Street, off Park Avenue.
375.7 He said “David Gray.”] David Gray, Jr. (1870–1968), graduated from Harvard in 1892, wrote for several Buffalo newspapers, and was admitted to the bar in 1899. In World War I he served in the American Expeditionary Force, receiving the Croix de Guerre. From 1940 to 1947 he was the U.S. minister to Ireland (“David Gray Dies; Former Envoy, 97,” New York Times, 13 Apr 1968, 25).
375.23 Ned House] Edward H. House (1836–1901) was a staff journalist on the New York Tribune when he met Clemens in January 1867. In 1870 he went to Japan to teach English at the University of Tokyo and to serve as the Tribune’s “regular correspondent.” He also corresponded for the New York Herald on Japan’s 1874 incursion into Formosa, turning his reportage into a book-length monograph, The Japanese Expedition to Formosa, which he printed in Tokyo in 1875. He founded the Tokyo Times, an English-language weekly funded by the Japanese government. He returned permanently to the United States in 1880, subsequently publishing a travel volume, Japanese Episodes (House 1881), and an illustrated novel, Yone Santo: A Child of Japan (House 1888) (3 May 1871 to Bliss, L4, 389 n. 1; 20 Jan 1872 to OLC, LS, 30 n. 2; L6: 10 Apr 1875 to Bliss, 445 n. 1; link note following 10 Nov 1875 to Seaver, 591–92 n. 1). In 1889–90 House and Clemens quarreled over a dramatization of The Prince and the Pauper. The adaptation for the stage was done by Abby Sage Richardson; House claimed Clemens had given him the dramatic rights to the novel in 1886, and filed an injunction to prevent performance. The controversy estranged House and Clemens permanently. House spent his last years in Japan (9 June 1870 to Bliss, L4, 149–50 n. 3; N&J3, 542–43 n. 183).
375.31 railway disaster, at night] The accident occurred on the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad near Binghamton, New York, early on the morning of 16 March 1888. Gray suffered a head injury and died two days later (New York Times: “Overturned in the Snow,” 17 Mar 1888, 5; “Editor Gray Dead,” 19 Mar 1888, 1).
Autobiographical Dictation, 23 February 1906
376.4–7 Mr. Talmage Brown, who was an annex of the family by marriage . . . yielded a large loss] Brown (d. 1891), a Des Moines, Iowa, attorney, real estate developer, and paving contractor, was married to Olivia’s first cousin, the former Anna Marsh. In 1869 Langdon brought suit against the city of Memphis, which owed him five hundred thousand dollars. After Brown’s death, Clemens preserved three obituary clippings from Des Moines newspapers that eulogized him for his generosity, business acumen, devotion to family, and religious enthusiasm. In the notebook he was using at the time, Clemens indicated that these tributes made him question his own negative view (N&J3, 635; L4: link note following 28–31 Jan 1870 to Twichell, 43; 6 July 1870 to OLC, 165 n. 1; see also AD, 26 Mar 1906).
377.14 Mr. Henry W. Sage, of Ithaca] Sage (1814–97) was a highly successful businessman whose lumber enterprises made him one of the largest landholders in the state. He was a generous benefactor of Cornell University, and built and endowed many libraries, churches, and schools. His son, Dean Sage, was a good friend of Clemens’s (L6: 28 Mar 1875 to Sage, 431 n. 1; 22 Apr 1875 to Sage, 453 n. 5).
377.37 Mr. Arnot] John Arnot (1793–1873) emigrated with his family from Scotland in 1801. He was an Elmira merchant and foundry owner before taking a position as cashier at the Chemung Canal Bank, becoming president in 1852 (Peirce and Hurd 1879, 284; Boyd and Boyd 1872, 41).
378.25–27 bulky manuscript, an autobiography of my brother Orion . . . from Keokuk, Iowa] Clemens suggested to Orion two possible plans of writing a ruthlessly honest memoir in a letter of 26 February 1880. Orion, excited rather than insulted by the prospect of writing “The Autobiography of a Coward” or “Confessions of a Life that was a Failure” (Clemens’s suggested titles), went straight to work, and by June 1880 Clemens was able to offer Howells a sample for publication in the Atlantic Monthly. Howells declined: “It wrung my heart, and I felt haggard after I had finished it. . .. But the writer’s soul is laid too bare: it is shocking” (Howells to SLC, 14 June 1880, CU-MARK, in MTHL, 1:315). Orion sent his brother the finished manuscript of 2,523 pages, retitled “The Autobiography of a Crank,” on 18 January 1882; but it would never see print. Here Clemens claims that Orion’s manuscript was “in the other room”; in the Autobiographical Dictation of 6 April 1906, he claims to have “destroyed a considerable part” of it at an early date. The manuscript, whether whole or fragmentary, was apparently lost by Paine in Grand Central Station on 11 July 1907. After Clemens’s death, Paine gave inconsistent accounts of the fate of the autobiography, claiming variously that it had been deposited in a vault, lost, or destroyed at Clemens’s behest; Paine quotes from it, however, in Mark Twain: A Biography, saying there that the earliest chapters had been preserved. Apart from those quotations, Orion’s autobiography is extant only as a few stray leaves in the Mark Twain Papers, and some items of correspondence that Orion annotated for inclusion (Letters 1876–1880: 26 Feb 1880 to OC, 9 June 1880 to Howells; OC to SLC: 29 Feb and 1 Mar 1880, 18 Jan 1882, 19 Jan 1882, CU-MARK; MTB, 1:24, 44, 85, 2:674–77; MS fragments in DV 391, CU-MARK; Orion’s note on 6 Feb 1861 to OC and MEC, NPV; Schmidt 2008b).
378.32–34 Benvenuto tells a number of things . . . Rousseau and his “Confessions.”] The autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini was for Clemens the “most entertaining of books” (N&J2, 229); he referred to it in his letters and notebooks as well as in chapter 35 of Huckleberry Finn, and in chapter 17 of A Connecticut Yankee. In his letter of 26 February 1880 he told Orion that “Rousseau confesses to masturbation, theft, lying, shameful treachery” (Letters 1876–1880; the letter is quoted more fully in the Introduction, p. 6).
379.1–13 I think perhaps I have already mentioned . . . My brother tells that incident in his autobiography] See “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” 209.24–33 and note. Orion’s account, in which he rather than Samuel is left behind, is less dramatic; he was fourteen (1839–40) and his “abandonment” was brief: “The wagon had gone a few feet when I was discovered and invited to enter” (MTB, 1:24).
Autobiographical Dictation, 26 February 1906
380.9–20 In Germany once . . . our friend and excursion-comrade—American Consul at a German city] This accident occurred at Worms in July 1878. The “friend and excursion-comrade” was probably Edward M. Smith, U.S. consul at Mannheim (N&J2, 46, 125 n. 22, 248 n. 68).
380.28–29 Clara Spaulding . . . has a son who is a senior in college, and a daughter who is in college in Germany] John B. Stanchfield, Jr. (1889–1946), and Alice Spaulding Stanchfield (1887–1941), who later married Arthur M. Wright.
381.9–10 “Adonis” (word illegible) acted] This musical burlesque starring comedian Henry E. Dixey was a record-setting Broadway hit, with more than six hundred performances from 1884 to 1886 (New York Times: “Amusements,” 5 Sept 1884, 4; “A Great Day for Dixey,” 8 Jan 1886, 1). The parenthetical comment was Clemens’s substitute for what appears to be “the pals”: “We went to the theater and enjoyed ‘Adonis,’ the pals acted very much” (OSC 1885–86, 17). Susy may have meant to write “the play acted.”
381.14 Major Pond] James B. Pond (1838–1903) was born in Allegany County, New York. First apprenticed to a printer, he became a journalist, and worked at several newspapers. During the Civil War he served in the Third Wisconsin Cavalry and was commissioned major at the end of the conflict. He joined the Boston Lyceum Bureau of lecture manager James Redpath, and bought out Redpath’s share of the business in 1875. Pond opened his own bureau in 1879. He managed Clemens’s 1884–85 tour of public readings with George Washington Cable, and arranged Clemens’s 1895–96 lecture trip around the world. Over the next years Pond made lavish offers for further tours, which Clemens declined (13 Sept 1897 to Rogers, 6–7 Nov 1898 to Rogers, 21 July 1900 to Rogers, Salm, in HHR, 300, 374, 448).
381 footnote *I was his publisher] See “About General Grant’s Memoirs.”
382.14–18 General Hood . . . Sherman . . . was perfectly free to proceed . . . through Georgia] John B. Hood (1831–79) attended West Point, and served in the Union army until he resigned and joined the Confederacy in April 1861. He was promoted to major general in October 1862. Grant gave substantially the same account of Sherman’s march to the sea in his Personal Memoirs (Grant 1885–86, 2:374–76).
383.10–11 new and devilish invention—the thing called an Authors’ Reading] The event described here took place on Wednesday, 29 April 1885, at Madison Square Theatre, and was the second of two readings benefiting the American Copyright League. Clemens read his oftrepeated “A Trying Situation,” from chapter 25 of A Tramp Abroad; the other readers included Howells and Henry Ward Beecher. “Devilish” though he may have found them, the new fashion for authors’ readings (as opposed to recitations from memory) had been initiated by Clemens himself. The Washington Post noted that “the Cable Twain reading venture of last winter may be made the beginning of a new kind of entertainment. The lecture is obsolescent . . . but for an author . . . to read from his own writings is a new idea and an attractive one” (“News Notes in New York,” 3 May 1885, 5). Clemens’s Vassar lecture was on 1 May (N&J3, 112, 140–41 n. 48; “Listening to the Authors,” New York Times, 30 Apr 1885, 5; “Authors’ Readings,” Life 5 [30 Apr 1885]: 248; “The Authors’ Readings,” The Critic, 2 May 1885, 210).
383.37–38 I went to Boston to help . . . memorial to Mr. Longfellow] The Longfellow Memorial Association was formed in 1882 to raise funds for a monument honoring the late poet. The authors’ reading benefiting the association was held at the Boston Museum (a theater) on 31 March 1887 (Longfellow Memorial Association 1882; “The Authors’ Readings in Boston,” The Critic, 9 Apr 1887, 177; see MTHL, 2:589–90 n. 1).
384.15 We got it arranged at last . . . fifteen minutes, perhaps] Howells read a selection from Their Wedding Journey (Howells 1872; MTHL, 2:589–90 n. 1).
384.18 I think that that was the occasion when we had sixteen] There were nine speakers at the Boston event (“Authors’ Readings for the Longfellow Memorial Fund,” printed program, CLjC).
384.18–20 If it wasn’t then it was in Washington, in 1888 . . . in the afternoon, in the Globe Theatre] Clemens was confusing two readings: the one in Boston, in 1887, and another in Washington, in March 1888, at the Congregational Church (not the Globe Theatre); see the note at 385.1–3.
384.24 That graceful and competent speaker, Professor Norton] Author and reformer Charles Eliot Norton (1827–1908) presided at the 1887 Boston reading. According to Howells, “he fell prey to one of those lapses of tact” when he introduced Clemens, claiming that Darwin habitually read his books at bedtime in order to feel “secure of a good night’s rest” (Howells 1910, 51).
384.27–33 Dr. Holmes recited . . . “The Last Leaf,” . . . until silence had taken the place of encores] According to a contemporary account, Holmes read only “The Chambered Nautilus” (1858) and “Dorothy Q.” (1871). Holmes “gave himself completely to the spirit of the poetry, tingling and vibrating with life, rising on his toes and ending with a dash and sparkle which made his hearers beside themselves with delight” (“The Authors’ Readings in Boston,” The Critic, 9 Apr 1887, 177).
384.35–38 third place on the program . . . did my reading in the ten minutes] Clemens was first on the program, reading selections from “English as She Is Taught,” which appeared in the April 1887 issue of the Century Magazine (SLC 1887).
385.1–3 At the reading in Washington . . . Thomas Nelson Page . . . all due at the White House] Clemens read at two benefits for the American Copyright League at the Congregational Church, on 17 and 19 March 1888. He had not been scheduled to read at the first one, but as an “unexpected treat” he substituted for Charles Dudley Warner (delayed by a snowstorm), reading “How I Escaped Being Killed in a Duel” (“Authors as Readers,” Washington Post, 18 Mar 1888, 5; SLC 1872a). Here he describes the second event, at which there were ten speakers; he read “An Encounter with an Interviewer” (SLC 1875b). Page (1853–1922), best known for his sympathetic and idealized depiction of the antebellum South, read two pieces in the “peculiar dialect of the Virginia negro.” Afterward the authors and their guests were given a lavish reception and supper in the Blue Parlor of the White House (Washington Post: “Local Intelligence,” 20 Mar 1888, 3; “Society,” 20 Mar 1888, 4).
385.11–13 I think that it was upon the occasion . . . prepared me for my visit . . . could look after me herself ] See the next Autobiographical Dictation (5 Mar 1906).
Autobiographical Dictation, 5 March 1906
385.28–30 upon the occasion referred to . . . Authors’ Reception at the White House] That is, referred to at the end of the previous Autobiographical Dictation (26 Feb 1906). After his first reading at a matinee on 17 March 1888, which Olivia did not attend, Clemens went to a tea at the White House. Olivia joined him in Washington in time for his second reading on 19 March, and accompanied him to the reception afterward (16 Mar 1888 to OLC, CU-MARK, in LLMT, 249–51; Rosamond Gilder 1916, 195–96).
385.35–36 President Cleveland’s first term. I had never seen his wife . . . the fascinating] Cleveland served two terms, in 1885–89 and 1893–97. He married Frances Folsom (1864–1947) in the White House on 2 June 1886. She became known for her beauty, her advocacy of women’s education, her Saturday receptions for working-class women and the poor, and her liveliness and wit. The anecdote Clemens recounts here must have occurred on 17 March 1888, at the tea after his first Washington reading.
386.8–9 I asked her to sign her name below those words] The card, now in the Mark Twain Papers, is reproduced here.

386.25–27 During 1893 and ’94 we were living in Paris . . . other side of the Seine] The Clemens family stayed at the Hotel Brighton from November 1893 until June 1894, when they left the city to travel elsewhere in France, returning to Paris in the fall. There they again stayed at the Hotel Brighton until mid-November, when they relocated to the house at 169, rue de l’Université, where they remained until the end of April 1895.
386.28 Pomeroy, the artist] The English sculptor Frederick William Pomeroy (1856–1924) won the gold medal and traveling scholarship from the Royal Academy Schools in London in 1885, and subsequently studied in Paris and in Italy. He was associated with the “New Sculpture” movement, which depicted ideal figures drawn from mythology and literature. Nothing is known of his association with Clemens.
386.42–387.1 Mammoth Cave] An enormous cave in Kentucky, which by the 1890s was thought to be about one hundred seventy-five miles long; it is now known to be over twice that size (Baedeker 1893, 318; National Park Service 2008).
387.6 Four or five years ago, when we took a house . . . at Riverdale] In early July 1901 the Clemenses toured William H. Appleton’s house in Riverdale-on-the-Hudson, New York, and arranged to rent it from 1 October. They remained there through July 1903. Clemens called it “the pleasantest home & the pleasantest neighborhood in the Republic” (30 June 1903 to Perkins, NRivd2; Stein 2001, B1; 9 July 1901 to Rogers, CU-MARK, in HHR, 465; Wave Hill 2008).
388.13 Buck Fanshaw’s riot, it broke up the riot before it got a chance to begin] In chapter 47 of Roughing It, “Scotty” Briggs tells how Buck Fanshaw had an election riot “all broke up and prevented nice before anybody ever got a chance to strike a blow” (RI 1993, 314).
388.17–20 The Cleveland family . . . passed away] Ruth (“Baby Ruth,” 1891–1904), who died at twelve of heart failure during a bout of diphtheria, was the first of five Cleveland children, followed by sisters Esther (1893–1980) and Marion (1895–1977), and brothers Richard (1897–1974) and Francis (1903–95) (“Ruth Cleveland Dead,” New York Times, 8 Jan 1904, 7). Clemens wrote to her on 3 November 1892, when she was one year old, just before her father’s election to his second term (DLC):
Dear Miss Cleveland:
If you will read this letter to your father, or ask your mother to do it if you are too busy, I will do something for you someday—anything you command. For I mean to come & see you in the White House before the four years are out. I am going to have Congress enlarge it, for you will take up a good deal of room, probably. And I am writing a book for you to practice your gums on—the very thing, for I know, myself, it is a very tough book. I shall bring my arctics, but that is all right—I know what to do with them now. . . .
No Administration could be more creditable than your father’s & mother’s last one was—& yet it ain’t agoing to begin with this one, now that you are on deck.
You have my homage, & I am
Affectionately Yours
S. L. Clemens.
388.29–30 kindly send a sealed greeting under cover to me . . . South to him] Clemens complied with Gilder’s request the following day. See the Autobiographical Dictation of 6 March 1906 for the text of his letter, which Gilder sent to Cleveland in Stuart, Florida. Gilder had first met President Cleveland in the White House before Cleveland’s marriage in 1886, but their friendship began in 1887 (Richard Watson Gilder 1910, 7; Rosamond Gilder 1916, 142; Lynch 1932, 533).
388.36–39 Mason, an old and valued friend . . . Frankfort in ’78] Clemens first became acquainted with Frank H. Mason (1840–1916), his wife, Jennie V. Birchard Mason (1844?–1916), and their son, Dean B. Mason (b. 1867), in Cleveland in 1867–68. Mason worked as reporter, editorial writer, and finally managing editor of the Cleveland Leader from 1866 to 1880, when he was appointed U.S. consul at Basel, Switzerland. Clemens must be misremembering when he “spent a good deal of time” with Mason, since neither family sojourned in Frankfurt in 1878. The families did socialize, however, during the summer of 1892 in Bad Nauheim: Mason wrote in 1905 that his family had “kept you all in the same old warm corner of our hearts,” and recalled, “We were at the Hotel Kaiserhof, in the suite of rooms just above the ones in which Mrs. Clemens and you and the girls lived during that happy summer” (Mason to SLC, 30 July 1905, CU-MARK; “Mrs. Frank H. Mason Dead,” Washington Post, 26 Nov 1916, 2).
389.1 ignorant, vulgar, and incapable men . . . political heelers] Heelers, or ward heelers, were apparently so called because they followed at the heels of a political boss, sometimes acting unscrupulously in the hope of future reward.
389.4–5 Mason, in ’78, had been Consul General in Frankfort several years . . . He had come from Marseilles with a great record] Although Clemens’s account of Mason’s career is essentially correct, his dates are not. In early 1884, Mason was appointed U.S. consul at Marseilles, where within months a cholera epidemic broke out, followed by a widespread panic and flight from the city. During the ensuing year he distinguished himself by his detailed dispatches about the origins, treatment, and social effects of the disease (which was complicated by a concurrent outbreak of typhus and typhoid fever), and by his efforts to prevent its spread. By late August 1885 he reported that the panic of 1884 had subsided somewhat, but the death rate in the “reeking city” was still a “frightful record.” From 1889 through 1898 he served as consul general at Frankfurt, and from 1899 to 1905 as consul general at Berlin; his next post was in Paris (Washington Post: “The Cholera at Marseilles,” 8 Sept 1885, 4; “Capt. Frank H. Mason Dead,” 25 June 1916, ES11; New York Times: “The Cholera Panic in France,” 4 July 1884, 1; “Origin of the Epidemic,” 1 Aug 1884, 3; Department of State 1911).
389.10–15 This great record of Mason’s . . . save him from destruction] Mason’s letter is not known to survive. For Clemens’s response to his request, see the next Autobiographical Dictation (6 Mar 1906).
Autobiographical Dictation, 6 March 1906
390.2–12 I wrote the little child . . . to keep Mason in his place would be a benefaction to the nation] Clemens made his plea for Mason in a second letter to one-year-old Ruth Cleveland, probably written in January or early February 1893, before the formal beginning of her father’s second term:
My dear Ruth,—
I belong to the Mugwumps, & one of the most sacred rules of our order prevents us from asking favors of officials or recommending men to office, but there is no harm in writing a friendly letter to you & telling you that an infernal outrage is about to be committed by your father in turning out of office the best Consul I know (& I know a great many) just because he is a Republican and a Democrat wants his place. . . .
I can’t send any message to the President, but the next time you have a talk with him concerning such matters I wish you would tell him about Captain Mason & what I think of a Government that so treats its efficient officials. (1 Jan–15 Feb 1893 to Ruth Cleveland, MTB, 2:864)
390.14 I received a letter from the President] In reply—probably after Cleveland’s 4 March 1893 inauguration—Clemens received a “tiny envelope” with a note in President Cleveland’s hand:
Miss Ruth Cleveland begs to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Twain’s letter and say that she took the liberty of reading it to the President, who desires her to thank Mr. Twain for her information, and to say to him that Captain Mason will not be disturbed in the Frankfort Consulate. The President also desires Miss Cleveland to say that if Mr. Twain knows of any other cases of this kind he will be greatly obliged if he will write him concerning them at his earliest convenience. (Cleveland to SLC, MTB, 2:864)
Mason remained consul general at Frankfurt through 1898.
390.19–27 beginning of Mr. Cleveland’s second term . . . Mason wrote me again . . . wrote Ruth Cleveland once more] Mason’s second letter requesting Clemens’s aid is also lost. But Clemens replied on 25 February 1893, promising to “inquire after that letter I sent to Mr. Cleveland” (IaDmE). If he wrote a third letter, it has not survived.
390.39–391.5 Honored Sir . . . March 18/06] The manuscript of this letter—written to honor Cleveland’s birthday on 18 March—survives in the Cleveland Papers at the Library of Congress (DLC). The text of the letter in this dictation, however, was transcribed by Hobby from Clemens’s own security copy (now in NN-BGC), which omits the original’s letterhead (“21 Fifth Avenue”), the date and salutation (“March 6, 1906. | Grover Cleveland, Esq. | Ex-President”), and the complimentary close (“With the profoundest respect”).
391.6–20 When Mr. Cleveland . . . his part] The incident Clemens describes has not been identified. On another occasion, however, Cleveland refused an offer from the New York Central Railroad that his Buffalo law partner, Wilson S. Bissell (1847–1903), wanted to accept. In about 1880 Chauncey M. Depew, president of the railroad, tried to persuade the firm to become its general counsel in western New York. Cleveland claimed that “if they accepted they would . . . practically be at the disposal of the railroad with its many interests and its large volume of work—acquiring land, defending damage suits, representing it in all its dealings with the city and, of course, with the other cities and towns of western New York” (Tugwell 1968, 47; Depew 1922, 124–25, 227). After Cleveland took up his post as mayor of Buffalo in 1882, he became known as the “veto mayor” for his refusal to adopt civic bills and award contracts whose overriding purpose was to enrich a ring of corrupt politicians, companies, and contractors at the expense of the city (Tugwell 1968, 53–61; Lynch 1932, 74, 85–95).
391.20 in Buffalo in ’70 and ’71, Mr. Cleveland was sheriff ] From 1871 through 1872 Cleveland was sheriff of Erie County, New York, of which Buffalo was the county seat.
392.6–8 There was a cluster of sixteen bell-buttons . . . I came to hatch out those sixteen clerks] While Clemens was on his 1884–85 reading tour with Cable, he wrote about this incident to his wife:
On the train, Dec. 3/84.
We arrived at Albany at noon, & a person in authority met us & said Gov. Cleveland had expressed a strong desire to have me call, as he wanted to get acquainted with me. So as soon as we had fed ourselves the gentleman, with some additional escort, took us in two barouches to the Capitol, & we had a quite jolly & pleasant brief chat with the President-elect. He remembered me easily, hav[ing] seen me often in Buffalo, but I didn’t remember him, of course, & I didn’t say I did. He had to meet the electors at a banquet in the evening, & expressed great regret that that must debar him from coming to the lecture; so I said if he would take my place on the platform I would run the banquet for him; but he said that that would be only a one-sided affair, because the lecture audience would be so disappointed. Then I sat down on four electrical bells at once (as the cats used to do at the farm,) & summoned four pages whom nobody had any use for. (CU-MARK)
392.11–18 Abbott Thayers . . . knew Miss Lyon, my secretary, very well] Clemens’s neighbors were the artists Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921) and his second wife, Emeline (Emma) Beach Thayer (1850–1924), and his three children by his first marriage, Mary (b. 1876), Gerald (1883–1939), and Gladys (1886–1945). Emma Beach Thayer was Clemens’s old shipmate and friend from the Quaker City voyage in 1867. Witter Bynner (1881–1968), who later won fame as a poet, had been an editor for S. S. McClure, publisher of the muckraking McClure’s Magazine, since his graduation from Harvard in 1902. Barry Faulkner (1881–1966), an artist and former classmate of Bynner’s at Harvard, was a cousin and student of Abbott Thayer’s. (Clemens evidently misremembered his first name.) They had first introduced themselves to Isabel Lyon at Ceccina’s Restaurant in New York City on 3 May 1905 (link note following 2?–7 Feb 1867 to McComb, L2, 15; AskART 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2008d; Patricia Thayer Muno, personal communication, 30 July 2008; Lyon 1905, 108–9, 123, 276).
Autobiographical Dictation, 7 March 1906
392 title Wednesday, March 7, 1906] The first page of this dictation is reproduced in facsimile in the Introduction (figure 16).
392.29 next day] Susy described the morning of 30 April 1885 in New York City, the day after Clemens’s participation in an Authors’ Reading (see AD, 26 Feb 1906, note at 383.10–11).
393.34–35 Liebes Geshchenk . . . Susy’s spelling, not mine] Correctly spelled, it should read, “Liebes Geschenk an die Mama,” which can be roughly translated as “Loving gift to Mama.”
393.43 went to see the Brooklyn Bridge] The Brooklyn Bridge had been open to the public for less than two years, since 24 May 1883, after nearly fourteen years of construction.
394.12 O heilige . . . Jesus!] “O holy Mary mother of Jesus!”
394.15–18 that pretty little German girl . . . knew no English] Jean’s young German nurse with a penchant for cursing first came to work for the Clemenses on 16 August 1883, replacing Rosina Hay, who left that day to prepare for her wedding. Clemens wrote his mother the same day, “We like the new girl exceedingly, & she speaks a good clean German, as easy to understand as English” (16 Aug 1883 to JLC, CU-MARK).
394.30 Gott sei Dank . . . Haar!] “Thank God I’m really finished with the God damned hair!”
394.41 lady principal] Abby F. Goodsell was the lady principal of Vassar, “chief executive aid of the President in the direction of the Teachers, and in the government of the students” in 1875–77 and 1881–91. Among other duties she offered “maternal supervision” of the students, provided housing, and oversaw public and social events (Vassar College 2008a).
395.12 He read “A Trying Situation” and “The Golden Arm,”] Both “A Trying Situation,” taken from chapter 25 of A Tramp Abroad, and “The Woman with the Golden Arm” (which Clemens sometimes called “A Ghost Story”) were regularly on the program for the 1884–85 “Twins of Genius” tour with George Washington Cable (N&J3, 69; see “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 217.25–27).
395.29–42 President of the College . . . I detest his memory] Samuel L. Caldwell (1820–89), a Baptist minister, had been president of Vassar College since 1878. Caldwell wrote Clemens on 3 April 1885, thanking him for his willingness to speak and inviting him and Olivia to stay, and again on 9 April 1885, assuring him that they had sufficient guest chambers for him and Susy and that “the Lady Principal, I am sure, can make your daughter happier than she will be at a hotel” (CU-MARK). Clemens immediately accepted (11 Apr 1885 to Caldwell, NPV). Caldwell was an inexperienced administrator, and in 1884 the alumnae became especially dissatisfied with his inadequate efforts to attract students. They were backed by the Board of Trustees, and on 9 June 1885, five weeks after Clemens gave his readings in honor of Founder’s Day, they accepted Caldwell’s resignation (Vassar College 2008b; Daniels 2008).
Autobiographical Dictation, 8 March 1906
396.13–19 Miss Taylor . . . Mrs. (Professor) Lord . . . Miss Russell . . . Miss Hill] Miss Taylor was probably Virginia Taylor of the senior class, who had recently participated in the Barnard Union’s senior debate and appeared as the Earl of Leicester in the undergraduate play, Sheridan’s The Critic. Mrs. Lord was the wife of Herbert Lord, professor of philosophy. Isabelle (Belle) K. Russell of the senior class was chairman of the Barnard Union. The dean of Barnard College, since 1901, was Laura Drake Gill (1860–1926). She received her bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Smith College in 1881, and her master’s in 1885. She interrupted her subsequent teaching career for advanced studies at the universities of Leipzig and Geneva and at the Sorbonne. She joined the Red Cross in 1898 after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War and managed a Red Cross hospital in Cuba. After the war she took charge of the Cuban Orphan Society and helped organize Cuban schools (Barnard Bulletin: “Departmental Changes,” 4 [24 Mar 1902]: 3; Belle K. Russell, “Barnard Union,” 10 [15 Jan 1906]: 1; “Undergraduate Play,” 10 [21 Mar 1906]: 1; “Dr. Laura Drake Gill,” 30 [12 Feb 1926]: 4; Barnard College 2008a, 2008b; “Dr. Laura Gill Dies,” New York Times, 5 Feb 1926, 19).
396.22–25 I lectured upon Morals . . . never knew so grave a subject to create so much noise before] The Barnard Bulletin described Clemens’s talk:
He said he had nothing to talk about, but that he did have some fine illustrations he was going to get in somehow. “The Caprice of Memory,” he thought, would be a good subject, though he might just as easily talk on morals. For it is better to teach than to practice them; better to confer morals on others than to experiment too much with them on one’s self. As his first illustration, Mr. Clemens told how he once had in his possession a watermelon—a Missouri melon, and therefore large and luscious. Most people would have said he had stolen it. But the word “steal” was too much for him, a good boy; in fact, the best boy in his town. He said he had extracted it from a grocer’s cart, for “extract” refers to dentistry, and more accurately expresses how he got that melon; since as the dentist never extracts his own teeth, so this wasn’t his own melon. But the melon was green, and because it was so, Mark Twain began to reflect. And reflection is the beginning of morality. It was his duty to take it back and to admonish that grocerman on the evil of selling green melons. The moral, Mr. Clemens said, was that the grocer repented of his sins and soon was perched on the highest pinnacle of virtue.
In the course of another equally good illustration of a moral, Mark Twain said that in his family there had been a prejudice against going fishing unless you asked permission, and it was bad judgment to ask permission. (“Mark Twain at Barnard,” Barnard Bulletin 10 [14 Mar 1906]: 2)
The full text of the talk was published in the New York World (“ ‘We Wanted You Because We Love You,’ Said the Barnard Girls to Mark Twain,” 11 Mar 1906, M1; reprinted in Fatout 1976, 495–502).
397.1 “HUCKLEBERRY FINN” DEAD] The article was from the Los Angeles Times of 3 February 1906; the original clipping that Hobby transcribed has not been found.
397.13 I have replied that “Huckleberry Finn” was Tom Blankenship] Clemens wrote the same day to Alexander (Aleck) Campbell Toncray (1837–1933), half-brother of the deceased Addison Ovando Toncray (1842–1906) (8 Mar 1906 to Toncray per Lyon, photocopy in CU-MARK):
Dear Mr. Toncray:
It is plain to me that you knew the Hannibal of my boyhood, the names you quote prove it. This is an unusual circumstance in my experience. With some frequency letters come from strangers reminding me of old friends & early episodes, but in almost every case these strangers have mixed me up with somebody else, and the names and incidents are foreign to me.
Huckleberry Finn was Tom Blankenship. You may remember that Tom was a good boy, notwithstanding his circumstances. To my mind he was a better boy than Henry Beebe & John Reagan put together, those swells of the ancient days.
Sincerely Yours,
S. L. Clemens
Alexander (born in Rushville, Illinois) and Addison (born in Fort Madison, Iowa) were the sons of John Goodson Toncray (1810–60), who emigrated to Hannibal in the mid-1840s and opened the Virginia Hotel and Saloon on the levee. Alexander worked as a steamboat and forwarding agent in 1860 in Hannibal, and as a sign painter in Los Angeles after 1912. After what he claimed was a stint as captain on the steamboat Key West, Addison moved West as well. In 1880 he was listed in the census as a farm hand in Red Bluff, Montana, and by 1884 he had moved to Murray, Idaho. There, though “Capt. Tonk” was known as a habitual drunk, he was well liked and lived by odd jobs and hand-me-downs (Brainard [n.d.]; Sellers 1972; James R. Toncray, personal communications, 17 Dec 2008, 20 Dec 2008; Marion Census 1850, 307; Fotheringham 1859, 57).
397.14–15 Tom’s father was at one time Town Drunkard] Tom Blankenship (b. 1831?) was one of eight children of Woodson and Mahala Blankenship. Woodson Blankenship (b. 1799?) was listed in the 1850 census as a laborer from South Carolina (Marion Census 1850, 308, 309).
397.20–26 In “Huckleberry Finn” I have drawn Tom Blankenship exactly . . . more of his society than of any other boy’s] Clemens’s description here of Tom Blankenship, who was perhaps four years his senior, closely reflects his characterizations of Huckleberry Finn in numerous works. In chapter 6 of Tom Sawyer, for example, Huck is “the juvenile pariah of the village . . . son of the town drunkard” who is “cordially hated and dreaded by all the mothers of the town, because he was idle, and lawless, and vulgar and bad—and because all their children admired him so” (SLC 1982, xvii, 47). After hearing this chapter read aloud, Clemens’s sister, Pamela Moffett, said, “Why, that’s Tom Blankenship!” (MTBus, 265). In 1899, Blankenship’s sister, apparently “little impressed with the distinction conferred on the family,” recognized Tom and perhaps her other older brother in Huck: “Yes, I reckon it was him. Sam and our boys run together considerable them days, and I reckon it was Tom or Ben, one; it don’t matter which, for both of ’em’s dead” (Fielder 1899, 10). Huckleberry Finn also appears in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer Abroad (SLC 1894a), and “Tom Sawyer, Detective” (SLC 1896c), as well as in several unfinished works: “Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians” (SLC 1884), “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy” (SLC 1897–?1902), “Schoolhouse Hill” (SLC 1898c), and the fragmentary “Huck Finn” (Inds, 260–61, 302–3; see also Clemens’s 1895 draft introduction for a reading from chapter 16 of Huckleberry Finn in HF 2003, 619).
397.26–27 I heard, four years ago, that he was Justice of the Peace in a remote village in Montana, and . . . greatly respected] Blankenship, who remained in Hannibal, was arrested repeatedly for stealing food (Hannibal Messenger, 21 Apr 1861, and “At His Old Business,” 4 June 1861, reprinted in Lorch 1940, 352). No evidence has been found that he went to Montana. In 1889 Clemens was informed of his death from cholera, and confirmed it when visiting Hannibal in 1902 (Wetzel 1985, 33; “He Returns,” undated clipping from the Hannibal Journal, enclosed in Coontz to SLC, 18 Apr 1889, CU-MARK; Fielder 1899, 10; “Good-Bye to Mark Twain,” Hannibal Courier-Post, 3 June 1902, 1).
398.12–15 my nephew, by marriage, Edward Loomis . . . carried him there still oftener] Edward Eugene Loomis (1864–1937) married Julia Olivia Langdon (1871–1948), Charles Langdon’s eldest daughter, in 1902. After his graduation from Utica Commercial College in the early 1880s, Loomis worked for a succession of railway companies in Denver and in New York, by 1894 serving as superintendent responsible for overseeing the bituminous coal and lumber interests of the Erie Railroad Company. In June 1899, he became manager of the anthracite coal properties of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company. He was responsible for several innovations in the company’s anthracite mines, and in 1902 was elected first vice-president, member of the board of managers, and director and officer of all the railroad’s subsidiary corporations.
398.20 Mr. Buckly] Unidentified.
399.17–18 Mr. Dawson’s school] John D. Dawson (b. 1812?), a native of Scotland and veteran of fourteen years’ teaching, announced the opening of his school for young ladies and boys “of good morals, and of ages under 12 years,” on Third Street in Hannibal, in April 1847. He ran the school until 1849, when he left for California, where he became a miner in Tuolumne County. Dawson’s was the last school Clemens attended. The character Dobbins in Tom Sawyer is based on Dawson (Wecter 1952, 132–34; Inds, 317).
399.18 Sam and Will Bowen] See AD, 9 Mar 1906, note at 402.16–33.
399.18 Andy Fuqua] Anderson (Andy) Fuqua (1829?–97) was one of the six children of Nathaniel Fuqua, a tobacco merchant and a town councilman in 1845 when Hannibal was incorporated. In the 1860s Anderson worked at a livery stable and then became a tobacconist and commercial boat owner (Marion Census 1860, 122–23; Fotheringham 1859, 26, 33; Ellsberry 1965a, 5; Holcombe 1884, 900; MTBus, 83).
399.22–23 I remember Dawson’s schoolhouse perfectly. If I wanted to describe it I could save myself the trouble by conveying the description of it . . . from “Tom Sawyer.”] Clemens described Dawson’s school in chapters 6–7 and 21 of Tom Sawyer and again in chapter 1 of the unfinished “Schoolhouse Hill” manuscript, where the Scottish schoolmaster is based on Dawson (Inds, 317).
399.25 Cardiff Hill, (Holliday’s Hill,)] For Clemens’s memories of Cardiff Hill (his fictional name for Holliday’s Hill) see “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX.”
399.27–28 Nannie Owsley, a child of seven] Anna (Nannie) B. Owsley (b. 1840?) was one of six children of William Perry Owsley (b. 1813) and Almira Roberts Owsley. She and her sister Elizabeth (b. 1839?) attended Dawson’s school with Clemens. Nannie, who later married William M. Johnson, had six children of her own. It was William Owsley who shot Sam Smarr on a street in Hannibal (see “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX,” note at 158.5; Marion Census 1850, 323; Marion Census 1860, 121; Owsley 1890, 28, 29, 133).
399.28–29 George Robards, eighteen or twenty years old, the only pupil who studied Latin] George C. Robards (1833–79) was the eldest of six children born to Amanda Carpenter Robards (1808–65) and Captain Archibald S. Robards (1787–1862), a former Kentucky plantation and slave owner (Marion Census 1860, 133; Holcombe 1884, 992; Robards Family Genealogy 2009, part 14:65). The spelling of the family name was later changed to RoBards by George’s younger brother, John L. RoBards (see AD, 9 Mar 1906).
399.34 Arch Fuqua—the other one’s brother] Archibald (b. 1833?) Fuqua, Anderson’s brother, worked as a tobacco roller, and served with Clemens in the Marion Rangers. The character of Archy Thompson in “Boy’s Manuscript” (SLC 1868e) is based on him (Marion Census 1860, 122–23; Fotheringham 1859, 26; Ellsberry 1965a, 5; Inds, 268, 319).
399.40–400.1 Theodore Eddy, who could work his ears like a horse] Theodore Eddy (b. 1836?) was the eldest of five children of Martha J. Eddy (b. 1818?) and William Eddy (b. 1804?), a carpenter and builder and one of Hannibal’s first town councilmen in 1845 (Marion Census 1850, 323; Holcombe 1884, 900).
Autobiographical Dictation, 9 March 1906
400.20 My hair was a dense ruck of short curls, and so was my brother Henry’s] See the photograph of Henry at age eight or nine, following page 204.
400.26–27 George . . . and Mary Moss were sweethearts and pledged to eternal constancy . . . But Mr. Lakenan arrived] Mary Moss (b. 1832) was one of six children of Mary Moss (b. 1816) and Russell W. Moss (b. 1810?), who with William Samuel owned a pork and beef packing plant on the levee, reputed to be the second largest in the United States. Mary, remembered as “the belle of Hannibal,” was a frequent visitor to the Clemens home. Robert F. Lakenan (1820–83), of Virginia, moved to Hannibal soon after his admission to the bar in 1845. He helped to found the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railway in the late 1840s, acting as its director attorney and later as its general attorney. His first wife, Lizzie Ayres, died in 1850 after less than a year of marriage. He married Mary Moss in 1854. They retired to his farm in Shelby County from 1861 to 1866, thereafter returning to Hannibal. He was elected state senator in 1876, and then state representative in 1882. They had six children (Inds, 328–29, 336; Holcombe 1884, 608–10; Brashear 1935). Clemens told the story of their unhappy marriage in “Villagers of 1840–3,” written in 1897:
Mary, very sweet and pretty at 16 and 17. Wanted to marry George Robards. Lawyer Lakenan the rising stranger, held to be the better match by the parents, who were looking higher than commerce. They made her engage herself to L. L. made her study hard a year to fit herself to be his intellectual company; then married her, shut her up, the docile and heart-hurt young beauty, and continued her education rigorously. When he was ready to trot her out in society 2 years later and exhibit her, she had become wedded to her seclusion and her melancholy broodings, and begged to be left alone. He compelled her—that is, commanded. She obeyed. Her first exit was her last. The sleigh was overturned, her thigh was broken; it was badly set. She got well with a terrible limp, and forever after stayed in the house and produced children. Saw no company, not even the mates of her girlhood. (Inds, 94)
400.38–401.1 George went away, presently, to some far-off region and there he died—of a broken heart] In “Villagers of 1840–3” Clemens remembered that George, after the failure of his courtship, was “disappointed, wandered out into the world, and not heard of again for certain. Floating rumors at long intervals that he had been seen in South America (Lima) and other far places. Family apparently not disturbed by his absence. But it was known that Mary Moss was” (Inds, 93, 344–45). In fact, Robards was living in Hannibal and working as a farmer in 1860, and thereafter served as a captain in the Confederate Army throughout the war. He worked in Hannibal as a real estate and insurance agent in the 1870s, and was elected county assessor in 1876 (Robards Family Genealogy 2009, part 14:65).
401.4–6 Mary still lives . . . Missouri University] For Clemens’s honorary degree, see the Autobiographical Dictation of 12 February 1906. Upon arrival in Hannibal in 1902, Clemens wrote to his wife about the trip from St. Louis to Hannibal (where he stopped for several days before proceeding to Columbia, Missouri, to receive his degree): “In the train was accosted by a lady who required me to name her. I said I was sure I could do it. But I had the wit to say that if she would tell me her name I would tell her whether I had guessed correctly or not. It was the widow of Mr. Lakenan. I had known her as a child. We talked 3 hours” (31 May 1902 to OLC, CU-MARK, in LLMT, 337; Holcombe 1884, 610; Hagood and Hagood 1985, 46; Boone Census 1900, 212; “Farewell to Hannibal,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 3 June 1902, 2).
401.7–16 John Robards . . . He had been in ships] In 1849, John Lewis RoBards (1838–1925) left for Mariposa, California, with his father, Archibald, and a party of fifteen men, for whom his father furnished “at his own expense ample vehicles, provisions, stock, etc., for the entire expedition” (Holcombe 1884, 991). Letters to the local newspapers helped Hannibal’s citizens keep track of the Robards party, who took the route through New Mexico, prospecting in the Taos Mountains in July 1849 but finding only “small quantities” of gold and moving on (“The Emigrants,” Hannibal Courier, 23 Aug 1849, unknown page). John RoBards remembered that “about 1,200 hostile Pimo Indians surrounded the camp, and, with arrows presented, demanded the surrender of the itinerant strangers. Except for the remarkable presence of mind of his father the company would have been massacred” (Holcombe 1884, 992). Other adventures included a Mexican fandango in Santa Barbara, after which the hosts, childless, offered his father $1,000 in silver for John. By the middle of 1850, a local newspaper reported that “Capt. Robards is at Stockton—his men all left him,” and in early January 1851, another reported the return to Hannibal of “Capt. A. S. Robards and Son” on the steamer Wyoming (“California Letter,” Hannibal Courier, 27 June 1850, unknown page; “Returned Californians,” Hannibal Western Union, 9 Jan 1851, unknown page; RoBards 1909, 71–74). RoBards attended the University of Missouri and Jefferson School of Law in Kentucky, and in 1861 returned to Hannibal, where he set up his law practice and married Sara (Sallie) Crump Helm (1842–1918), with whom he had seven children, only three of whom survived until adulthood. In 1861, RoBards, along with Clemens and others, organized the Marion Rangers, a company in the Missouri State Guard. In “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed” Clemens mocked RoBards’s spelling of his name by portraying his character as “d’Un Lap” (formerly Dunlap), which later he “was ashamed of” (SLC 1885b; 19? Apr 1887 to Davis, ViU, in Wecter 1952, 298 n. 13; Robards Family Genealogy 2009, part 14:65; Inds, 345–46).
401.23–29 his granddaughter, twelve years old . . . her brieflife came to a close a few days later] Sara Ellen Richardson (1890–1902) was the only child of RoBards’s daughter Mary L. RoBards Richardson (b. 1864) and her husband, Elisha A. Richardson (b. 1860) of Louisville, Kentucky (Jefferson Census 1900, 8A, 8B; Portrait 1895, 144–45). At the news of her death, Clemens wrote: “My dear old playmate & friend, the tidings you send me are inexpressibly distressing, & my heart goes out to you in your sorrow. Good-bye—I grieve with you” (3 June 1902 to RoBards, MoHM and MoCoJ).
401.30–34 John Garth . . . Helen Kercheval . . . John’s tomb] John H. Garth (1837–99), one of Clemens’s close childhood friends, was the younger son of John Garth (1784–?1857), a tobacco and grain merchant, and his wife, Emily Houston Garth (d. 1844?). He attended the University of Missouri, then returned to Hannibal to work in the family tobacco business. In 1860 he married Helen Kercheval (1838–1923), and in 1862 they moved to New York City, where he worked alongside his brother David J. Garth (1822–1912) at the newly established Garth, Son and Company, a nationwide chain of tobacco warehouses. In the early 1870s he returned to Hannibal, where he became one of the town’s most prominent and prosperous citizens (Portrait 1895, 776–77; Inds, 320). Helen V. Kercheval (1838–1923) was the daughter of Anna M. and William E. Kercheval, manager of a Hannibal dry goods firm called the “People’s Store” (“‘The People’s Store’ Once More,” Hannibal Courier, 15 Apr 1852, unknown page; Inds, 328). In May 1882, while visiting old friends in Hannibal, Clemens stayed with the Garths at “Woodside,” their six-hundred-acre estate: “It has been a moving time. I spent my nights with John & Helen Garth, three miles from town, in their spacious & beautiful house. They were children with me, & afterwards school-mates” (17 May 1882 to OLC, CU-MARK, in MTL, 1:419). John Garth died of Bright’s disease; Clemens saw his tomb at Mount Olivet cemetery when Helen Garth and her daughter took him there during his 1902 visit to Hannibal. In his working notes for “Schoolhouse Hill,” Clemens planned characters named Jack Stillson and Fanny Brewster modeled on John and Helen, but only Jack Stillson appears in the unfinished manuscript (31 May 1902 to OLC, CU-MARK, in LLMT, 338; Hagood and Hagood 1985, 29).
401.36–402.2 Mr. Kercheval, had an apprentice . . . and he had also a slave woman . . . I was saved again] The apprentice has not been identified. The “slave woman,” who must have been about forty-four years old when she rescued Clemens, is identified only by Kercheval’s name in the 1850 census, which describes her as a female mulatto (Marion Census 1850 [“Slave Inhabitants”], 615).
402.2–4 I was drowned seven times . . . once in Bear Creek and six times in the Mississippi] Clemens elsewhere claimed that he had survived drowning nine times: “As a small boy I was notoriously lucky. It was usual for one or two of our lads (per annum) to get drowned in the Mississippi or in Bear Creek, but I was pulled out in a ⅔ drowned condition 9 times before I learned to swim, & was considered to be a cat in disguise” (2 Jan 1895 to Rogers, CU-MARK, in HHR, 115; see also SLC 1899a).
402.8–12 Another schoolmate was John Meredith . . . devastations and sheddings of blood] John D. Meredith (1837–70) was one of five children of the Clemens family’s old friend and doctor, Hugh Meredith, and his wife, Anna D. Meredith (b. 1813?) (see “Something about Doctors,” note at 188.19–20). John worked as a printer at the Hannibal Messenger office in 1859. Despite Clemens’s memory of John as a Confederate guerrilla, official records show that Hugh, John, and his younger brother, Henry H. Meredith (b. 1840), all served in the Union army. Hugh served as a captain surgeon in 1861 and 1862 in the Twenty-second Regiment Infantry Volunteers; between 1863 and 1865 John served as a captain in the Fifty-third Regiment of the Enrolled Missouri Militia, then in the Second Regiment of the Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia, and finally in the Thirty-ninth Regiment Infantry Volunteers. Henry, who enlisted in 1861, served in 1864 under his brother John in the Enrolled Missouri Militia (Marion Census 1850, 326; Marion Census 1860, unknown page; Marion Census 1870, 690; Fotheringham 1859, 41; Marion Veterans Census 1890, 1; Missouri Digital Heritage 2009b, reels s794, s817, s852, s863, s895; Inds, 310, 335; Wecter 1952, 55).
402.16–33 Will Bowen was another schoolmate, and so was his brother, Sam . . . Death came swiftly to both pilots] William Bowen (1836–93) and Samuel Adams Bowen, Jr. (1838?–78), were the two youngest boys of seven children born to Samuel Adams Bowen, Sr., and Amanda Stone Bowen (1802–81). Will and Sam (and their older brother Bart) became pilots on the Mississippi, operating on the same route as Clemens, between St. Louis and New Orleans. Clemens was Sam’s copilot on the John H. Dickey during the summer of 1858, and twice Will’s copilot on the A.B. Chambers and the Alonzo Child between 1859 and 1861 (Inds, 303–5). Clemens told the story of Sam’s marriage, using fictional names, in chapter 49 of Life on the Mississippi; the character based on Sam was a “shiftless young spendthrift, boisterous, good-hearted, full of careless generosities, and pretty conspicuously promising to fool his possibilities away early, and come to nothing.” Clemens retold the story in “Villagers of 1840–3,” noting that Sam “slept with the rich baker’s daughter, telling the adoptive parents they were married,” and describing Sam’s character and death: “Sam no account and a pauper. Neglected his wife; she took up with another man. Sam a drinker. Dropped pretty low. Died of yellow fever and whisky on a little boat with Bill Kribben the defaulting secretary” (Inds, 97). William J. (Bill) Kribben (d. 1878), who had embezzled the Western Boatmen’s Benevolent Association Fund when he was secretary and treasurer during the Civil War, was Sam Bowen’s copilot on the Molly Moore when they caught yellow fever and died. “Island 82” was just above Greenville, Mississippi, and Columbia, Arkansas. In 1882, when Clemens revisited the Mississippi Valley, he noted that Bowen had been buried in Arkansas at “Jackson’s point” (or “Parker’s Bend”) at the head of Island 65. “The river has cut away the banks & Bowen is washed into the river.” Island 65 had completely disappeared by 1884 (N&J2, 527, 561; Bragg 1977, 105–9, 130; Clabaugh to SLC, 19 July 1890, CU-MARK; Inds, 328).
Autobiographical Dictation, 12 March 1906
403.12–15 A tribe of Moros, dark skinned savages . . . bitter against us because we have been trying for eight years to take their liberties away . . . a menace] In December 1898, after the battle of Manila in the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Rather than granting independence to the Filipinos as had been expected, the United States established military rule. What had been a war of independence against Spain soon became a war of independence against the United States, concentrated in the primarily Tagalog north. The Moros, a collection of thirteen cultural-linguistic groups sometimes at war with one another but united by their adherence to Islam, lived primarily in the south, in the Sulu Archipelago, where Jolo Island is located, and in the southern half of Mindanao (Byler 2005, 1–3). In 1899, in what was later admitted to be solely a “temporary expedient,” the American administrative authority signed a treaty with the sultan of Sulu promising governing autonomy in return for recognizing U.S. sovereignty. In the succeeding years it increasingly attempted to assert social and military control of the south, resulting in a series of battles with the Moros, whom the U.S. army many times overpowered in battle but did not defeat (Kho 2009, 1–5). In March 1904, President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Taft decided to abrogate the treaty, which “provided salaries for the Sultan and certain of his dattos and at the same time, it is said, sustained polygamy and slavery” on the grounds that it had simply been “a modus vivendi and an executive agreement” (“America Abrogates Treaty with Moros,” New York Times, 15 Mar 1904, 5). Although they soon reinstated payments to the sultan and his tribal chiefs, the war continued unabated. Before the present action, the Moros had retreated to their fortress in the bowl of the extinct volcano on Mount Dajo (“The Troops in Action,” New York Tribune, 10 Mar 1906, 3; Bacevich 2006).
403.15 Our commander, General Leonard Wood] Major General Leonard Wood (1860–1927) earned his medical degree at Harvard Medical School in 1883 and thereafter worked as an army contract surgeon, participating in the last battle against Geronimo in 1886. He served as personal physician to President William McKinley, and he became friends with McKinley’s assistant secretary of the navy, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, he assumed command of the First Volunteer Cavalry—the Rough Riders—to Roosevelt’s second in command, and led his men at the battle of San Juan Hill. For the remainder of the war he led the Second Cavalry Brigade, and from 1900 to 1902 served as military governor of Cuba, instituting various reforms but also arousing controversy. In 1902 he became commander of the Philippines Division, and from 1903 to 1906, after President Roosevelt appointed him major general, he served as governor of Moro Province. After attempting to force reforms and impose taxes, he took charge of the military campaign against the Moros (Fort Leonard Wood 2009; Boston Medical Journal 1899, 973). Wood was a controversial figure in his time and remains so. His career, considered stellar and full of well-deserved high honors by some contemporary chroniclers and modern historians, was seen very differently by others, including Clemens, who had watched Wood’s rise to high office, and had in December 1903 written a scathing essay, “Major General Wood, M.D.,” about his character and the machinations to appoint him major general (SLC 1903e; see AD, 14 Mar 1906, note at 409.1–17).
403.28 General Wood’s order was “Kill or capture the six hundred.”] The New York Times reported on 10 March that Wood “directed Col. Joseph W. Duncan to attack the Moros in the crater and capture or kill them. This was accomplished after repeated demands to surrender” (“15 Americans, 600 Moros Slain in 2 Days’ Fight,” 10 Mar 1906, 1).
403.31–33 probably with brickbats . . . Heretofore the Moros have used knives and clubs mainly; also ineffectual trade-muskets when they had any] The New York Times reported that the “600 fanatical Moros” were armed with “rifles and knives and supported by native artillery” (“15 Americans, 600 Moros Slain in 2 Days’ Fight,” 10 Mar 1906, 1). The Moros’ “weapon of choice was the kris, a short sword with a wavy blade; the Americans toted Springfield rifles and field guns” (Bacevich 2006).
404.5–11 The official report quite . . . minutely and faithfully described the nature of the wounds . . . by cable, at one dollar and fifty cents a word] Wood’s cable named seven of the thirty-two wounded, including Coxswain Gilmore, “severely wounded in the elbow” (according to the New York Globe and Commercial Advertiser), and three with “slight” wounds in the thigh, right hand, and left eye (“15 Americans, 600 Moros Slain in Two-Day Fight,” 9 Mar 1906, 1). None of the accounts in the New York newspapers (Herald, Globe and Commercial Advertiser, Evening Post, Evening Sun, Times, Tribune, or World) specified a nose injury.
404.15–25 In one of the great battles of the Civil War . . . Waterloo . . . the pathetic comedy called the Cuban war . . . crippled on the field] Clemens may have had in mind the Appomattox campaign, in which the casualties equaled about 10 percent of the 163,000 men who fought on both sides. According to modern historians, most of the major battles in the Civil War had a far greater percentage of casualties (Home of the American Civil War 2009; American Civil War 2009b; Fox 1889). His estimate of the number of combatants at Waterloo (on 18 June 1815) is high. By one estimate, only about 141,000 men engaged in the battle; French casualties were about 54 percent, and Allied casualties about 33 percent. Troop strength and casualty figures for the Cuban battles of the Spanish-American War also differ, but Clemens’s statistics are substantially correct. A far greater number of Americans, perhaps 90 percent, died in hospitals of yellow fever, malaria, dysentery, and food poisoning than died in action (Veteran’s Museum and Memorial Center 2009; Library of Congress 2009). Clemens’s source for Spanish casualty figures is uncertain, but it is known that they also lost a greater number to tropical disease than to battle (Bollet 2005).
404.32–41 The splendid news appeared . . . on Friday morning . . . nobody said a word about the “battle.”] The dispatch from General Wood reporting the “severe action between troops,” dated Friday, 9 March, was first published or excerpted the same day in at least three New York newspapers, the Evening Post, Evening Sun, and the Globe and Commercial Advertiser, and the next day, the morning of Saturday, 10 March, in the Times, Tribune, World, and others. Only two, the New York Evening Post and the World, had an editorial comment. The Post wrote: “Congress would make no mistake if it should rigidly inquire into the latest ‘battle’ in the Philippines. . . . What possible military excuse was there for charging up a mountain cone, 2,100 feet high, to attack an almost impregnable fort? Was there no possibility of forcing these Moros to surrender by starving them out?” (“The Latest Moro Slaughter,” New York Evening Post, 10 Mar 1906, 4).
405.13–17 Washington . . . (Signed) Theodore Roosevelt] Roosevelt’s congratulatory cable of 10 March was widely published on 11 March, with no direct commentary (“Special to the New York Times,” New York Times, 1; “President Congratulates Wood,” New York Tribune, 1; “President Congratulates Wood upon the Massacre,” New York World, 1).
405.28 WOMEN SLAIN IN MORO SLAUGHTER] This headline and the others quoted below through 406.22 were from the New York Herald of 11 March.
406.23 Lieutenant Johnson has pervaded the cablegrams] Lieutenant Gordon Johnston (1874–1934) was the son of Confederate General Robert Daniel Johnston and nephew of Joseph F. Johnston, governor of Alabama, 1896–1900. His injury was followed closely in the newspapers because of his connection to Roosevelt. (Many newspapers erroneously called him Johnson, the name Clemens uses.) On 10 March the New York Tribune published two stories, headlined “Lieutenant Johnston Formerly in Rough Riders” and “Lieut. Johnston Not Badly Hurt,” and the Globe and Commercial Advertiser published “Moro Fight Hero. Lieut. Johnson, Princeton Graduate, Is Badly Wounded in Leading a Charge.” On 11 March the World noted that his wounds “are severe, a slug having passed through his right shoulder. He performed a gallant deed when he scaled the wall of the Rio crater and was blown off the parapet by the force of exploding artillery” (“900 Moros Slain, It Is Now Said, in Fatal Crater,” 1). On 12 March, the New York Times reported Roosevelt’s telegram and Johnston’s answer in a story headlined, “Fine, Cables Johnston, Answering Roosevelt” (12 Mar 1906, 6; Arlington National Cemetery 2009).
406.25–26 Gillette’s comedy farce of a few years ago, “Too Much Johnson.”] William Gillette’s comedy, based on the French comic operetta La Plantation Thomassin by Maurice Ordonneau and Albert Vizentini, opened on Broadway on 26 November 1894 and ran until June 1895 (“The Theatrical Week,” New York Times, 2 Dec 1894, 10; Broadway League 2009).
Autobiographical Dictation, 14 March 1906
407.13–14 hardly a ghost of a whisper . . . in the editorial columns of the papers] Although comment about the Jolo massacre was at first sparing or nonexistent in several New York newspapers, as early as 10 March the World began publishing daily or almost daily editorials and editorial cartoons, which became more disapproving as new information reached the press. The 10 March editorial concluded: “There will be many Americans who will regret, along with the death of almost a score of our brave men, that so crushing a blow should fall by our arms upon a people who have never appealed to us to extend to them the ‘blessings of civilization,’ but are willing to rule themselves” (New York World: “The Slaughter in Jolo,” 10 Mar 1906, 6; “Peace in Jolo,” 12 Mar 1906, 6; “The Soldier Dead,” 13 Mar 1906, 6; “The Jolo Massacre,” 14 Mar 1906, 8). The Tribune’s editors, convinced that these Moros were “plain, ordinary, everyday outlaws and brigands,” were on 11 March regretful but approving: “It was not a question of submission to American rule but a question of regard for any rule at all and for the peace of the Moro people. [] The manner of doing the work was undoubtedly severe. There are cases in which severity is humanity” (“Suppressing Crime in Jolo,” New York Tribune, 11 Mar 1906, 6). On 12 March the Times reported official criticism of General Wood “for bringing on such a struggle. It is contended that he might have accomplished enough by laying siege to the fort and starving the Moros into submission” and similarly reported “no little criticism” of Roosevelt’s congratulatory message, “on the ground that it was entirely uncalled for. . . . The fight at Fort Dajo is compared frequently with that of Wounded Knee, in January, 1891, when the Sioux ghost dancers were shot down, squaws and children with the braves” (“Not All Praise for Wood. Officials Believe His Policy Caused the Needless Killing of Moro Women and Children,” 12 Mar 1906, 6). But on the same day, the Times published an editorial justifying the action: “Lamentable as it is to hear of the enforced slaughter of 600 inhabitants of the islands where we established peace some five years ago, there is yet consolation in the knowledge that these last rebels against our undoubtedly beneficent rule are men who, if nothing except extermination can reduce them to order, can be exterminated with exceptional facility” (“Extermination or Utilization,” 12 Mar 1906, 8). And on the following day, the Times published another editorial defending General Wood (“Finding Fault with Gen. Wood,” 13 Mar 1906, 8; see also “Fighting Fuzzy-Wuzzies,” New York Globe and Commercial Advertiser, 12 Mar 1906, 6, and “The Battle of the Crater,” New York Evening Sun, 13 Mar 1906, 6).
408.5–7 “no wanton destruction of . . . used them as shields in the hand-to-hand fighting.”] Here and at 408.17–18 Clemens quoted from “No Wanton Massacre” in the New York Evening Post (13 Mar 1906, 1).
408.30–42 Colonel Funston had penetrated to the refuge of the patriot, Aguinaldo . . . disgracing the uniform, the flag, the nation, and himself ] Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964) was the leader of the fight for Filipino independence, first against Spain and then against the United States. Frederick Funston (1865–1917), nicknamed the “scrapper” and known as a “dare-devil sort of soldier,” participated as a volunteer in more than twenty battles in the Cuban war, where he had been seriously wounded three times, captured by the Spanish and sentenced to death, liberated or escaped, and barely survived a bout of “Cuban fever.” He thereafter joined the Twentieth Kansas Volunteers to fight in the Philippines as a colonel, and had been promoted to brigadier general in 1899 after swimming across the Rio Grande under “galling fire from Aguinaldo’s men.” In February 1901, McKinley considered him for promotion to the regular army, but concluded that he was “not a man of proper temperament for any rank higher than that of Lieutenant in the regulars” (“Gen. Funston’s Career,” New York Times, 28 Mar 1901, 2). Although by that time the Filipino fight for independence was essentially over, “largely due to the patient, indefatigable, constant efforts of officers whose names are barely known to the public and whose personalities are almost unknown,” Funston proceeded, in late March, to capture Aguinaldo by treachery and deceit. Despite his reluctance to reward Funston and thereby seem to overlook the more important efforts of other officers, McKinley promoted him to brigadier general in the regular army on 30 March 1901 (“The President’s Dilemma. To Reward Funston Would Be to Slight Hard Work of Other Officers in the Philippines,” New York Times, 30 Mar 1901, 2). Clemens’s bitterly satiric “A Defence of General Funston,” published in the North American Review in May 1902, scathingly criticized Funston for the “forgeries and falsehoods” and “ingratitudes and amazing treacheries” he had employed (SLC 1902c, 620, 622). Clemens also wrote a critical book review (SLC 1902a), which he left unpublished, of Edwin Wildman’s Aguinaldo: A Narrative of Filipino Ambitions (1901).
409.1–17 Wood was an army surgeon . . . the Senate hadn’t spirit enough to repudiate it] Clemens’s commentary on Wood and Roosevelt reflected his 1903 “Major General Wood, M.D.,” a “pretty pison article” which he originally planned to submit for publication in the North American Review or Harper’s Weekly, but suppressed (30 Dec 1903 to Duneka, MoSW). In it he pretended to advocate for Wood’s elevation to major general:
I think that the President’s delight in the history of him and the character of him and the smell of him ought to be considered; I think that Dr. Wood’s distinguished “expectations,” and spurious medals, and shady silver-plate, and furtive in subordinations, and clandestine libels, and frank falsehoods, pimping for gambling hells, and destitution of honor and dignity, taken together with his devoted and diligent labors in seeking a great place which has not sought him, have earned it and entitled him to it. (SLC 1903e, TS p. 3)
On 7 December 1903 the Senate “had two legislative days, one in the expiring session and one in the new session,” and in the interval between them Roosevelt reappointed Wood and 167 other officers, considering them to be “recess appointments.” On 18 March, Wood was confirmed as a major general by the Senate (New York Times: “Special Session Is Merged into Regular. President Roosevelt Decides for ‘Constructive Recess,’ ” 8 Dec 1903, 1; “Wood’s Nomination Is Confirmed by Senate,” 19 Mar 1904, 5).
Autobiographical Dictation, 15 March 1906
409.18 Monday, March 5, 1906] The events discussed in this dictation on 15 March had been reported in the newspapers ten days earlier.
409.27 POLICE HUSTLE CROWD AWAITING MARK TWAIN] This article from the New York Times of 5 March was pasted into the typescript of the dictation.
410.29 Rev. Dr. Charles P. Fagnani] Fagnani (1854–1941) held degrees in arts, science and law. In 1882 he was ordained a Presbyterian minister, and since 1892 had taught Hebrew at the Union Theological Seminary in New York, later becoming associate professor of Old Testament literature (“Dr. Fagnani, 86, Dies in Occupied France,” New York Times, 7 Jan 1941, 25).
410.40–41 Mark Twain . . . was greeted with a storm of applause] Clemens’s talk, entitled “Reminiscences,” was preceded by a lengthy program of several other speakers, a singer (Anna Taylor Jones, contralto), a “mixed string-and-piano-band” (the Misses Kleckhoefer), and a Bible reader, causing him to cut his planned talk by half an hour (see AD, 3 Apr 1906; “Y.M.C.A. Meetings,” New York Globe and Commercial Advertiser, 3 Mar 1906, 15). Versions of the speech were published under the title “Layman’s Sermon” (MTS 1910, 136–39; MTS 1923, 281–83; see also Fatout 1976, 492–95).
411.4 Dr. Russell spoke of organization] After the audience was seated and the police had dispersed the remaining crowd outside, Rev. Dr. Howard H. Russell (1855–1946), superintendent of the national Anti-Saloon League,
denounced the affair from the platform as a police outrage, and said that respectable citizens had been jabbed in the ribs with night sticks to make them move on, when there was no opportunity to move on.
An impromptu indignation meeting was held on the platform, and there was much talk of resolutions passed against the police. They would have passed, but Mark Twain killed them. He began to talk about the individual’s duty as a citizen.
“Don’t try to infringe on other people’s rights,” he said, “or take responsibilities on your shoulders that you should not. But if others should try to trample on you, then assert your citizenship. When you resolve to do a thing, do it, but I heard Dr. Russell speak of resolutions about the police. I don’t believe in denouncing the whole police force for the fault of one man.” (“Fight to See Twain,” New York Tribune, 5 Mar 1906, 1; “Hurt in Crush to Hear Mark Twain,” New York Morning Telegraph, 5 Mar 1906, 1)
411.5–6 When they say ‘Step lively,’ remember it is not an insult from a conductor to you personally] In 1892, the Railroad Gazette noted: “On the Manhattan Elevated the injunction of the trainmen to ‘step lively’ has become a by-word, and they doubtless find the duty of reiterating it thousands of times very irksome, but it is only by this constant spurring at all points that a great passenger movement can be accomplished with punctuality” (“Step Lively,” New York Times, 27 Dec 1892, 3).
411.11–12 I was traveling from Chicago with my publisher and stenographer . . . and engaged a stateroom on a certain train] Other reports of this speech make clear that Clemens said that he was “in Chicago . . . about to depart for New York” and that the publisher was James R. Osgood. The “stenographer” was Roswell H. Phelps. The three men traveled together in 1882, when Clemens gathered material for Life on the Mississippi (“Ten Thousand Stampede at a Mark Twain Meeting,” New York Herald, 5 Mar 1906, 1).
411.25 Mr. Thomson of the Pennsylvania] Between 1882 and 1899, Frank Thomson (1841–99) served as second vice-president, first vice-president, and president of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
412.7–10 I think it damaged my speech for Miss Lyon . . . I knew that she knew it] Isabel Lyon recorded her impressions that evening; Clemens’s young friend Gertrude Natkin also attended:
Today we went up to the Majestic Theatre[,] Mr. Clemens & mother & I . . . But the main thing is that Gertrude was there, “that darling child.” We went in the stage door & for a very long time Gertrude didn’t arrive. Mr. Clemens’s look of disappointment made me heartsick & feebly I tried to find the child in that vast crowd. It was a Christian crowd; but as I turned away from a big burly young man who had tried to gain admittance & had failed, I heard him say: “Just my God damn luck!” . . . Mr. Clemens’s talk was lovely & brave & strong & instructive & humorous. No one else in all the world can combine all those qualities with such great wonderful personal charm. . . . He seems never to be aware of himself. (Lyon 1906, 63)
412.16 letter from William Dean Howells] Howells’s letter was dated 28 February 1906 (CSmH, in MTHL, 2:801–2).
412.39–40 So may I be courteous . . . the path I trod] Clemens paraphrased the final lines of “A Song” by Clarence Urmy (1858–1923), which was printed in the March 1906 issue of Harper’s Bazar and quoted many times subsequently, often without attribution (Urmy 1906):
I shall not pass this way again,
May I be courteous to men,
Faithful to friends, true to my God,
A fragrance on the path I trod.
412.41–42 At the funeral I saw Patrick’s family . . . The children were men and women] Clemens attended McAleer’s funeral at the Cathedral of St. Joseph on Farmington Avenue in Hartford on the morning of 28 February, and “took his place” with the pallbearers “going in and coming out.” The McAleers’ four surviving children (out of nine)—Michael, William, Alice, and Anne—attended the funeral with their families (Twichell 1874–1916, entry for 27 Feb 1906, 7:126; Hartford Courant: “Coachman Many Years for Mark Twain,” 26 Feb 1906, 6; “Mark Twain Pays Tribute to Servant,” 28 Feb 1906, 3; Hartford Census: 1880, 117; 1900, 8B; 1910, 7B; see AD, 1 Feb 1906, note at 322.31–42).
413.4 John, our old gardener] John O’Neil (b. 1848) took care of the grounds and greenhouse at the Clemenses’ Hartford house during the 1880s, and from 1891 to 1900, when the family was in Europe (Hartford Census 1900, 1A).
413.6–9 at the Hartford Club I met, at a luncheon, eleven of my oldest friends . . . Welch] The Hartford Club, which Clemens joined in 1881, was organized in 1873 for “the promotion of social intercourse, art and literature” (Hartford Club 2009). Before he left New York for the funeral, Clemens asked Charles H. Clark to “assemble some Cheneys & Twichells & other friends at Hartford Club Thursday & lunch them & me at my expense” (26 Feb 1906 to Clark, TxU). In addition to Clark, the guests were Judge William Hamersley, Colonel Frank W. Cheney, Samuel G. Dunham, Rev. Joseph H. Twichell, Rev. Dr. Edwin Pond Parker, Charles E. Perkins, Archibald A. Welch, Rev. Dr. Francis Goodwin, Franklin G. Whitmore, and Dr. E. K. Root (“Mr. Clemens Lunches with Friends,” Hartford Courant, 14 March 1906, 4). Frank Woodbridge Cheney (1832–1909), a lieutenant colonel in the Civil War who had been wounded at Antietam, served as head of Cheney Brothers silk manufacturers, as a director of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company for more than thirty years, and as a director of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad for seven years (Connecticut Biography 1917, 277–80; “Death of Colonel Cheney,” Hartford Courant, 5 June 1909, 5). Archibald Ashley Welch (1859–1935), prominent in many civic organizations, was in 1906 second vice-president of the Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company (Burpee 1928, 3:1062–65). Dr. Edward K. Root (b. 1856), a Hartford physician and Charles Clark’s brother-in-law, served on the Hartford Board of Health, the State Board of Health, and as medical director of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company (“Dr. Edward K. Root,” Hartford Courant, 24 Oct 1899, 8; Hartford Census 1900, 8B).
413.12 Rev. Dr. McKnight] Clemens probably refers to the Rev. Dr. George H. McKnight (b. 1830) of Elmira’s Episcopal Trinity Church, who earned his A.M. degree at Hobart College in 1851 and his D.D. at Hamilton College in 1873. McKnight performed the marriage ceremony for Charles J. Langdon (Olivia’s brother) and Ida B. Clark in October 1870 (Towner 1892, 287–88; Chemung Census 1900, 14B; 13 Oct 1870 to Fairbanks, L4, 208–9).
413.33–35 when Sir Thomas Lipton came . . . to race for the America cup, I . . . Mr. Rogers and half a dozen other worldlings] On 3 October 1901, Clemens and Twichell joined Henry H. Rogers and his other guests on the Kanawha, which left Sandy Hook, New Jersey, to follow the second race of the series between the American yacht Columbia and Sir Thomas Lipton’s Shamrock II. Lipton (1850–1931), knighted by Queen Victoria in 1898, was famous for his grocery chain, tea shops, and charitable works. This was his second challenge (out of five) for the America’s Cup between 1899 and 1930 (HHR, 474; “Sir Thomas Gives Up Hope,” New York Times, 4 Oct 1901, 1; Twichell 1874–1916, entry for 2–3 Oct 1901, 7:105–6).
414.8–9 name of Richard Croker, the celebrated Tammany leader] Croker (1843–1922), acknowledged as Tammany boss after 1884, had brought about the elections of the subsequent three New York Democratic mayors. In September 1901, when Croker had just returned from ten months abroad, the newspapers were filled with stories and speculation about his influence on the upcoming mayoral election, and two recently published books were reviewed in the New York Times: a complimentary biography of Croker by Alfred Henry Lewis, and a book by Gustavus Myers that included two chapters on Croker and was highly critical of Tammany Hall’s unbroken record of corruption and graft (“About Tammany Hall,” 7 Sept 1901, BR3; Alfred Henry Lewis 1901; Myers 1901; “Richard Croker Met by Tammany Leaders,” New York Times, 15 Sept 1901, 10).
414.11–26 I knew his father very well indeed . . . do you take me for a God damned papist?] The Croker forebears, originally English and Protestant, had gone to Ireland with Cromwell. Twichell evidently assumed that the Crokers were Catholic because of their Irish ancestry. Richard Croker’s father, Eyre Coote Croker, a Presbyterian, emigrated to the United States with his family in 1846. He found work as a blacksmith and veterinary horse surgeon, and joined the Union army at the outbreak of the Civil War (Alfred Henry Lewis 1901, 5, 13–14; Lothrop Stoddard 1931, 2, 260–61; see AD, 17 Jan 1906, for Clemens’s remarks about General Sickles and the regiment in which Twichell and Croker served).
417.5 dog let out a howl of anguish that could be heard beyond the frontier] The occasion on which Twichell’s Decoration Day (Memorial Day) speech was interrupted by the howling dog probably took place in the mid-1870s. In his notebooks, Clemens reminded himself several times in 1878 and after to make use of the incident (jotting down both “Joe Twichell’s Decoration-day prayer—‘G-d d—n that dog’ ” and an explanation for its howls, “He had a rat!”), and he did use it in chapter 27 of Huckleberry Finn, which one Hartford newspaper recognized when the book was published: “The ‘He had a rat’ story put into a funeral scene, where it actually occurred in this city, will be recognized by a number of Hartford people, who have had many hearty laughs at it in its chrysalis period” (“New Publications,” Hartford Evening Post, 17 Feb 1885, 3; HF 2003, 232–33, 443; N&J2, 58, 343; N&J3, 16, 92).
Autobiographical Dictation, 16 March 1906
417.19–23 I recall Mary Miller . . . this sorrow did not remain with me long] Clemens’s classmate Mary Miller (b. 1835?), who regularly competed with him for the spelling medal, was the eldest daughter of lumber merchant Thomas S. Miller (1807?–60) and Mary E. Miller (1812?–49). She was about the same age as Clemens, according to census records. She married Clemens’s friend and classmate John B. Briggs (Hannibal Courier: “Obituary,” 30 Aug 1849, unknown page; “Look Out for the Old Lumber Yard,” 4 Mar 1852, unknown page; Marion Census 1850, 307; Marion Census 1870, 447; “Good-Bye to Mark Twain,” Hannibal Courier-Post, 3 June 1902, 1).
417.24–27 I soon transferred my worship to Artimisia Briggs . . . pestered by children] Artemissa (also spelled Artimissa, Artimisia, Artemesia, and Artemissia) Briggs (1832–1910), the elder sister of Clemens’s friend and classmate John B. Briggs, was the second of eight children of Rhoda Briggs (b. 1811?) and William Briggs (b. 1799?) (Marion Census 1850, 315–16; Marion Census 1860, 145; death certificate for Artemissia Briggs, Missouri Digital Heritage 2009a; Inds, 306–7).
417.28–32 Mary Lacy . . . was a schoolmate . . . Four years ago she was still living, and had been married fifty years] Most likely, Clemens was confusing Mary Lacy with another schoolmate, Mary Nash. Mary Elizabeth Lacy (b. 1838?) was the daughter of John L. Lacy (1808?–83), who in 1850 worked as a pork packer to support his large family. She married Leonard Mefford in Hannibal on 31 May 1854 and by 1860 had two children (Marion Census 1850, 319; Marion Census 1860, 149; “Missouri Marriage Records, 1805–2002” 2009). In 1898 Clemens sketched a plan in his notebook to use her as a character in “Schoolhouse Hill,” the version of “The Mysterious Stranger” set in the fictional Hannibal, St. Petersburg. When Satan arrives on earth he finds that his son, little Satan, “has been rejected by Mary Lacy, who took him for crazy & who is now horribly sorry she didn’t jump at the chance, since she finds that the Holy Family of Hell are not disturbed by the fire, but only their guests. Satan is glad his boy didn’t marry beneath him—he is arranging with the shade of Pope Alexander VI to marry him to a descendant” (Notebook 40, TS pp. 51–52, CU-MARK). Mary Nash (b. 1832?) was the half-sister of Clemens’s friend Tom Nash. She married John Hubbard of Frytown in January 1851. In 1901, a year before Clemens’s Hannibal trip, he responded to an announcement of her fiftieth anniversary, “I remember the wedding very well, although it was 50 years ago; & I wish you & your husband joy of this anniversary of it” (13 Jan 1901 to Hubbard, MoHM). He planned to (but ultimately did not) use her as the model for two literary characters: in his working notes for “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy” he named her Mary Benton and characterized her as “wild”; and in his working notes for “Schoolhouse Hill” he called her Louisa Robbins and characterized her as “Mary Nash, bad.” He may have based the independent Rachel Hotchkiss, the title character in “Hellfire Hotchkiss,” on her as well (Inds, 214–59, 287–88, 134–213, 337; HH&T, 383; MSM, 431).
417.33–34 Jimmy McDaniel was another schoolmate . . . His father kept the candy shop] James W. (Jimmy) McDaniel (1833–1911) was the son of William McDaniel (b. 1811?), who ran the confectionary and variety store in Hannibal, which advertised that the “Confectionary Department consists in all the finest varieties of Candy, Nuts, Raisins, Prunes, Dates, Figs, Currants, Citrons, fig Paste, Jellies, Preserves and many other articles too tedious to mention” (“Confectionary and Fancy Goods,” Hannibal Courier, 7 Oct 1852, unknown page). Jimmy worked as a bookseller at fifteen, a tobacconist before he was twenty, a salesman at his father’s store at thirty, and later a packer and manager of the Holmes-Dakin cigar company (Fother-ingham 1859, 40; Honeyman 1866, 37; Hallock 1877, 100; Stone, Davidson, and McIntosh 1885, 118, 150; Marion Census 1850, 310; death certificate for James W. McDaniel, Missouri Digital Heritage 2009a).
418.2 Jim Wolf and the cats] See “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX.”
418.5 I saw him four years ago when I was out there] In 1902, the Hannibal newspaper reported that as Clemens
was driving up Main street he espied James W. McDaniel, the old confectioner and greeted him with “Hello Jim, I’m truly glad to see you. Let me see that scalp of yours; what’s become of your hair?” Mr. Clemens and Mr. McDaniel used to be old chums and . . . although they had not met before in nearly forty years they recognized each other on sight. (“See[s] Points of Interest,” Hannibal Morning Journal, 30 May 1902, reprinted in the Hannibal Evening Courier-Post, 6 Mar 1935, 4B, transcript in CU-MARK)
418.11–12 Artimisia Briggs . . . married Richmond . . . my Methodist Sunday-school teacher] In March 1853, at the age of twenty-one, Artemissa Briggs married the local bricklayer, William J. Marsh (b. 1815?), not Joshua Richmond (b. 1816?), the stone mason. Richmond married Angelina Matilda Cook (b. 1829?) in January 1849; he taught Clemens’s earliest Sunday school class at Hannibal’s Methodist Old Ship of Zion Church, on the public square (Marion Census 1860, 145; Fotheringham 1859, 39; Ellsberry 1965b, 1:10; Wecter 1952, 183, 305 n. 15; Inds, 95, 344; “Married,” Hannibal Missouri Courier, 18 Jan 1849, unknown page).
418.24 five foolish virgins] Matthew 25:1–13.
418.29–30 Twenty years ago Mr. Richmond had become possessed of Tom Sawyer’s cave . . . made a tourist-resort of it] The limestone cave that Clemens called “McDougal’s cave” in Tom Sawyer was during his childhood at first called Simms Cave for the brothers who discovered it, then Saltpetre Cave for the mineral found there (potassium nitrate, thought to be derived from bat guano), and finally McDowell’s Cave (see “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 214.3–4; Sweets 1986b, 1–2). After the publication of Tom Sawyer in 1876, it began to be called Mark Twain Cave or Tom Sawyer’s Cave. Joshua Richmond was evidently one of several owners in or after 1886, when the cave formally opened to the public. Evan T. Cameron, guide to the cave since 1886 and later manager, established a “permanent tour route through the cave’s maze of passageways, built a small ticket building near the entrance, purchased lanterns that people could carry for lighting, hired cave guides, and advertised the attraction as Mark Twain Cave” (Weaver 2008, 15–16, 97). The current public entrance to the Mark Twain Cave “was blasted out of the hillside to make an easy, comfortable entrance” for the tourist, as the original “was a steep climb up the hill” (George Walley to John Lockwood, 21 Sept 2005, photocopy in CU-MARK).
418.42–419.4 they make the finest kind of Portland cement there now . . . being ground into cement] In August 1901 the Atlas Portland Cement Company began construction of the “largest Portland cement plant in the United States and the first cement plant west of the Mississippi,” in Cave Hollow, where many of the entrances to the cave were situated (Sweets 1986a, 3). The telegram Mark Twain received has not been found.
419.9–11 Reuel Gridley attended that school of ours . . . Then came the Mexican war and he volunteered] Reuel Colt Gridley (1829–70), who must have been about seventeen or eighteen years old when he attended Dawson’s school, enrolled in the Third Regiment Missouri Mounted Volunteers at the age of eighteen on 5 May 1847 in New London, Missouri, was mustered into service the following month, and was honorably discharged on 28 October 1848 (Missouri Digital Heritage 2009b, reel s912).
419.11–21 A company of infantry was raised . . . and Mr. Hickman . . . was made captain of it . . . Hickman is dead—it is the old story] Philander A. Hickman (b. 1824) was born in Virginia. Unlike Gridley, he did not join the Missouri Volunteers. He enrolled in the infantry as a first lieutenant on 5 March 1847, was mustered into the Fourteenth Regiment on 9 April, and became a captain on 22 October. He married Sarah M. Brittingham (1828–89) on 11 May 1848, and was honorably discharged from the infantry on 25 July (Marion Census 1850, 309; Heitman 1903, 1:528; Robarts 1887, 30). After the discovery of gold in California, Hickman and two of his in-laws emigrated, but he returned to Hannibal in the 1850s and established a store which sold stoves and hardware. In the 1870s, he became a representative in the state legislature. Clemens had last seen him in Hannibal in 1882: “Lieutenant Hickman, the spruce young han[d]somely-uniformed volunteer of 1846, called on me—a grisly elephantine patriarch of 65, now, his graces all vanished” (17 May 1882 to OLC, CU-MARK, in MTL, 1:429). He was dead within three years (“The Emigration,” unidentified clipping in Meltzer 1960, 15; Fotheringham 1859, 30; Honeyman 1866, 26; Hallock 1877, 79, 178; Stone, Davidson, and McIntosh 1885, 115).
419.21–22 As Susy said, “What is it all for?”] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 2 February 1906.
419.23–420.3 Reuel Gridley went away to the wars . . . dead these many, many years—it is the old story] After he was discharged from the Volunteers in 1848, Gridley returned to Hannibal, where he worked as a carpenter and attempted but failed to learn piloting on the Mississippi River from steamboat captain Bart S. Bowen, who found him “so much given to larking, that he couldn’t learn” (“River News,” Cincinnati Commercial, 13 Feb 1865, 4). In September 1850 he married Susannah L. Snider (b. 1832?), and in 1852 left for California, where he operated an express mail service in Oroville; his wife joined him two years later. Before 1863, he moved to the Reese River area in Nevada and opened another store—Gridley, Hobart and Jacobs—in a mining camp that later became the town of Austin. Gridley, who described himself to Clemens as “Union to the backbone, but a Copperhead in sympathies,” made a bet on the Democratic candidate for mayor and lost to Dr. H. S. Herrick, who backed the Republican candidate. Gridley had agreed to give Herrick a fifty-pound sack of flour, “and carry it to him on his shoulder, a mile and a quarter, with a brass band at his heels playing ‘John Brown.’ ” If Gridley had won, Herrick was to have carried the flour “to the tune of ‘Dixie’ ” (17 May 1864 to JLC and PAM, L1, 282, 285–86 n. 11). After a year spent selling and reselling the flour sack around the country, in the summer of 1865 Gridley took the sack and his proceeds to the St. Louis Fair, which the Western Sanitary Commission held to raise funds for “the relief of sick and wounded Union soldiers” (L1, 284 n. 3). He found it was illegal in Missouri to repeatedly resell the same item, but “it was suggested that the flour be baked into cakes which could be sold. That Gridley refused to do for he felt that the flour came from the west and that was where it belonged. Thus the tour ended on a sour note and he headed home” (Elizabeth H. Smith 1965, 16). The total amount raised by Gridley is uncertain. In 1872, Clemens estimated $150,000; other estimates range from $40,000 to $275,000. When Gridley returned home in July 1865, he was almost bankrupt and his health was “completely broken down” (Tinkham 1921, 66). After he died on 24 November 1870 in Paradise City, California, Clemens eulogized him in a letter to the editor of the New York Tribune (11 Dec 1870, L4, 270–71; see RI 1993, 294–98, 660–64; Marion Census 1850, 310; “Missouri Marriage Records, 1805–2002” 2009; Butte Census 1860, 574; Elizabeth H. Smith 1965, 11–13).
420.4–11 first Jews I had ever seen . . . “Twice Levin—twenty-two.”] The Levin family apparently lived in Hannibal for a short time during the 1840s. Something of the townspeople’s attitude toward the boys is revealed in Clemens’s 1897 notes for a planned novel, “New Huck Finn” (Notebook 41, TS pp. 59–60, CU-MARK; the boy who drowned was Clint Levering):
*The Lev’n boys—the first Jew family ever seen there—an awful impression among us—it realized Jews, they had been creatures of vanished ages, myths, unrealities—the shudder visited every boy in the town—under breath the boys discussed them & were afraid of them. “Shall we crucify them?”
It was believed that the drowning of Writer Levering was a judgment on him & his parents because his great-grandmother had given the 11 boys protection when they were being chased & stoned.
All this feeling against Jews had been bred by the German youth who got so many verses by heart, before the 11s appeared. The ground was all prepared, & yet the Jew was a surprise at last when he came—as explained* above. . . .
Instead of 11, call them 9 (Nein) & 18.
Tom stands by them & has fights.
420.12–13 Irving Ayres—but no matter, he is dead] Ayres (b. 1837?), another of Clemens’s schoolmates, was the younger son of Thomas J. Ayres (b. 1816?), Hannibal postmaster and tavern keeper, who in 1836 established the Brady House, a downtown hotel in a double-log house with hogs beneath the floor, “crowded with boarders” and fleas that “hopped upstairs, downstairs, into the parlors, bed-rooms, beds, and indeed every nook and cranny” (Holcombe 1884, 202, 896). In his 1897 notebook, Clemens listed Irving and his elder brother Tubman (b. 1829?) as characters in notes for his planned “New Huck Finn” (Notebook 41, p. 61, CU-MARK).
420.13–16 George Butler . . . was a nephew of General Ben Butler . . . dead, long and long ago] Clemens’s schoolmate George H. Butler (1839?–86) was the son of Andrew Jackson Butler (1815–64) and nephew of Andrew’s brother, Major General Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818–93), the controversial Civil War general and Massachusetts congressman and governor who was known both for his brutality during the war and for his progressive politics afterwards. After working as an engineer in California, George joined the Union army Tenth Infantry in May 1861 and served as a first lieutenant during the battle of Ball’s Bluff on 21 October 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia. The catastrophic battle resulted in a Confederate victory when Union forces attempted to cross the Potomac to capture Leesburg, Virginia; caught in a Confederate counterattack, they were driven over a high bluff into the river and suffered heavy casualties. Butler served as regimental quartermaster from late 1862 until his resignation from the army in June 1863 (Marion Census 1850, 313; NNDB 2009; American Civil War 2009a; Missouri Digital Heritage 2009b, box 13; Heitman 1903, 1:269; Sonoma Census 1860, 649).
420.17 Will Bowen (dead long ago)] Bowen died on 19 May 1893 of sudden heart failure while on a business trip to Waco, Texas (Hornberger 1941, 8). See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 March 1906, 402.16–33 and note.
420.17 Ed Stevens (dead long ago)] Clemens’s classmate and friend Edmund C. Stevens (b. 1834?) by the age of sixteen had learned the trade of watchmaking from his father, Thomas B. Stevens (b. 1791?), the town jeweler. As a child he led a classroom “rebellion” against their stern teacher, Miss Newcomb, and was one of the gang who rolled a giant boulder down Holliday’s Hill. He was a corporal to Clemens’s second lieutenant in the Marion Rangers; Clemens described him in “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed”: “trim-built, handsome, graceful, neat as a cat; bright, educated, but given over entirely to fun. There was nothing serious in life to him. As far as he was concerned, this military expedition of ours was simply a holiday” (SLC 1885b, 194). Clemens wrote Stevens’s brother in 1901: “We were great friends, warm friends, he & I. He was of a killingly entertaining spirit; he had the light heart, the carefree ways, the bright word, the easy laugh, the unquenchable genius of fun, he was a friendly light in a frowning world—he should not have died out of it” (28 Aug 1901 to Stevens, CU-MARK). Clemens recalled him in “Villagers of 1840–3” and planned to use him as Jimmy Steel in “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy” and as Ed Sanders, watchmaker, in “Schoolhouse Hill” (Inds, 96, 134–213, 214–59, 349; HH&T, 383; MSM, 432).
420.17–18 John Briggs . . . is still living] In 1902 Clemens said of John B. Briggs (1837–1907), with whom he had shared many childhood scrapes, “We were like brothers once,” and in his notebook reminded himself to “draw a fine character of John Briggs. Good & true & brave, & robbed orchards tore down the stable stole the skiff” (“Friendship of Boyhood Pals Never Waned,” Hannibal Evening Courier-Post, 6 Mar 1935, 5C; Notebook 45, TS p. 13, CU-MARK). Briggs joined the Cadets of Temperance with Clemens in 1850, and in 1860 served with Clemens in the Marion Rangers. “Briggs and I,” Clemens said in 1902, “were the best retreaters in the company” (Love 1902, 5). Briggs later worked in a tobacco factory and became a farmer. He was almost certainly one of three boys upon whom Clemens based the “composite” character of Tom Sawyer, and perhaps of Ben Rogers as well, in Tom Sawyer. In 1902 notes for “New Huck Finn,” Clemens contemplated using an incident from Briggs’s childhood, in which Briggs’s father sold a young slave boy down the river, evidently believing he had struck John, when in fact John had struck the boy, “something so shameful that he could never bring himself to confess” (SLC 1902b; SLC 1982, 270; Inds, 134–213, 307; HH&T, 383). See the notes at 417.19–23 and 417.24–27 above and the Autobiographical Dictation of 8 May 1908.
420.19–421.12 In 1845, when I was ten years old, there was an epidemic of measles . . . vain of it] The deadly epidemics of measles that occurred in the 1840s were called “black” or “virulent” measles. In the spring of 1844, when Clemens was nine years old, the measles broke out in Hannibal “with uncommon virulence. Nearly 40 citizens died. . . . There were seven deaths in one day, all from measles” (Holcombe 1884, 900). Paine wrote that “in later life Mr. Clemens did not recollect the precise period of this illness. With habitual indifference he assigned it to various years, as his mood or the exigencies of his theme required” (MTB, 1:29). In “The Turning Point of My Life,” Clemens said that it was the cause of his mother’s apprenticing him to a printer: “I can say with truth that the reason I am in the literary profession is because I had the measles when I was twelve years old” (SLC 1910, 118–19).
421.13 Dr. Cunningham] Unidentified.
Autobiographical Dictation, 20 March 1906
421.22–38 John D. Rockefeller, junior’s, Bible Class . . . as are his son’s] John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (1839–1937), president of Standard Oil, was generally recognized as the world’s richest man, with a personal fortune estimated in 1901 as over $900 million. He served as superintendent of the Sunday school of Cleveland’s Euclid Avenue Baptist Church from 1872 until 1905. His son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (1874–1960), graduated from Brown University and became his father’s business associate, eventually taking charge of his philanthropic enterprises. He expounded the Scriptures at the Sunday school of the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church in New York. Clemens was acquainted with both Rockefellers through a mutual friend, Standard Oil executive Henry H. Rogers. Both men’s Bible lessons were regularly reported in the press, provoking much objection and ridicule (Chicago Daily Tribune: “Church and Clergy,” 29 Oct 1893, 12; “How J. D. Rockefeller, Jr., Teaches Bible Class,” 10 Feb 1901, 36; New York Times: “Rockefeller to His Pupils,” 12 Oct 1903, 1; “Story of Mr. Rockefeller,” 15 June 1903, 1, and letters to the editor in the editions of 8 Feb 1906 [8], 9 Feb 1906 [8], and 13 Feb 1906 [6]; Case Western Reserve University 2008).
422.17 young John is using no new whitewash upon Joseph] See the note at 423.11–16.
422.22–25 exposition, three years ago . . . “Sell all thou hast . . . poor.”] This verse occurs in slightly different versions in three of the Gospels: Matthew 19:21, Mark 10:21, and Luke 18:22. Rockefeller made it part of his 11 January 1903 Bible class talk, during which he argued that Jesus’s teachings are not to be taken literally (“Rockefeller Would Keep His Wealth,” Washington Times, 12 Jan 1903, 3).
422.38 Three years ago I went with young John to his Bible Class and talked to it] Clemens recalled his 28 January 1902 appearance “at the regular monthly meeting” of Rockefeller’s Bible class. The New York Times reported:
Mark Twain attempted to teach the class how to reach a person of great eminence, an Emperor, for instance. At 9:20 he stopped short and informed the young men that he would have to go.
“I’m a farmer now,” he said. “Not a very good farmer yet, but a farmer just the same. So I’ll have to go now to be up early in the morning to take care of my crop. I don’t know yet what the crop will be, but I think from present indications it will be icicles.” (“Mr. Rockefeller’s Class,” 29 Jan 1902, 9)
Before his facetious abortive ending, Clemens read from his “Two Little Tales,” comprising “The Man with a Message for the Director-General” and “How the Chimney-Sweep Got the Ear of the Emperor,” published in the Century Magazine for November 1901 (SLC 1901; “Mark Twain at Bible Class,” New York Sun, 29 Jan 1902, 2, cited in Schmidt 2008a).
422.41–423.4 Some days ago a Bible Class official sent me word . . . letter which could be read to those people? . . . following letter] Dr. Edward M. Foote (1866?–1945), chairman of the “Entertainment Committee” of the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, wrote on 9 March, inviting Clemens to “speak a few words upon some topic” to the Bible class on March 22, or send a “written message” instead (CU-MARK). Isabel Lyon noted his reply on the bottom of the letter, “I daren’t be with them. I’d like to mighty well.” The letter to Foote inserted below was transcribed from a manuscript draft in the Mark Twain Papers; it is not known whether any letter was actually sent to Foote, or “privately to young John himself,” as Clemens claims (425.19) (“Dr. Edward M. Foote, Retired Surgeon, 79,” New York Times, 15 Feb 1945, 19).
423.11–16 Eight years ago I . . . explained Joseph . . . to say about him] In “Concerning the Jews,” Clemens summarized chapter 47 of Genesis and explained Joseph as follows:
We have all thoughtfully—or unthoughtfully—read the pathetic story of the years of plenty and the years of famine in Egypt, and how Joseph, with that opportunity, made a corner in broken hearts, and the crusts of the poor, and human liberty—a corner whereby he took a nation’s money all away, to the last penny; took a nation’s live-stock all away, to the last hoof; took a nation’s land away, to the last acre; then took the nation itself, buying it for bread, man by man, woman by woman, child by child, till all were slaves; a corner which took everything, left nothing; a corner so stupendous that, by comparison with it, the most gigantic corners in subsequent history are but baby things, for it dealt in hundreds of millions of bushels, and its profits were reckonable by hundreds of millions of dollars, and it was a disaster so crushing that its effects have not wholly disappeared from Egypt to-day, more than three thousand years after the event.
The essay was actually published in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine for September 1899 (SLC 1899b, 530). Mark Twain’s “Collected Works” were issued in numerous editions published both by the American Publishing Company and by Harper and Brothers, beginning in 1899. “Concerning the Jews” was included in volume 22, How to Tell a Story and Other Essays (SLC 1900a, 250–75; HHR, 540; see BAL, 2:3458, and Johnson 1935, 150–53).
423.16–21 by the newspapers I lately saw . . . published estimate of Joseph differs from mine] Rockefeller discussed Joseph in his Bible class meetings on 4, 18, and 25 February 1906. He called Joseph a “grand young man” and “a splendid example of a young business man,” and argued that in cornering the corn market Joseph had served the people by giving them “a market for their product,” by making them tenants but not slaves, by letting them “have corn on their own terms,” and by saving them from famine. “The people seemed to be pleased, for we have no record of censure. He did not lose their confidence, but was regarded with gratitude by them. According to the usages of his time, I believe he acted commendably” (New York Times: “Avoid All Temptation, Says Rockefeller, Jr.,” 5 Feb 1906, 9; “Faith Is Essential, Says Rockefeller, Jr.,” 19 Feb 1906, 4; “Young Mr. Rockefeller Again Praises Joseph,” 26 Feb 1906, 9).
423.30–31 Sunday before last the very learned and able Dr. Silverman was thus reported in the Times] Joseph Silverman (1860–1930) was the chief rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, at Fifth Avenue and Forty-third Street in New York. To provide the text of Silverman’s speech and the Bible passage following it, Clemens pasted clippings from the New York Times of 4 March 1906 into his manuscript letter (“Young Mr. Rockefeller and Joseph’s Corn ‘Corner,’ ” SM2).
424.8 This is the Bible’s statement] Genesis 47:13–26.
425.29 I have treated this matter in one of my books] Clemens alludes to “On the Decay of the Art of Lying” (SLC 1880b), which he read at the Hartford Monday Evening Club on 5 April 1880 and published in The Stolen White Elephant two years later (SLC 1882a; Howell Cheney 1954, 35).
425.35–36 I can’t go . . . the doctor has forbidden it] On 20 March, Clemens wrote Rockefeller (per Isabel Lyon):
I am very sorry that, after all, I cannot meet the honorary membership Thursday Evening. I am not sick—I have merely been sick, & the doctor requires me to keep my room three or four days longer. In answer to my protest, he says, “Risks which a younger person might venture are forbidden the Methuselah of American literature.” Do you suppose that that clumsy remark is meant as a compliment? If so, I shall find it where a doctor’s compliments are always to be found—in the bill. There should be a law against this kind of graft. (NN-BGC)
Clemens also telephoned his regrets (see AD, 26 Mar 1906, 440.24).
426.5 My first appearance . . . was forty years ago, in San Francisco] See “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad,’ ” 226.41–227.1.
426.13–15 General Fred Grant . . . Robert Fulton Memorial Association . . . and I Vice-President] Frederick D. Grant (son of Ulysses S. Grant) and Clemens were among the incorporators of the Robert Fulton Memorial Association, organized in January 1906, which intended to erect a monument in New York to the designer of the first commercially viable steamboat. Grant had agreed to serve as temporary president. Clemens was a member of the “Executive and General Committee” and served as first vice-president as well. He also contributed at least a thousand dollars to the monument fund. Although the Fulton Memorial Association envisioned a grandiose monument consisting of a tomb, boat landing, and exhibition hall on Riverside Drive from 114th Street to 116th Street, it was never constructed. Clemens’s appearance was initially planned for 10 April, but was postponed until 19 April (New York Times: “For a Monument to Fulton,” 18 Jan 1906, 8, and 18 Feb 1906, 20; “Fulton Watergate Designs Selected,” 10 Apr 1910, 6; “New York’s $3,000,000 Robert Fulton Memorial,” 22 May 1910, SM5; Miller to SLC, 28 Mar 1906, CU-MARK).
426.20–21 I wrote the correspondence at once . . . and I here insert it] The concocted correspondence with Grant and with Hugh Gordon Miller, secretary of the Fulton Memorial Association, was in fact used to generate publicity. The New York Times, for example, paraphrased and excerpted the letters liberally on 15 April 1906 (“Mark Twain Tells How to Manage Audiences,” 9). On 19 April, at the benefit for the association, Clemens made a comical speech in which he credited Fulton with inventing the “electric telegraph” and the “dirigible balloon,” and then digressed into a few of his standard set pieces. Striking a serious note, he then appealed for charitable assistance for the victims of San Francisco’s devastating earthquake of 18 April (“Mark Twain Appeals for the ‘Smitten City,’ ” New York Times, 20 Apr 1906, 11; for a text of the speech, see Fatout 1976, 515–18).
427.29–30 Paul Jones . . . Horace Porter] John Paul Jones (1747–92), the American naval hero, and Horace Porter (1837–1921), Union brigadier general, Congressional Medal of Honor winner, and former U.S. ambassador to France (1897–1905).
427.32 gems of the very first water] At this point in his manuscript, Clemens deleted the following paragraph: “I am getting a lot of information about Fulton out of the Barnard students—mainly the freshmen. They tell me everything they know. Do you like freshmen?—that kind, I mean. I do.” Clemens had spoken at Barnard on 7 March (see AD, 8 Mar 1906).
Autobiographical Dictation, 21 March 1906
429.6 mental telegraphy] This was Clemens’s term for thought transference or mind-to-mind communication, the possibility of which had fascinated him at least since 1875, when he attributed it to “mesmeric sympathies” (29 Mar and 4 Apr 1875 to Wright, L6, 434). He had explored the phenomenon in two Harper’s Monthly articles: “Mental Telegraphy” in December 1891 and “Mental Telegraphy Again” in September 1895 (SLC 1891b; SLC 1895).
429.7–8 A few weeks ago when I was dictating something about Dr. John Brown] See the Autobiographical Dictations of 2 and 5 February 1906.
429.12–13 article about him and about Marjorie Fleming . . . and yesterday I began the article] “Marjorie Fleming, the Wonder Child,” published in the December 1909 number of Harper’s Bazar (SLC 1909d).
429.14 his son Jock] John (“Jock”) Brown (b. 1846), whom Clemens had met in Scotland in 1873 (22 and 25 Sept 1873 to Brown, L5, 441 n. 4; John Brown 1907, 60).
429.22–25 7 GREENHILL PLACE . . . Dear Mr Clemens] Hobby transcribed Brown’s original typed letter, now in the Mark Twain Papers, into the typescript of this dictation.
429.27–29 Dr J. T. Brown . . . made no use of the letters] John Taylor Brown (1811–1901), a Scottish newspaper editor, was Dr. John Brown’s cousin and biographer. He wrote the entry on Brown for the Dictionary of National Biography and also Dr. John Brown: A Biography and a Criticism, published in 1903 (John Taylor Brown 1903).
429.35–36 I enclose letters from yourself and Mrs Clemens which I should like to use] Brown included six letters from Samuel and Olivia Clemens, written between 1874 and 1882, in Letters of Dr. John Brown, published in 1907 (John Brown 1907, 351, 353–54, 357–58, 360–61). Elizabeth T. McLaren wrote the biographical introductions as well as the notes for the volume. She also wrote Dr. John Brown and His Sister Isabella, published in 1889, two copies of which Jock Brown sent to the Clemenses (McLaren 1889; Brown to SLC, 28 Dec 1889 and 25 Jan 1890, CU-MARK; Gribben 1980, 1:444).
429.39 yours. . . .] Clemens omitted the rest of Brown’s letter, which mentioned his marriage to his cousin, “M. McKay,” and their two children, aged twelve and fourteen, whose photographs he enclosed (Brown to SLC, 8 Mar 1906, CU-MARK).
430.4–6 During our ten years’ absence . . . we shall find them yet] In June 1891, partly as a result of Clemens’s losses on the Paige typesetter, which made upkeep of the family house in Hartford difficult, and partly to allow Olivia Clemens to seek treatment for heart strain, the Clemenses left for what became a nine-year exile in Europe (N&J3, 574). The letters from John Brown were found. Seventeen of them, dated between 1873 and 1879, survive in the Mark Twain Papers.
430.9 Harmony, his wife] Twichell married Julia Harmony Cushman (1843–1910) in 1865 (18 Oct 1868 to OLL, L2, 269 n. 2).
430.12 Magician of the North] While anonymously publishing the string of popular novels that began with Waverley in 1814, Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832) was referred to as “the Wizard of the North” and “the Great Magician.” It was not until 1827 that Scott admitted his authorship.
430.29–30 at Petersburg . . . in the Civil War] On 30 July 1864, while Petersburg, Virginia (which protected the southern approaches to Richmond), was under siege by Ulysses S. Grant’s forces, a large mine was exploded beneath the Confederate emplacements. Twichell, serving as a Union chaplain, was near Petersburg in June and July 1864, but finished his tour of duty about three weeks before the explosion (Twichell 2006, 306–9).
430.40–431.7 Joe’s picture is different . . . the file . . . did not march away martially erect and stiff-legged] In a letter of 14 and 16 June 1863 to his stepmother, Jane Walkley Twichell, Twichell described one such execution, of a deserter to whom he had ministered:
They seated him on his coffin, tied his elbows behind him, bound a handkerchief over his eyes and opened his shirt front so that his bosom was bared. . . . At a signal six muskets were raised, cocked and aimed—the distance was about 10 paces. Another signal and the dread suspense was broken. He swayed a little forwards, then with a single convulsive straitening of his body, fell back over the coffin. Then a Sergeant and one man stepped up and discharged their pieces through his head, although five bullets had already pierced his breast. This is a custom—dictated by humanity—in all military executions. They lifted the body into the coffin—a plain pine box. It was over. . . . The scene on the field now changed from one of utter stillness to one of noise and motion. Orders were shouted along the lines of troops, and the march was resumed as if nothing had happened. (CtY-BR, in Twichell 2006, 239, 241–42)
431.12–28 Daly’s Theatre . . . vote in its favor was unanimous] Daly’s letter was transcribed into this dictation from his original manuscript, now in the Mark Twain Papers. In 1888 Daly’s Theatre, at Broadway and 30th Street, was one of New York’s leading theaters, featuring a resident company of well-known actors in elaborate productions of Shakespeare, as well as popular plays of the day (“Amusements,” New York Times, 1 Jan 1888, 3, 7). In Talks in a Library with Laurence Hutton, first published in 1905 and reprinted several times, Hutton gave this account of the naming of The Players:
Booth had long desired to do something in a tangible and in an enduring way for the good of his profession; and various schemes were fully discussed during a fortnight’s cruise on the steam-yacht Oneida in the summer of 1886. The party consisted of Mr. E. C. Benedict, the owner of the beautiful vessel, Mr. Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Lawrence Barrett, Mr. William Bispham, Booth, and myself. . . . The notion of a club for actors was then proposed. Mr. Aldrich with a peculiarly happy inspiration suggested its name, “The Players,” and the general plan of the organisation was gradually outlined. (Hutton 1909, 86–87)
Another account of Aldrich’s “happy inspiration” confirmed that it occurred aboard the Oneida, but put the date as 27 July 1887 (Lanier 1938, 18–19). Clemens replied to Daly’s invitation to the 6 January 1888 organizational luncheon, “Schon güt! I’ll be there”; it was probably on that occasion that he heard a reprise of the naming anecdote (3 Jan 1888 to Daly, TS in MH-H). For further discussion of The Players club see the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 January 1906 and notes.
431.31–34 Magonigle . . . he retired from his position superannuated] John Henry Magonigle (1830–1919), Edwin Booth’s longtime friend and business manager, was the brother-in-law of Booth’s wife. He was the superintendent, but never the secretary, of The Players club, and also, from 1906 to 1919, a member. Letters from Magonigle to Clemens and to Franklin Whitmore dated 16 February 1891 and 6 May 1891, respectively, both attempting to collect unpaid dues, survive in the Mark Twain Papers. They were part of the dispute that Clemens describes in this dictation (“John Henry Magonigle Dies at 89,” New York Times, 23 Dec 1919, 9; Winter 1893, 47 n. 1; Lanier 1938, 358, 376).
432.10–11 Robert Reid . . . put themselves in communication with me] Reid, for example, wrote to Clemens on 19 January 1903, a week after the expulsion: “Dont desert us on account of the dead-but-doesnt know-it-manager-& janiter of the office We need you—be good forgive & forget!” (CU-MARK).
Autobiographical Dictation, 22 March 1906
433.2 Our tripp to Vassar] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 7 March 1906.
433.3–4 after Miss Emma Nigh died] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 15 February 1906, 362.21–28 and note.
433.19–21 his trouble prooved to be diptheeria . . . burried . . . at Elmira, New York] Langdon Clemens, born prematurely, was never robust and was slow to develop. He died in Hartford from diphtheria, on 2 June 1872, at the age of nineteen months. After funeral services in Hartford, he was buried in the Langdon family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery, in Elmira, near Olivia’s father, Jervis Langdon. Clemens must have “confessed” more than once, for in 1911 his sister-in-law, Susan L. Crane, remarked that “Mr Clemens was often inclined to blame himself unjustly” (L5: Crane to Paine, 25 May 1911, photocopy in CU-MARK, in link note following 26 May 1872 to Bliss, 99–101; 13 Feb 1872 to Fairbanks, 44; 22 Apr 1872 to the Warners, 79; 15 May 1872 to OC and MEC, 86).
433.21–23 After that . . . with a great deal of good care she recovered] Olivia had wished to accompany Langdon’s body to Elmira, but because of “her poor state of health,” and because she could not leave infant Susy, she stayed behind in Hartford. Clemens remained there with her, entrusting the body to Susan and Theodore Crane (Lilly Warner to George Warner, 3 and 5 June 1872, CU-MARK, in link note following 26 May 1872 to Bliss, L5, 98).
433.27–35 Mr. Charles Kingsley . . . They are all dead except Sir Charles Dilke and Mr. Tom Hughes] Charles Kingsley (1819–75), minister, canon of Westminster, Cambridge history professor, novelist, poet, and essayist; Henry M. Stanley (1841–1904), journalist and explorer, whom Clemens first met in St. Louis in 1867; Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy (1804–78), deputy keeper of the Public Records, but not a descendant of Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy (1769–1839), who witnessed Lord Nelson’s death at Trafalgar in October 1805; actor Sir Henry Irving (1838–1905); poet Robert Browning (1812–89); Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke (1843–1911), liberal member of Parliament and proprietor of the Athenaeum, a weekly journal of literary and artistic criticism; novelist and dramatist Charles Reade (1814–84); journalist and novelist William Black (1841–98); Richard Monckton Milnes (1809–85), first Baron Houghton, statesman, poet, and writer, and editor of Keats; Francis Trevelyan Buckland (1826–80), physician and prominent natural historian and pisciculturist; novelist Anthony Trollope (1815–82); Tom Hood (1835–74), poet, journalist, anthologist, and son of poet and humorist Thomas Hood (1799–1845); poet, novelist, and children’s author George MacDonald (1824–1905), his wife, Louisa (1822–1902), and their eleven children; and journalist and historical novelist William Harrison Ainsworth (1805–82). Clemens was unaware that novelist, biographer, journalist, and member of Parliament Thomas Hughes (1822–96), best known for Tom Brown’s School Days (1857), was also dead. When an excerpt from this dictation was published in the North American Review of 16 November 1906, his name had been removed from this sentence, presumably not by Clemens (NAR 6, 970). Presumably it was Olivia who furnished Susy with an account of the 1873 trip to Great Britain. For details of the Clemenses’ contacts with most of these individuals, see Clemens’s letters for 1872–73 (L5, passim).
433.36–38 We met . . . Lewis Carroll, author of the immortal “Alice” . . . “Uncle Remus.”] The meeting with Lewis Carroll (Charles L. Dodgson, 1832–98) came at the home of George and Louisa MacDonald, the “Retreat” in Hammersmith, but on Saturday, 26 July 1879, not in 1873. Carroll noted in his diary that day: “Met Mr. Clements (Mark Twain), with whom I was pleased and interested.” The MacDonald family gave a dramatic performance, as they had also done when the Clemenses visited on 16 July 1873 (Dodgson 1993–2007, 194–95; 11 July 73 to Smith, L5, 414). Clemens had been familiar with the “Uncle Remus” stories by Joel Chandler Harris since 1880 (see “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 217.25–27).
434.1 At a dinner at Smalley’s we met Herbert Spencer] George Washburn Smalley (1833–1916) was in charge of the New York Tribune’s European correspondence from 1867 to 1895 and was himself the paper’s London correspondent. From 1895 to 1905 he was U.S. correspondent of the London Times. Philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) and the Clemenses were among the dinner guests at Smalley’s home on 2 July 1873 (L5: 11 June 1873 to Miller, 377–78 n. 2; 1 and 2 July 1873 to Miller, 395–96 n. 1).
434.2–3 we met Sir Arthur Helps . . . is quite forgotten now] Sir Arthur Helps (1813–75) was clerk of the privy council, a personal adviser to Queen Victoria, and a popular writer of the day, producing numerous volumes of fiction, history, and biography.
434.3–4 Lord Elcho . . . was talking earnestly about Godalming] Francis Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas (1818–1914), eighth earl of Wemyss, sixth earl of March, and Lord Elcho, was a member of Parliament and a lord of the treasury. Godalming is an ancient town in Surrey, thirty miles southwest of London.
434.7 Lady Houghton] The former Annabella Hungerford Crewe (1814–74) married Richard Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) in 1851.
434.12–13 I will insert here one or two of the letters . . . copied into yesterday’s record] All three of the letters Clemens inserted below were included by Jock Brown in his edition of his father’s letters (John Brown 1907, 354, 357–58, 360–61). The texts were transcribed into this dictation from the typescripts Brown had sent from Scotland.
434.14 June 22, 1876] The letter sent to Brown in 1876 was written by both of the Clemenses; in this dictation Clemens inserted only the part that Olivia had written, which followed his (for the full text see SLC and OLC to Brown, 22 June 1876, Letters 1876–1880).
434.20–21 farm . . . where my sister spends her summers] Quarry Farm, near Elmira.
434.23–24 Mr. J. T. Fields . . . we talked most affectionately of you] Author and retired Boston publisher James T. Fields and his wife, Annie, had visited the Clemenses in Hartford from 27 to 29 April 1876. Fields and Clemens were parties to the 1876 campaign to raise a retirement fund for Dr. John Brown (see 17 Mar 1876 to Redpath, n. 2, Letters 1876–1880, and the Introduction, p. 7). Annie Adams Fields (1834–1915), a poet, biographer, and social reformer, was known for her hospitality. She entertained a wide circle of literary acquaintances at her Boston home, recording personal anecdotes of famous authors in her diaries; some of them were published in Memories of a Hostess (Howe 1922).
434.25 your sister] Isabella Cranston Brown (see AD, 5 Feb 1906, note at 328.30–33).
434.29 (1875)] This letter was undated, and when Hobby transcribed it into this dictation, she typed merely “(18 ).” The date now assigned to it is 25–28 October 1875 (for the text as it was sent, and the letter from Brown that it answered, see OLC and SLC to Brown, 25–28 Oct 1875, L6, 570–72).
434.39–41 Mr. Clemens is hard at work on a new book now . . . some few are new] The “new book” may have been one of a number of unidentified works Clemens had in mind or in progress in the fall of 1875 (see 4 Nov 1875 to Howells, L6, 585 n. 9). The sketchbook was Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old (1875c), which he had his publisher send to Brown on 6 December 1875 (11 Jan 1876 to Bliss, Letters 1876–1880).
435.3–5 nurse that we had with us . . . quiet lady-like German girl] Ellen (Nellie) Bermingham and Rosina Hay, respectively (“Contract for the Routledge The Gilded Age,” L5, 641 n. 4; SLC and OLC to Brown, 4 Sept 1874, L6, 226 n. 8).
435.20–21 I was three thousand miles from home . . . sorrowful news among the cable dispatches] Brown died on 11 May 1882, at which time Clemens was in New Orleans gathering material for Life on the Mississippi.
435.35 Our Susy is still “Megalopis.” He gave her that name] In 1873 Brown gave the nickname to seventeen-month-old Susy because, Clemens later explained, her “large eyes seemed to him to warrant that sounding Greek epithet” (SLC 1876–85, 3).
435.36–37 one taken in group with ourselves] See the photograph following page 204.
436.6–8 courier in service until we got back to Liverpool . . . be done with him] Clemens seems to have confused the two couriers he employed during the family’s 1878–79 European sojourn. George Burk, a German, worked for the Clemenses in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy from early August until 1 October 1878, when he was discharged for incompetence. Joseph Verey, a Pole, worked for them in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and probably briefly in England from 8 July until around 20 July 1879, when they reached London, giving great satisfaction during that time. The Clemenses arrived in Liverpool on 21 August and sailed for the United States two days later (N&J2, 48, 52 n. 16, 121 n. 17, 197–98 n. 71, 210–11, 327 n. 67).
Autobiographical Dictation, 23 March 1906
436.25–30 Doctor was guessing at our address . . . Near Boston, U.S.A.] Brown sent two letters to Clemens in early 1874 that were returned to Scotland “Unclaimed.” According to a complaint about the post office that Clemens wrote to the editor of the Boston Advertiser on 16 June 1874, one was addressed “Hartford, State of New York.” In his complaint Clemens also mentioned another letter, addressed to him in “Hartford, Near Boston, New York,” which did reach him “promptly” from England (16 June 1874 to the Editor of the Boston Advertiser, L6, 162–63).
437.3 Menzies, the publisher] John Menzies (1808–79) was an Edinburgh publisher, bookseller, and newsagent, whose company was one of Scotland’s principal book, magazine, and newspaper distributors. The firm continues in business today and despite diversification still derives much of its revenue from newspaper and magazine distribution (Clan Menzies 2009; John Menzies plc 2009).
437.12 I think Postmaster-General Key was in office then] The postmaster general at the time John Brown’s letters were mishandled was John A. J. Creswell (1828–91), a Republican congressman and senator from Maryland (1863–65, 1865–67, respectively), who served from March 1869 until July 1874. He is considered to have been exceptionally effective, responsible for sweeping reforms that reduced costs and increased speed and efficiency of delivery of both domestic and foreign mail. David McKendree Key (1824–1900), a lawyer, Confederate soldier, and Democratic senator from Tennessee (1875–77), was postmaster general from March 1877 to June 1880.
437.19–31 Key suddenly issued some boiler-iron rules . . . the letter must go to the Dead Letter Office] Clemens alludes to the United States Postal Laws and Regulations issued by Postmaster General Key on 1 July 1879, and to supplementary orders regarding misdirected letters issued by him in September and October of that year. Postmasters and postal employees could not on their own authority change a letter’s “direction to a different person or different office or different state.” Misdirected matter received at any post office for delivery had to be returned to the sender if his name and address were on it, and if not, the item had to be sent to the dead-letter office. Letter addresses were required to include both city and state, making “New York, N.Y.” the acceptable form, with letters addressed merely to “New York City” consigned to the dead-letter office. These rules occasioned much complaint and criticism. Clemens added his voice to the protests in a letter of 22 November 1879 and two letters of 8 December 1879, all to the Hartford Courant (Letters 1876–1880; Bissell and Kirby 1879, 2, 117; New York Times: “Notes from the Capital,” 10 Oct 1879, 2; “Orders to Postmasters,” 12 Oct 1879, 2; “The Post Office . . .,” 15 Oct 1879, 4; “Imperfectly-Directed Letters,” 31 Oct 1879, 3).
438.11–12 Mark Twain, God knows where] Clemens was in London, in 1896, when he received the letter thus addressed, which had been sent (according to Paine) by Brander Matthews and Francis Wilson of The Players club (MTB, 2:565–66). Clemens replied:
I glanced at your envelope by accident, and got several chuckles for reward—and chuckles are worth much in this world. And there was a curious thing; that I should get a letter addressed “God-Knows-Where” showed that He did know where I was, although I was hiding from the world, and no one in America knows my address, and the stamped legend “Deficiency of address supplied by the New York P.O.,” showed that He had given it away. In the same mail comes a letter from friends in New Zealand addressed, “Mrs. Clemens (care Mark Twain), United States of America,” and again He gave us away—this time to the deficiency department of the San Francisco P.O. (24 Nov 1896 to The Players, New York Tribune, 31 Dec 1896, 6)
438.20–30 It comes from France . . . Washington postmark of yesterday] The envelope, but not the letter itself, survives in the Mark Twain Papers, and was once pinned to the typescript of this dictation (see the envelope with the redirected address, below).

438.31–32 In a diary which Mrs. Clemens kept . . . mentions of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe] A diary that Olivia used sporadically between 21 October 1877 and 19 June 1902, with only twenty-five of its leaves bearing her writing, survives in the Mark Twain Papers. Just one entry mentions Harriet Beecher Stowe. Dated 7 June 1885, it describes how Stowe appeared that afternoon
carrying in her hand a bunch of wild flowers that she had just gathered. She asked if I would like some flowers, of course I said that I should. She handed them to me thanking me most heartily for taking them. Said she could not help gathering them as she walked but that when she took them home the daughters would say “Ma what are you going to do with them, everything is full” meaning with those that she had already gathered. Mrs Stowe is so gentle and lovely. (OLC 1877–1902)
439.11 Reverend Charley Stowe’s little boy] Charles Edward Stowe’s son was author and editor Lyman Beecher Stowe (1880–1963) (“Charles E. Stowe” in “Hartford Residents” 1974; “Lyman Beecher Stowe Dead,” New York Times, 26 Sept 1963, 35).
Autobiographical Dictation, 26 March 1906
439.27 ROCKEFELLER, JR., ON WEALTH] Clemens had a clipping of this article, from the New York Times of 26 March 1906, pasted into the typescript of his dictation.
440.22–23 I missed his . . . Bible Class last Thursday night] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 20 March 1906.
440.29 BABY ADVICE IN A CAR] Clemens had a clipping of this article, from the New York Times of 26 March 1906, pasted into the typescript of his dictation.
442.1–16 Day before yesterday . . . that reporter . . . did his work well] This “happy literary” effort has not been identified. The incident occurred on the morning of 23 March 1906, as confirmed by a detailed account—not the one that Clemens saw, however—that appeared on the same day in the New York Evening Sun (“A Girl’s Despair,” 6), and by brief reports on the following day in the New York Herald (“No Finery, Takes Poison,” 5) and the New York Tribune (“City News in Brief,” 10).
442.20 what the Vanderbilts are doing] The activities and pastimes of the descendants of financier and railroad promoter Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794–1877) and their families, were, as Clemens says, regular grist for the news and society columns.
442.21–22 John D. Rockefeller . . . testify about alleged Standard Oil iniquities] In March 1906 Rockefeller was in retreat at his country estate in Lakewood, New Jersey, to avoid a New York subpoena requiring his testimony in an ongoing investigation of Standard Oil. At one point, in response to inquiries about Rockefeller’s whereabouts, his family physician responded, “Mr. Rockefeller is on Mars. That’s a planet, you know, near Jupiter. He’s up there playing golf. One might have heard the whacks quite plainly. One of the golf balls went clear over to Jupiter” (New York Times: numerous articles, 9–25 Mar 1906, especially “Rockefeller on Mars,” 11 Mar 1906, 1).
442.23 Mr. Carnegie’s movements and sayings] Clemens’s friend Andrew Carnegie was much in the news at this time for his charitable works, and especially for his funding of a Simplified Spelling Board, whose membership included Clemens and was committed to controversial orthographic reform (New York Times: numerous articles, 12–26 Mar 1906; Clemens discusses Carnegie and simplified spelling in AD, 10 Dec 1907).
442.30–31 they got married and went under cover and got quiet] Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884–1980), the oldest of Theodore Roosevelt’s six children, married Nicholas Longworth (1869–1931), Republican congressman from Ohio (1903–13, 1915–31), on 17 February 1906 in an elaborate White House wedding (“Alice Roosevelt Longworth Dies; She Reigned in Capital 80 Years,” New York Times, 21 Feb 1980, 1). The official announcement of the wedding that Clemens received from the White House survives in the Mark Twain Papers. On the back of it Isabel Lyon wrote: “We ought to drop them a note & say we’d heard it.” No such note has been discovered.
443.4 The Swangos] Clemens had a clipping of this article, from the New York Times of 26 March 1906, pasted into the typescript of his dictation.
443.22 CAPT. E. L. MARSH] Clemens had a clipping of this unidentified article pasted into the typescript of his dictation; the wording suggests that it was from an Elmira newspaper (not a Des Moines newspaper, as claimed at 444.1). It may have been sent either by Charles J. Langdon, Clemens’s brother-in-law, or by another member of the Langdon family.
443.41 General Charles J. Langdon] Langdon’s title derived from his 1880 service as commissary general on the New York gubernatorial staff (Towner 1892, 615).
444.4–7 in his Company of the Second Iowa Infantry was Dick Higham . . . in my brother’s small printing-office in Keokuk] On 4 May 1861 Marsh enlisted as a corporal in Company D of the Second Regiment of the Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and Higham (1839–62) enlisted as a private in Company A. Marsh rose to the rank of captain before his resignation on 23 May 1864 (Guy E. Logan 2009; Youngquist 2001). In 1856 Higham had been an apprentice in the Ben Franklin Book and Job Office, which Orion Clemens owned while living in Keokuk, Iowa, from June 1855 until June 1857. Both Samuel Clemens and Henry Clemens worked for Orion as well (L1: link note following 5 Mar 1855 to the Muscatine Tri-Weekly Journal, 58–59; 10 June 1856 to JLC and PAM, 63, 65 n. 3; 5 Aug 1856 to HC, 67, 69 n. 13; 9 Mar 1858 to OC and MEC, 79 n. 11; 2 Apr 1862 to JLC, 184 n. 6).
444.14–24 Second Iowa . . . Dick fell with a bullet . . . furled in disgrace] The Second Regiment of the Iowa Volunteer Infantry gave important service both before and after the engagement at Fort Donelson, in Tennessee, its first great battle, where it distinguished itself as “the bravest of the brave” and was given “the honor of leading the column” that entered the conquered stronghold (Guy E. Logan 2009). The regiment had been disgraced by general order for having failed to prevent vandals from stealing taxidermic specimens from McDowell College in St. Louis, which was being used as a prison. Higham died at Fort Donelson, on 16 February 1862. After learning of his death, Clemens, in a letter from Carson City, recalled the prankish “musket drill” he put Higham through in the Ben Franklin Book and Job Office in Keokuk (2 Apr 1862 to JLC, L1, 181–82; Ingersoll 1866, 36–37).
445.4–13 my ancient silver-mining comrade, Calvin H. Higbie . . . Captain John Nye . . . too late to save our fortune from the jumpers] Higbie (1831?–1914) was Clemens’s cabinmate for a time in 1862 in Aurora. He not only figures in chapters 37 through 42 of Roughing It, including the “blind lead” episode and the hunt for “the marvelous Whiteman cement mine,” but was the “Honest Man . . . Genial Comrade, and . . . Steadfast Friend” to whom the book was dedicated (RI 1993, 637). John Nye, the brother of Nevada Territorial Governor James W. Nye, was a mining, timber, and railroad entrepreneur in Nevada in 1861–62, when Clemens first knew him, and then for many years was a San Francisco real estate agent. He appears in chapters 35 and 41 of Roughing It, in the latter of which Clemens reported nursing him through nine days of “spasmodic rheumatism” (RI 1993, 644).
445.20 Greenville, Plumas co. California] Higbie’s letter and the letter from Miner that follows were transcribed into this dictation from Higbie’s original manuscript and transcript, now in the Mark Twain Papers.
446.16–17 Geo. R. Miner, Sunday Editor] Miner (1862–1918) had been a reporter and editor for several newspapers before becoming the New York Herald’s Sunday editor, a post he held from 1902 until 1908.
446.18 I have written Higbie] Clemens dictated and sent the following letter (CU-MARK):
March 26. 1906
New York.
Dear Higbie:
I went down to Aurora about midsummer of ’62. I suppose it must have been toward the end of October, ’62 that I went to Walker River to nurse Capt. John Nye. I crossed the Sierras into California for the first time along about the middle of ’64, I should say.
Send me your manuscript. I shall be as competent as anybody to sit in judgment upon its value and arrive at a verdict. Then I will ask the New York Herald to name a price & come to my house and talk with me, in case he finds that your narrative comes up to his expectations. If he should decide that he doesn’t want it—but that is further along. If you have told your story with your pen in the simple unadorned & straightforward way in which you would tell it with your tongue, I think it cannot help but have value.
I was very glad to hear from you, old comrade, & shall be also glad to be of service to you in this matter if I can.
Sincerely Yours,
SL. Clemens.
Clemens nursed John Nye in late June 1862. He first left Nevada for California in May 1863, on a two-month visit to San Francisco, and then moved to San Francisco almost exactly a year later (see L1: 9 July 1862 to OC, 224, 226 n. 1; 11 and 12 Apr 1863 to JLC and PAM, 250 n. 7; 18? May 1863 to JLC and PAM through 20 June 1863 to OC and MEC, 252–59; and the link note following 28 May 1864 to Cutler, 302–3). Clemens continues the story of Higbie’s literary ambition in the Autobiographical Dictation of 10 August 1906.
Autobiographical Dictation, 27 March 1906
447.4–5 silver-mining claim . . . in partnership with Bob Howland and Horatio Phillips] For Howland, see the Autobiographical Dictation of 19 January 1906, note at 295.20. Clemens probably first met Phillips in Carson City in August 1861. Shortly afterward they became partners in several claims in the Esmeralda mining district. Among them were the Horatio and Derby ledges, in which Howland was also a partner. Clemens and Phillips lived together in Aurora, in the Esmeralda district, in the spring of 1862 (LI: 29 Oct 1861 to Phillips, 140–43; 8 and 9 Feb 1862 to JLC and PAM, 156, 161 n. 2; 13 Apr 1862 to OC, 186; 11 and 12 May 1862 to OC, 207; 30 July 1862 to OC, 232–33 n. 2).
447.9 I secured a place in a near-by quartz mill] Clemens described his experience at the quartz mill in chapter 36 of Roughing It.
447.25 Pioneer] The Pioneer Mill, erected in June 1861, was the first in Aurora (13 Apr 1862 to OC, L1 188 n. 8).
449.3–7 I parted from Higbie . . . told all about this in “Roughing It.”] Clemens arrived in Virginia City, to take up his new post on the Territorial Enterprise, by late September 1862 (see AD, 9 Jan 1906, note at 251.32–38). He told about his experiences there in chapters 42–49, 51–52, and 54–55 of Roughing It.
450.13–19 This young man wrote me two or three times a year . . . any more] Clemens recalled William James Lampton (1851?–1917), a second cousin, who wrote on 20 May 1875 from St. Louis, where he was a bookkeeper for a dealer in pig iron, introducing himself and asking for Clemens’s assistance in getting a position as a reporter. Clemens’s reply survives only as a notation he made on the envelope of Lampton’s letter: “Told him to serve an apprenticeship for nothing & when worth wages he would get them.” Contrary to the account in this dictation, however, Lampton did not take Clemens’s advice, but in 1877 instead made his entry into journalism by using his father’s money to start his own newspaper. In February 1882 he became city editor of the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal. It seems unlikely that he wrote Clemens “two or three times a year.” Only two additional letters from Lampton survive, dated 26 June 1876 and 18 February 1882, neither of them reporting encouragingly on Clemens’s employment “scheme” and neither of them received with enthusiasm (see 22? May 1875 to Lampton, L6, 484–85). Just one letter from Clemens to Lampton is known to survive. Written in 1901, evidently in March, it is a sarcastic response to Lampton’s patriotic poem, “Ready If Needed.”
450.20–21 my nephew, Samuel E. Moffett . . . lost his inherited property] Moffett (1860–1908) had an inheritance left by his father, William (1816–65), a St. Louis commission merchant, consisting of stocks and U.S. savings bonds totaling about eight thousand dollars and a one-third interest in some “unproductive land” in Missouri (“Estate of S. E. Moffett at the beginning of the administration of P. A. Moffett as Guardian in 1870,” 23 Nov 1881, CU-MARK). His mother, Clemens’s sister Pamela, managed it until November 1881, when he turned twenty-one and she transferred control to him, along with a detailed accounting of earnings and expenditures over the years. By August 1882 Moffett had drawn on his inheritance to finance the purchase of a ranch in Kingsburg, California, near Fresno, where he tried raising wheat, fruit, and livestock. Within three years, however, he was attempting to sell the property. In January 1886, having failed to find a buyer, he was instead offering, without success, to rent it. How he finally disposed of this ranch is not presently known, but he evidently was unable to recoup his investment. He also owned a ranch in San Diego that he was preparing to sell for $3,000 in April 1886 (Pamela A. Moffett–Samuel E. Moffett correspondence, 1881–86, especially 23 Nov 1881, 15 June 1885, 25 Apr 1886; Goodman to Moffett, 14 Jan 1886, 23 Jan 1886, 31 Jan 1886; all in CU-MARK).
450.22–23 A nervous malady had early unfitted him for attending school] Moffett’s unidentified disorder and an eye condition that prevented reading troubled the Clemens and Moffett families in the early 1870s (L4: 17 Feb 1871 to JLC and family, 332–33; 11 June 1871 to JLC, 403; 21 June 1871 to OC and MEC, 411; MEC and SLC to JLC and PAM, 26 Nov 1872, L5, 230, 232 n. 6; 28 Aug 1874 to Belknap, L6, 212). Clemens also discusses the maladies, and Moffett’s compensation for them, in his Autobiographical Dictation of 16 August 1908.
450.23 he had come up without a school education] Moffett eventually was able to acquire formal education. In 1881 and 1882 he was a student at the University of California in Berkeley before completing his undergraduate education at Columbia University. In 1901 he earned an A.M. degree from Columbia, and in 1907 a Ph.D. (“Editor Moffett Dies, Struggling in Surf,” New York Times, 2 Aug 1908, 1; “Samuel E. Moffett,” Collier’s 41 [15 Aug 1908]: 23; “Vita,” Moffett 1907, 125–26).
450.31 built the whole game out of his memory] In his Autobiographical Dictation of 16 August 1908, Clemens dates this incident in 1870, when Moffett was ten years old. This history game anticipated the game Clemens conceived of in the spring of 1883 and first worked out in rudimentary fashion in July of that year. His assistants in subsequently researching historical facts and devising the game board were Orion Clemens and Charles L. Webster. Clemens patented the resultant game in August 1885, but it was 1891 before he tried to market it, as “Mark Twain’s Memory-Builder.” He was not successful (see N&J3, 19–20 n. 37).
450.33–35 he wrote me from San Francisco . . . I wrote back] None of this correspondence is known to survive.
450.41 he had married] Moffett married Mary Emily Mantz, of San Jose, California, on 13 April 1887 (“Genealogies of the Clemens and Langdon families,” L6, 613; “Samuel E. Moffett” 1908).
451.15–16 Moffett remains with Collier] Moffett died of a stroke on 1 August 1908 while swimming in the ocean. In its tribute Collier’s magazine gave this summary of Moffett’s career:
For a brief period during his early life Mr. Moffett was a farmer in California. Practically all his mature years, however, he was engaged in newspaper work. In 1885 he was chief editorial writer of the San Francisco “Evening Post.” In 1891 he was sent to Washington and remained two years as correspondent of the San Francisco “Examiner.” For the four years following he was the chief editorial writer on that paper. The late nineties he spent as an editorial writer on the New York “Journal.” In 1902, while Mr. John Brisben Walker was the owner of the “Cosmopolitan Magazine,” Mr. Moffett was his managing editor. The following two years he was a writer of editorials on the New York “World,” where he was the especial reliance of Mr. Pulitzer. His work for COLLIER’S was begun with the issue of January 14, 1905. He announced it as “a weekly review of current history, under the title ‘What the World is Doing.’ ” (“Samuel E. Moffett,” Collier’s 41 [15 Aug 1908]: 23)
Autobiographical Dictation, 28 March 1906
451.27–36 Orion Clemens was born in Jamestown . . . Benjamin, who died in 1843 aged ten or twelve] See the Appendix “Family Biographies” (p. 655) and “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” note at 206.2–6.
452.17–18 Edward Bates, who was afterwards in Mr. Lincoln’s first cabinet] Bates (1793–1869) was Lincoln’s first attorney general, serving from March 1861 until November 1864. It was Bates who, soon after taking his cabinet office, secured Orion’s appointment as Nevada territorial secretary (6 Feb 1861 to OC and MEC, L1, 114 n. 9; see RI 1993, 574, for Bates’s letter of recommendation to William Seward, dated 12 Mar 1861).
453.22–23 Dr. Meredith] See the Autobiographical Dictation of 9 March 1906, note at 402.8–12.
454.32 the dishonest act of one Ira Stout] See “The Tennessee Land,” note at 62.41–63.1.
454.33–38 My father had just been elected County Judge . . . to be sworn in, about the end of February] This account of John Clemens’s career is not entirely accurate: see the Appendix “Family Biographies” (p. 654).
455.1–2 I became a bankrupt through . . . Charles L. Webster] The 1894 failure of Clemens’s own publishing house, Charles L. Webster and Company, was a critical element in his bankruptcy. Clemens unfairly blamed Webster for the firm’s collapse, although much of its decline came after his 1888 retirement as manager. See the note at 79.21–22 in “About General Grant’s Memoirs,” the Autobiographical Dictations of 2 June and 6 August 1906, and N&J3, passim.
455.10–11 In Florence, Italy, June 5, 1904] See “Villa di Quarto,” Clemens’s account of the family’s sojourn in Florence.
455 footnote *Inventor of a type-setting machine . . . Cornell University] See “The Machine Episode.” Paige built two prototypes. His 1887 machine survives at the Mark Twain House and Museum in Hartford. His 1894 machine went to Cornell University, which eventually donated it for scrap metal during World War II (Rasmussen 2007, 2:828).
Autobiographical Dictation, 29 March 1906
455.22–23 Orion . . . was a journeyman printer and earning wages] Orion lived in St. Louis, working as a typesetter in the printing house of Thomas Watt Ustick, from about 1842 until mid-1850, when he returned to Hannibal (Inds, 311, 351). See the note at 459.22–23.
455.25 My sister Pamela helped . . . by taking piano pupils] Paine reported that Pamela Clemens, “who had acquired a considerable knowledge of the piano and guitar, went to the town of Paris, in Monroe County, about fifty miles away, and taught a class of music pupils, contributing whatever remained after paying for her board and clothing to the family fund” (MTB, 1:75–76).
455.27–28 placed in the office of the Hannibal Courier . . . Mr. Ament, the editor and proprietor of the paper] Clemens was apprenticed to Henry La Cossitt, editor and owner of the Hannibal Gazette, in 1847, and then, probably in May 1848, to Joseph P. Ament (1824–79), who had just moved his Missouri Courier from Palmyra to Hannibal. Clemens remained in school part-time until at least 1849, however (6 Feb 1861 to OC and MEC, L1, 113–14 n. 5; Gregory 1976, 1).
455.34–456.2 There were two other apprentices . . . Wales McCormick . . . was delightful company] McCormick had left Hannibal by 1850 and in 1885 was living in Quincy, Illinois, where Clemens visited him while on a lecture tour. Clemens was in touch with McCormick, and assisted him financially, at least as late as 1888. He was the inspiration for the handsome and charming printer Doangivadam in “No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger” (MSM, 221–405, 489–92; see Inds, 332–33). There were two apprentices in addition to McCormick: William T. League (see the note at 459.40–41) and Dick Rutter, of nearby Palmyra, Missouri. In December 1907 Clemens recalled the names of all three of his colleagues (3? Dec 1907 to Powell, MoHM; see Inds, 331).
456.9 Ralph] Unidentified.
456.25–26 Emperor . . . tried to pretend that he was not shocked and outraged] This incident occurred in Vienna on 20 February 1892, at a banquet given by Clemens’s third cousin Alice Clemens von Versen (1850–1912), whose husband, Maximilian (1833–93), was an officer on the Imperial German general staff. Despite Clemens’s blunder, Wilhelm II (1859–1941), emperor of Germany and king of Prussia, was complimentary. In his Autobiographical Dictations of 6 December 1906 and 10 February 1907, Clemens reported that Wilhelm praised A Tramp Abroad and called “Old Times on the Mississippi” (that is, Life on the Mississippi) his “best and most valuable book” (Notebook 31, TS pp. 21, 31, CU-MARK; Selby 1973, 75, 146; Maximilian von Versen biographical information in CU-MARK).
456.35 Pet McMurry] In 1885 Clemens recalled T. P. (Pet) McMurry (d. 1886) as “a dandy, with plug hat tipped far forward & resting almost on his very nose; dark red, greasy hair, long & rolled under at the bottom, down on his neck; red goatee; a most mincing, self-conceited gait—the most astonishing gait that ever I saw—a gait possible nowhere on earth but in our South & in that old day” (23 Jan 1885 to OLC, CU-MARK, in LLMT, 232–33). McMurry later became a merchant; he was probably the model for the title character of “Jul’us Caesar,” a sketch Clemens wrote in the mid-1850s but left unpublished (SLC 1855–56; Inds, 334–35).
456.36–37 Mrs. Ament was a bride . . . after waiting a good part of a lifetime for it] Ament’s wife, Sarah, was only nineteen in 1850; Clemens was probably recalling his fifty-year-old mother, Judith D. Ament (Gregory 1976, 2).
457.10–11 new and wide-spread sect called Campbellites] The Disciples of Christ, also called Campbellites after their leaders, Thomas Campbell (1763–1854) and his son Alexander (1788–1866), originated in America early in the nineteenth century. The sect advocated individual interpretation of the Bible as the basis of faith. Clemens’s father, John Marshall Clemens, was a Campbellite sympathizer, though never a church member. Clemens’s sister Pamela was a member in her early teens (Inds, 288).
459.22–23 About 1849 or 1850 Orion . . . bought a weekly paper called the Hannibal Journal] Orion returned to Hannibal in mid-1850 and started a weekly paper, the Western Union. Within a year he purchased the Hannibal Journal, and on 4 September 1851 first published the consolidated Hannibal Journal and Western Union, which six months later became just the Hannibal Journal (Inds, 311).
459.40–41 Finally he handed it over to Mr. Johnson, and . . . acquired a small interest in a weekly newspaper there] In fact, on 22 September 1853 Orion sold the Hannibal Journal to William T. League, Samuel Clemens’s former fellow apprentice on the Hannibal Courier. League already was proprietor of the Hannibal Whig Messenger at the time. Orion then moved with his brother Henry and their mother to Muscatine, Iowa, where he purchased an interest in the Muscatine Journal. He published his first issue in Muscatine on 30 September 1853 (Inds, 311, 331; L1: 3? Sept 1853 to PAM, 15 n. 5; 8 Oct 1853 to PAM, 18 n. 3).
460.8–9 Then he married the Keokuk girl and they began a struggle for life] Orion married Mary Eleanor (Mollie) Stotts (1834–1904) on 19 December 1854. For details of his varied and futile struggles to earn a living, some of which Clemens alludes to later in this dictation, see Inds, 311–13.
460.12–13 He bought a little bit of a job printing-plant] After selling the Muscatine Journal in June 1855, Orion bought the Ben Franklin Book and Job Office, in Keokuk, Iowa (link note following 5 March 1855 to the Muscatine Tri-Weekly Journal, L1, 58).
460.16–29 I disappeared one night and fled to St. Louis . . . didn’t wake again for thirty-six hours] In June 1853 Clemens escaped Hannibal to work as a typesetter in St. Louis, New York, and Philadelphia, and to visit Washington, D.C. He returned to St. Louis briefly in the spring of 1854, then went to Muscatine, where he worked on Orion’s Journal for several months, before taking work in St. Louis again by August 1854. (For the best account of this period, see the link note preceding 24 Aug 1853 to JLC through the link note preceding 16 Feb 1855 to the Editors of the Muscatine Tri-Weekly Journal, L1, 1–46.)
460.31 I worked in that little job office in Keokuk as much as two years] Except for a few brief interruptions, Clemens lived in Keokuk, working as Orion’s assistant at the Ben Franklin Book and Job Office, from mid-June 1855 until October 1856 (see the link note following 5 Mar 1855 to the Muscatine Tri-Weekly Journal through the link note following 5 Aug 1856 to HC, L1, 58–69).
460.35 One day in the mid-winter of 1856 or 1857] Other than the present account, relatively little detail is available about Clemens’s activities between his departure from Keokuk in October 1856 (not in “mid-winter”) and the beginning of his steamboat piloting apprenticeship in April 1857. For a reconstruction of the period, see L1 (link note following 5 Aug 1856 to HC, 69–71).
461.5–6 the printing-office of Wrightson and Company] Clemens worked at T. Wrightson and Company, one of Cincinnati’s leading printers, from late October 1856 until 16 February 1857, when he left Cincinnati aboard the Paul Jones (Branch 1992, 2).
461.6–7 Herndon’s account of his explorations of the Amazon] Volume one, by William Lewis Herndon, of Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, Made under Direction of the Navy Department (Herndon and Gibbon 1853–54). In 1910 in “The Turning Point of My Life,” Clemens recalled that Herndon told “an astonishing tale” about the “miraculous powers” of coca, instilling in him “a longing to ascend the Amazon” and “open up a trade in coca with all the world” (SLC 1910).
461.10 One of the pilots of that boat was Horace Bixby] Bixby (1826–1912) was a leading Mississippi River steamboat pilot and later captain.
461.16–17 He said he would do it for a hundred dollars cash in advance] In 1910, after Clemens’s death, Bixby recalled telling Clemens “that I would instruct him till he became a competent pilot for $500.” This fee was considered exorbitant and Clemens evidently ended up paying only $300 or $400, including his down payment of $100 (see L1: linknote following 5 Aug 1856 to HC, 70–71; 25 Oct 1861 to PAM and JLC, 134–35 n. 5).
461.21–22 I became a competent pilot, and I served that office until . . . the Civil War] Clemens received his pilot’s license on 9 April 1859, after a nearly two-year apprenticeship. He made his last trip as a pilot in early May 1861, about three weeks after the outbreak of the Civil War. For details of his time on the Mississippi, see the link note following 5 Aug 1856 to HC through the link note following 26 Apr 1861 to OC, L1, 70–121, and Life on the Mississippi, chapters 6–21 (1883).
461.29 Blackstone] Commentaries on the Laws of England, by Sir William Blackstone (1723–80), an exhaustive treatise on English law, was crucial to the teaching and study of law in England and the United States (Blackstone 1765–69).
461.38–39 Orion and I cleared for that country . . . I paying the fares] The Clemens brothers left St. Louis, on the first leg of their journey to Nevada Territory, on 18 July 1861. The fare for the two of them was $400 (link note following 26 Apr 1861 to OC, L1, 121–22). Clemens devoted the first twenty chapters of Roughing It to an account of the journey (see RI 1993, 574–612).
462.4 Noah Webster] Webster (1758–1843), an educator and editor as well as a lexicographer, published his landmark American Dictionary of the English Language in 1828.
Autobiographical Dictation, 30 March 1906
462.12 a neighbor brought the celebrated Russian revolutionist, Tchaykoffsky] Nikolai Vasilievich Chaykovsky (1850–1926), founder and leader of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, was in New York to appeal for weapons for the Russian revolutionary struggle (“Russian Here for Firearms,” New York Times, 21 Mar 1906, 4). The neighbor was Charlotte Teller (1876–1953), a writer and socialist who lived nearby. Teller later explained that when Chaykovsky arrived he was
much depressed because he did not know how to reach Mark Twain, whom he wanted as chairman for a big mass meeting. Although I did not know Mark Twain myself, I offered to see what could be done. I went to 21 Fifth Ave. and asked for Mr. Clemens’ secretary. She said to bring Tschaikowsky back at 2 o’clock in the afternoon. (Teller 1925, 5)
Clemens developed a friendship with Teller and treated her as a sort of protégée. Their relationship later became problematic, when rumors circulated that she was a fortune hunter who sought to marry him (see Schmidt 2009a).
462.19 McKinleys] William McKinley (1843–1901) was the twenty-fifth president of the United States, elected in 1896 and again in 1900, but was assassinated in September 1901, whereupon he was succeeded by his vice-president, Theodore Roosevelt. The Spanish-American War (1898), which left the United States in control of Cuba and the Philippines, was fought during his term of office.
462.33–36 when our windy and flamboyant President . . . new Angel of Peace . . . peace between Russia and Japan] The Russo-Japanese War, fought over control of Manchuria and Korea, lasted from February 1904 until September 1905. On 30 March 1905, exactly a year before the present dictation, it was first reported that the combatant nations had chosen Theodore Roosevelt as mediator. Roosevelt’s sustained efforts eventually resulted in the Treaty of Portsmouth (New Hampshire), signed on 5 September. His peacemaking received lavish praise, at home and abroad, including a tribute from Cardinal James Gibbons (1834–1921), the ranking Catholic prelate of the United States, who called him “an angel of peace to the world.” As a result of the conflict, Russia, which had lost several major battles and had seen its entire fleet destroyed, was forced to recognize Korea’s independence and to make major concessions in Manchuria, while Japan emerged as the strongest power in East Asia (New York Times: numerous articles, 31 Mar–7 Sept 1905, especially “Roosevelt May End War in Far East,” 31 Mar 1905, 1, and “Roosevelt ‘Angel of Peace,’ ” 18 June 1905, 2).
462.36–37 no one . . . except Dr. Seaman and myself uttered a public protest] Surgeon Louis L. Seaman (1851–1932), a highly decorated army major and expert on military sanitation who had spent six months in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese War, proclaimed on 30 August 1905 that the peace mediated by Roosevelt would “prove detrimental to the Japanese and to the rest of the world,” that “in fifteen years Russia will have recuperated sufficiently for another struggle,” and that the war should have been allowed to continue “until the Russians had been driven away entirely from the Pacific Coast” (“Thinks Peace a Mistake,” New York Times, 31 Aug 1905, 3). Clemens’s own “public protest” came in a letter of 29 August 1905 to the editor of the Boston Globe:
Russia was on the high road to emancipation from an insane and intolerable slavery. I was hoping there would be no peace until Russian liberty was safe. I think that this was a holy war in the best and noblest sense of that abused term, and that no war was ever charged with a higher mission; I think there can be no doubt that that mission is now defeated and Russia’s chains re-riveted, this time to stay.
I think the czar will now withdraw the small humanities that have been forced from him, and resume his medieval barbarisms with a relieved spirit and an immeasurable joy. I think Russian liberty has had its last chance, and has lost it.
I think nothing has been gained by the peace that is remotely comparable to what has been sacrificed by it. One more battle would have abolished the waiting chains of billions upon billions of unborn Russians, and I wish it could have been fought.
I hope I am mistaken, yet in all sincerity I believe that this peace is entitled to rank as the most conspicuous disaster in political history. (SLC 1905d)
463.2 Roosevelt had given the Russian revolution its death-blow] Clemens’s conviction that Roosevelt’s peacemaking had enabled the Tsarist government to concentrate on suppressing domestic political reform was widely shared. Government violence against the populace in fact had been extreme in 1905 following the peace (see AD, 10 Jan 1906, note at 257.18–21), and again during the first three months of 1906 (New York Times: “Russians Are Skeptical,” 13 June 1905, 2; “Gorky Not Coming Here,” 6 July 1905, 2; “John Bigelow Condemns Peace of Portsmouth,” 3 Dec 1905, SM4; “Roosevelt and Russia,” 13 Feb 1906, 6, and numerous articles, 1 Jan–30 Mar 1906).
463.4 I came across Dr. Seaman last night] Probably at the meeting of the New York State Association for Promoting the Interests of the Blind (see the note at 464.17–19).
463.9–10 only two or three months ago . . . You raised two millions of dollars in a breath] In early December 1905 it was reported that in only eighteen days, American Jews had raised $1 million for the relief of Jews being massacred in Russia, with contributions from Germany and Great Britain bringing the total to $2.475 million. Clemens assisted in the fundraising by speaking at an 18 December benefit matinee at the Casino Theatre at which several prominent actors, including Sarah Bernhardt, performed:
Mark Twain, who followed Mme. Bernhardt, spoke of the wonderful French language, which he always felt as if he were “just going to understand.”
“Mme. Bernhardt is so marvelously young,” he added. “She and I are two of the youngest people alive.”
Then the humorist told a story of how when Mme. Bernhardt was playing in Hartford some years ago three charitable old ladies decided to deny themselves the pleasure of seeing the great actress and to send the money instead to some needy friends.
“And the needy friends,” concluded Mr. Clemens drily, “gratefully took the money and bought Bernhardt tickets with it.” (“Mark Twain Speaks After Bernhardt Acts,” New York Times, 19 Dec 1905, 9)
By late December, the total raised in America and Europe, from Jews and Gentiles, exceeded $3 million (New York Times: “Fund Exceeds $1,000,000, Still More to Come,” 3 Dec 1905, 8; “Asks $1,000,000 More for Jewish Relief,” 5 Dec 1905, 6; “$935,000 Already Sent to Aid Russian Jews,” 7 Dec 1905, 6; “Amusements,” 18 Dec 1905, 14; “Relief Fund over $3,000,000,” 29 Dec 1905, 2).
463.23 ARMS TO FREE RUSSIA, TCHAYKOFFSKY’S APPEAL] Clemens had a clipping of this article, from the New York Times of 30 March 1906, pasted into the typescript of his dictation.
464.17–19 Chairman at the first meeting of the Association . . . in the interest of the adult blind. Joseph H. Choate and I had a very good time there] Clemens presided at the meeting of the New York State Association for Promoting the Interest of the Blind, held in the ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on 29 March 1906. As an instance of a time when he was himself momentarily blind, Clemens told about his hunt for a lost sock in a darkened German inn, which he had originally described in 1880 in chapter 13 of A Tramp Abroad (for a text of the speech, see Fatout 1976, 506–11). Choate, a leader in humanitarian causes, made a humorous appeal for contributions to the association (“Twain and Choate Talk at Meeting for Blind,” New York Times, 30 Mar 1906, 9; for Choate see AD, 23 Jan 1906, note at 303.2–10).
464.34–35 Blackwell’s Island] An island in the East River, named for Robert Blackwell (d. 1717?), its onetime owner, which housed a penitentiary for men and women, a workhouse for the drunken and disorderly, an almshouse and hospitals for some of New York City’s poor, and America’s first municipal insane asylum. Its name was changed to Welfare Island in 1921, then to Roosevelt Island, in honor of Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1973. Soon after that it became largely residential (Moses King 1893, 496–500; NYC10044 2009; Roosevelt Island Historical Society 2009).
465.6–7 She was to be at Laurence Hutton’s house . . . Henry Rogers and I went together] In 1929 Keller devoted a chapter of Midstream: My Later Life to her long friendship with Mark Twain, recalling its beginning at Hutton’s home on a Sunday in 1894, when she was fourteen and Clemens “was vigorous, before the shadows began to gather”:
During the afternoon several celebrities dropped in, and among them Mr. Clemens. The instant I clasped his hand in mine, I knew that he was my friend. He made me laugh and feel thoroughly happy by telling some good stories, which I read from his lips. I have forgotten a great deal more than I remember, but I shall never forget how tender he was.
Keller also wrote fondly of Henry H. Rogers, whom she first met that same day and afterward saw frequently, and who financed her college education (Keller 1929, 47–48, 71, 288–89).
465.9 Miss Sullivan] Annie Sullivan (1866–1936), herself only partially sighted, had become Keller’s teacher in 1887. Her groundbreaking technique for educating Keller was based on a system of touch teaching. The two remained lifelong companions, even after Sullivan’s 1905 marriage to writer and literary critic John Macy, and together worked for increased opportunities for the blind.
466.7 Miss Holt] Winifred T. Holt (1870–1945), a sculptor, was the principal founder of the New York State Association for Promoting the Interests of the Blind. In early 1906 she was the organization’s treasurer pro tem and secretary, retaining the latter post until at least 1920. She later wrote numerous books and papers on blindness and worked extensively for the education and rehabilitation of the blind both in the United States and abroad (Holt to SLC, 24 Jan 1906, CU-MARK).
466.26 Wrentham, Mass., March 27, 1906] Keller’s letter was transcribed into this dictation from her original typed and signed letter, now in the Mark Twain Papers. She later published it in Out of the Dark (Keller 1913, 208–12).


Born 30 November in Florida, Mo., the sixth child of John Marshall and Jane Lampton Clemens. Of his six siblings, only Orion, Pamela, and Henry lived into adulthood. (For details, see the next appendix, “Family Biographies.”)
Moves to Hannibal, Mo., on the west bank of the Mississippi River; enters typical western common school in Hannibal (1840).
Spends summers at his uncle John Quarles’s farm, near Florida, Mo.
On 24 March his father dies. Leaves school to work as an errand boy and apprentice typesetter for Henry La Cossitt’s Hannibal Gazette.
Apprenticed to Joseph P. Ament, the new editor and owner of the Hannibal Missouri Courier. Works for and lives with Ament until the end of 1850.
In January joins Orion’s newspaper, the Hannibal Western Union, where he soon prints “A Gallant Fireman,” his earliest known published work.
After almost three years as Orion’s apprentice, leaves Hannibal in June 1853. Works as a journeyman typesetter in St. Louis, New York, Philadelphia, Muscatine (Iowa), Keokuk (Iowa), and Cincinnati.
On 16 February departs Cincinnati on the Paul Jones, piloted by Horace E. Bixby, who agrees to train him as a Mississippi River pilot.
Henry Clemens dies of injuries from the explosion of the Pennsylvania.
On 9 April officially licensed to pilot steamboats “to and from St. Louis and New Orleans.” By 1861 has served as “a good average” pilot on at least a dozen boats.
Becomes a Freemason (resigns from his lodge in 1869). Works as a commercial pilot until the outbreak of the Civil War. Joins the Hannibal Home Guard, a small band of volunteers with Confederate sympathies. Resigns after two weeks and accompanies Orion to Nevada Territory, where Orion will serve until 1864 as the territorial secretary. Works briefly for Orion, then prospects for silver.
Prospects in the Humboldt and Esmeralda mining districts. Sends contributions signed “Josh” (now lost) to the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, and in October becomes its local reporter.
On 3 February 1863 first signs himself “Mark Twain.” While writing for the Enterprise he becomes Nevada correspondent for the San Francisco Morning Call. To escape prosecution for dueling, moves to San Francisco about 1 June 1864 and for four months works as local reporter for the Call. Writes for the Californian and the Golden Era. In early December visits Jackass Hill in Tuolumne County, Calif.
Visits Angels Camp in Calaveras County, Calif. Returns to San Francisco and begins writing a daily letter for the Enterprise. Continues to write for the Californian. “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog” published in the New York Saturday Press on 18 November.
Travels to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) as correspondent for the Sacramento Union, to which he writes twenty-five letters. In October gives his first lecture in San Francisco.
His first book, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches, published in May. Gives first lecture in New York City. Sails on Quaker City to Europe and the Holy Land. Meets Olivia (Livy) Langdon in New York on 27 December. In Washington, D.C., serves briefly as private secretary to Senator William M. Stewart of Nevada.
Lectures widely in eastern and midwestern states. Courts and proposes to Livy, winning her consent in November.
The Innocents Abroad published. With Jervis Langdon’s help, buys one-third interest in the Buffalo Express.
Marries Olivia on 2 February; they settle in Buffalo in a house purchased for them by Jervis Langdon. Son, Langdon, born prematurely on 7 November.
Sells Express and the house and moves to Hartford, Conn. For the next two decades the family will live in Hartford and spend summers at Quarry Farm, in Elmira.
Daughter Olivia Susan (Susy) Clemens born 19 March; son Langdon dies 2 June. Roughing It published in London (securing British copyright) and Hartford. Visits London to lecture in the fall.
Takes family to England and Scotland for five months. Escorts them home (Livy is pregnant) and returns to England alone in November. The Gilded Age, written with Charles Dudley Warner, published in London and Hartford.
Returns home in January; daughter Clara Langdon Clemens born 8 June. The family moves into the house they have built in Hartford.
Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old (1875) and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) published.
Travels with family in Europe.
A Tramp Abroad published. Daughter Jane (Jean) Lampton Clemens born 26 July.
Begins to invest in Paige typesetting machine. The Prince and the Pauper published.
Revisits the Mississippi to gather material for Life on the Mississippi, published 1883.
Founds publishing house, Charles L. Webster and Co., named for his nephew by marriage, its chief officer. Reading tour with George Washington Cable (November–February). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn published in London (1884) and New York (1885). Publishes Ulysses S. Grant’s Memoirs (1885).
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court published.
Travels and lives in France, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy, with frequent business trips to the United States. Henry H. Rogers, vice-president of Standard Oil, undertakes to salvage Clemens’s fortunes. In 1894 Webster and Co. declares bankruptcy, and on Rogers’s advice Clemens abandons the Paige machine. The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson published serially and as a book in 1894.
In August starts an around-the-world lecture tour to raise money, accompanied by Olivia and Clara; lectures en route to the Pacific Coast and then in Australia and New Zealand.
Lectures in India, Ceylon, and South Africa. Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc published. On 18 August Susy dies from meningitis in Hartford. Jean is diagnosed with epilepsy. Resides in London.
Following the Equator published in London and Hartford. Lives in Weggis (Switzerland) and Vienna.
Pays his creditors in full. Lives in Vienna and nearby Kaltenleutgeben.
Resides in London, with stays at European spas. The family returns to the
United States in October 1900, living at 14 West 10th Street, New York, then in Riverdale in the Bronx. Publishes “To the Person Sitting in Darkness” (February 1901).
Makes last visit to Hannibal and St. Louis. Olivia’s health deteriorates severely. Isabel V. Lyon, hired as her secretary, is soon secretary to Clemens.
Moves family to rented Villa di Quarto in Florence. Harper and Brothers acquires exclusive rights to all Mark Twain’s work.
Begins dictating autobiography to Lyon; Jean types up her copy. Olivia dies of heart failure in Florence on 5 June. Family returns to the United States. Clemens leases a house at 21 Fifth Avenue, New York.
Spends summer in Dublin, New Hampshire, with Jean. Writes “The War-Prayer.”
Begins Autobiographical Dictations in January. Selections from them will appear in the North American Review, 1906–7. Commissions John Mead Howells to design a house to be built at Redding, Conn. What Is Man? printed anonymously for private distribution.
Christian Science published. Hires Ralph W. Ashcroft as business assistant. Travels to England to receive honorary degree from Oxford University.
Moves into the Redding house (“Innocence at Home,” then “Stormfield”).
Dismisses Lyon and Ashcroft. Jean rejoins Clemens at Stormfield. Clara marries Ossip Gabrilowitsch, pianist and conductor, on 6 October. Jean dies of heart failure on 24 December.
Suffers severe angina while in Bermuda; with Paine leaves for New York on 12 April. Dies at Stormfield on 21 April.
For a much more detailed chronology, see Mark Twain: Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches, and Essays, 1852–1890 (Budd 1992a, 949–97).
Biographies are provided here only for Clemens’s immediate family—his parents, siblings, wife, and children. Information about other relatives, including Olivia Clemens’s family, may be located through the Index.
John Marshall Clemens (1798–1847), Clemens’s father, was born in Virginia. As a youth he moved with his mother and siblings to Kentucky, where he studied law and in 1822 was licensed to practice. He married Jane Lampton the following year. In 1827 the Clemenses relocated to Jamestown, Tennessee, where he opened a store and eventually became a clerk of the county court. In 1835 he moved his family to Missouri, settling first in the village of Florida, where Samuel Clemens was born. Two years later he was appointed judge of Monroe County Court, earning the honorific “Judge,” which young Clemens unwittingly exaggerated into a position of great power. In 1839 he moved the family to Hannibal, where he kept a store on Main Street and was elected justice of the peace, probably in 1844. At the time of his death, he was a candidate for the position of clerk of the circuit court, but died some months before the election. He was regarded as one of the foremost citizens of the county, scrupulously honest, but within his family circle he was taciturn and irritable. A contemporary reference to John Clemens’s “shattered nerves,” together with his extensive use of medicines, may point to some chronic condition. His sudden death from pneumonia in 1847 left the family in genteel poverty. When his father died Clemens was only eleven; he later wrote that “my own knowledge of him amounted to little more than an introduction” (Inds, 309–11; 4 Sept 1883 to Holcombe, MnHi).
Jane Lampton Clemens (1803–90), Clemens’s mother, was born in Adair County, Kentucky. Her marriage to the dour and humorless John Marshall Clemens was not a love match: late in life she confided to her family that she had married to spite another suitor. She bore seven children, of whom only four (Orion, Pamela, Samuel, and Henry [1838–58]) survived at the time of her husband’s death in 1847. The widowed Jane left Hannibal, Missouri, and between 1853 and 1870 lived in Muscatine, and possibly Keokuk, Iowa, and in St. Louis, Missouri, initially as part of Orion Clemens’s household and then with her daughter, Pamela Moffett. After Clemens married and settled in Buffalo, New York, in 1870, Jane set up house in nearby Fredonia with the widowed Pamela. In 1882 she moved to Keokuk, Iowa, where she lived with Orion for the rest of her life. She was buried in Hannibal’s Mount Olivet Cemetery, alongside her husband and her son Henry. Her Hannibal pastor called her “a woman of the sunniest temperament, lively, affable, a general favorite” (Wecter 1952, 86). She was the model for Aunt Polly in Tom Sawyer (SLC 1876), Huckleberry Finn (SLC 1885), and other works. After her death in 1890 Clemens wrote a moving tribute to her, “Jane Lampton Clemens” (Inds, 82–92, 311).
Orion (pronounced O’-ree-ən) Clemens (1825–97), Clemens’s older brother, was born in Gainesboro, Tennessee. After the Clemens family’s move to Hannibal, Missouri, he was apprenticed to a printer. In 1850 he started the Hannibal Western Union, and the following year became the owner of the Hannibal Journal as well, employing Clemens and Henry, their younger brother, as typesetters. In 1853, shortly after Clemens left home to travel, Orion moved with his mother and Henry to Muscatine, Iowa. There he married Mary (Mollie) Stotts (1834–1904), who bore him a daughter, Jennie, in 1855. He campaigned for Lincoln in the presidential election of 1860, and through the influence of a friend was rewarded with an appointment as secretary of the newly formed Nevada Territory (1861). Mollie and Jennie joined him there in 1862; Jennie died in 1864 of spotted fever. That year Nevada became a state, and Orion could not obtain a post comparable to his territorial position. Over the next two decades he struggled to earn a living as a proofreader, inventor, chicken farmer, lawyer, lecturer, and author. From the mid-1870s until his death in 1897, Orion was supported by an amused and exasperated Clemens, who said that “he was always honest and honorable” but “he was always dreaming; he was a dreamer from birth” (Inds, 311–13; see AD, 28 Mar 1906 and notes).
Pamela (pronounced Pə-mee’-la) A. (Clemens) Moffett (1827–1904), also known as “Pamelia” or “Mela,” was Clemens’s older sister. Born in Jamestown, Tennessee, after the Clemens family’s move to Hannibal she attended Elizabeth Horr’s school and in November 1840 was commended by her teacher for her “amiable deportment and faithful application to her various studies.” Pamela played piano and guitar, and in the 1840s helped support the family by giving music lessons. In September 1851, she married William Anderson Moffett (1816–65), a commission merchant, and moved to St. Louis. Their children were Annie (1852–1950) and Samuel (1860–1908). From 1870 Pamela lived in Fredonia, New York. Clemens called Pamela “a lifelong invalid”; she was probably the model for Tom’s cousin Mary in Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, and other works (Inds, 313).
Olivia Louise Langdon Clemens (1845–1904), familiarly known as “Livy,” was born and raised in Elmira, New York, the daughter of wealthy coal merchant Jervis Langdon (1809–70) and Olivia Lewis Langdon (1810–90). The Langdons were strongly religious, reformist, and abolitionist. Livy’s education, in the 1850s and 1860s, was a combination of home tutoring and classes at Thurston’s Female Seminary and Elmira Female College. Always delicate, her health deteriorated into invalidism for a time between 1860 and 1864. “She was never strong again while her life lasted,” Clemens said in 1906. Clemens was first introduced to the shy and serious Livy in December 1867; he soon began an earnest and protracted courtship, conducted largely through letters. They married in February 1870 and settled in Buffalo, New York, in a house purchased for them by Livy’s father; their first child, Langdon Clemens, was born there in November. In 1871 they moved, as renters, to the Nook Farm neighborhood of Hartford, Connecticut, and quickly became an integral part of the social life of that literary and intellectual enclave. They purchased land and built the distinctive house which was their home from 1874 to 1891. Young Langdon died in 1872, but three daughters were born: Olivia Susan (Susy) in 1872, Clara in 1874, and Jane (Jean) in 1880. Clara later recalled her mother’s “unselfish, tender nature—combined with a complete understanding, both intellectual and human, of her husband”; she took “care of everything pertaining to house and home, which included hospitality to many guests,” and made “time for lessons in French and German as well as hours for reading aloud to my sisters and me” (CC 1931, 24–25). To her adoring husband, whom she addressed fondly as “Youth,” Livy was “my faithful, judicious, and painstaking editor” (AD, 14 Feb 1906; see also AD, 13 Feb 1906). In June 1891, with their expenses mounting and Clemens’s investments draining his earnings as well as Livy’s personal income, they permanently closed the Hartford house and left for a period of retrenchment in Europe; thenceforth Livy’s life was spent in temporary quarters, hotel suites, and rented houses. When Clemens was forced to declare bankruptcy in April 1894, the family’s financial future was salvaged by the expedient of giving Livy “preferred creditor” status and assigning all Clemens’s copyrights to her. In 1895–96 she and Clara accompanied Clemens on his round-the-world lecture tour. The death of her daughter Susy in 1896 was a blow from which she never recovered. She died of heart failure in Italy in June 1904.
Olivia Susan Clemens (1872–96), known as “Susy,” was Clemens’s eldest daughter. Her early education was conducted largely at home by her mother and, for several years starting in 1880, by a governess. Her talents for writing, dramatics, and music were soon apparent. At thirteen, she secretly began to write a biography of Clemens, much of which he later incorporated into his autobiography; it is a charming portrait of idyllic family life. Susy accompanied her parents to England in 1873 and for a longer stay abroad in 1878–79. In the fall of 1890 she left home to attend Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, but completed only one semester. In June 1891, the Clemenses closed the Hartford house, and the family, including Susy, left for a period of retrenchment in Europe that would last until mid-1895. Susy attended schools in Geneva and Berlin and took language and voice lessons, but increasingly she suffered from physical and nervous complaints for which her parents sought treatments including “mind cure” and hydrotherapy. After the European sojourn Susy chose not to go with her father, mother, and sister Clara on Clemens’s lecture trip around the world (1895–96); she and her sister Jean stayed at the Elmira, New York, home of their aunt Susan Crane. In August 1896, while visiting her childhood home in Hartford, Susy came down with a fever, which proved to be spinal meningitis. She died while her mother and sister were making the transatlantic journey to be with her. “The cloud is permanent, now,” Clemens wrote in his notebook (Notebook 40, TS p. 8, CU-MARK; see AD, 2 Feb 1906).
Clara Langdon Clemens (1874–1962), called “Bay,” was Clemens’s second daughter. Born in Hartford, Connecticut, she was mostly educated at home by her mother and governesses. During the family’s sojourn in Europe between 1891 and 1895, Clara enjoyed more independence than her sisters, returning alone to Berlin to study music. She was the only one of Clemens’s daughters to go with him and Livy on their 1895–96 trip around the world. The death of her sister Susy, and the first epileptic seizure of her other sister, Jean, both came in 1896: “It was a long time before anyone laughed in our household,” Clara recalled (CC 1931, 179). The family settled in Vienna in 1897. Clara aspired to be a pianist, studying under Theodor Leschetizky, through whom she met the young Russian pianist Ossip Gabrilowitsch (1878–1936). By 1898 Clara’s vocation had changed from pianist to singer, a career in which she found more indulgence than acclaim. After her mother’s death in 1904 Clara suffered a breakdown and was intermittently away from her family at rest cures in 1905 and 1906. She was financially dependent on her father but spent less and less time in his household, traveling and giving occasional recitals. Increasingly suspicious of the control exerted by Isabel V. Lyon and Ralph Ashcroft over her father and his finances, Clara convinced Clemens to dismiss the pair in 1909. She married Gabrilowitsch in 1909; their daughter, Nina Gabrilowitsch (1910–66) was Clemens’s last direct descendant. Between 1904 and 1910 Clara lost her mother, her sister Jean, and her father; at the age of thirty-five, she was sole heir to the estate of Mark Twain, which was held in trust for her, not to be disposed in its entirety until her own death. For the rest of her life she used her influence to control the public representation of her father. Gabrilowitsch died in 1936; in 1944 Clara married Russian conductor Jacques Samossoud (1894–1966). Her memoir of Clemens, My Father, Mark Twain, was published in 1931. She spent the last decades of her life in Southern California. Clara’s bequest of Clemens’s personal papers to the University of California, Berkeley, in 1962, formed the basis of the Mark Twain Papers now housed in The Bancroft Library.
Jean (Jane Lampton) Clemens (1880–1909), Clemens’s youngest daughter, was named after his mother but was always called Jean. Like her sisters, she was educated largely at home. In 1896, however, she was attending school in Elmira, New York, when she suffered a severe epileptic seizure. Sedatives were prescribed, and for the next several years her anxious parents tried to forestall the progress of her illness, even spending the summer of 1899 in Sweden so that she could be treated by the well-known osteopath Jonas Kellgren. Her condition, which worsened after her mother’s death in 1904, and the household’s frequent relocations, gave Jean little chance to develop an independent existence. In late 1899 she began teaching herself how to type so that she could transcribe her father’s manuscripts. She also loved riding and other outdoor activities, and espoused animal and human-rights causes. In October 1906 Jean was sent to a sanatorium in Katonah, New York, and remained in “exile” until April 1909, when she rejoined her father at Stormfield, in Redding, Connecticut. Over the next months she enjoyed a close, happy relationship with him and took over Isabel Lyon’s duties as secretary. Jean died at Stormfield on 24 December 1909, apparently of a heart attack suffered during a seizure. Over the next few days Clemens wrote a heart-breaking reminiscence of her entitled “Closing Words of My Autobiography” (SLC 1909).
This text of Clemens’s speech at his seventieth birthday celebration was printed in Harper’s Weekly on 23 December 1905 with the title “Mark Twain’s 70th Birthday: Souvenir of Its Celebration” (SLC 1905g; see AD, 12 Jan 1906). It is likely that the Harper’s text was based on a manuscript that Clemens provided. No manuscript has been found, however, and the source of the magazine text has not been determined.
Clemens was introduced by William Dean Howells, who commented:
Mr. Clemens has always had the effect on me of throwing me into a poetic ecstasy. (Laughter.) I know it is very uncommon. Most people speak of him in prose, and I dare say there will be a deal of prosing about him to-night; but for myself, I am obliged to resort to metre whenever I think of him.
Howells then read his own “Sonnet to Mark Twain” in which the “American joke”—personified as a “Colossus”—expounded his role as the bringer of joy and freedom and announced, “Mark Twain made me.” Howells concluded with the toast, “I will not say, ‘Oh King, live forever,’ but ‘Oh King, live as long as you like!’”

Well, if I made that joke, it is the best one I ever made, and it is in the prettiest language too. I never can get quite to that height. But I appreciate that joke and I shall remember it,—and I shall use it when occasion requires. (Laughter.)
I have had a great many birthdays in my time. I remember the first one very well (laughter), and I always think of it with indignation (renewed laughter); everything was so crude, unaesthetic, primeval. Nothing like this at all. (Laughter.) No proper appreciative preparation made; nothing really ready. (Prolonged laughter.) Now, for a person born with high and delicate instincts,—why, even the cradle wasn’t whitewashed,—nothing ready at all. I hadn’t any hair (laughter), I hadn’t any teeth (laughter), I hadn’t any clothes (laughter), I had to go to my first banquet just like that. (Prolonged laughter.) Well, everybody came swarming in. It was the merest little bit of a village,—hardly that, just a little hamlet, in the backwoods of Missouri, where nothing ever happened, and the people were all interested (laughter), and they all came; they looked me over to see if there was anything fresh in my line. Why, nothing ever happened in that village—I—why, I was the only thing that had really happened there (laughter) for months and months and months; and although I say it myself that shouldn’t, I came the nearest to being a real event that had happened in that village in more than two years. (Laughter.) Well, those people came, they came with that curiosity which is so provincial, with that frankness which also is so provincial, and they examined me all around and gave their opinion. Nobody asked them, and I shouldn’t have minded if anybody had paid me a compliment, but nobody did. Their opinions were all just green with prejudice, and I feel those opinions to this day. (Laughter.) Well, I stood that as long as—well, you know I was born courteous (laughter), and I stood it to the limit. I stood it an hour and then the worm turned. I was the worm; it was my turn to turn, and I turned. (Laughter.) I knew very well the strength of my position; I knew that I was the only spotlessly pure and innocent person in that whole town (laughter), and I came out and said so. And they could not say a word. It was so true. They blushed, they were embarrassed. Well, that was the first after-dinner speech I ever made (laughter). I think it was after dinner. (Renewed laughter.)
It’s a long stretch between that first birthday speech and this one. That was my cradle-song, and this is my swan-song, I suppose. I am used to swan-songs; I have sung them several times.
This is my seventieth birthday, and I wonder if you all rise to the size of that proposition, realizing all the significance of that phrase, seventieth birthday.
The seventieth birthday! It is the time of life when you arrive at a new and awful dignity; when you may throw aside the decent reserves which have oppressed you for a generation and stand unafraid and unabashed upon your seven-terraced summit and look down and teach—unrebuked. You can tell the world how you got there. It is what they all do. You shall never get tired of telling by what delicate arts and deep moralities you climbed up to that great place. You will explain the process and dwell on the particulars with senile rapture. I have been anxious to explain my own system this long time, and now at last I have the right.
I have achieved my seventy years in the usual way: by sticking strictly to a scheme of life which would kill anybody else. (Laughter.) It sounds like an exaggeration, but that is really the common rule for attaining to old age. When we examine the programme of any of these garrulous old people we always find that the habits which have preserved them would have decayed us; that the way of life which enabled them to live upon the property of their heirs so long, as Mr. Choate says, would have put us out of commission ahead of time. I will offer here, as a sound maxim, this: That we can’t reach old age by another man’s road.
I will now teach, offering my way of life to whomsoever desires to commit suicide by the scheme which has enabled me to beat the doctor and the hangman for seventy years. (Laughter.) Some of the details may sound untrue, but they are not. I am not here to deceive; I am here to teach.
We have no permanent habits until we are forty. Then they begin to harden, presently they petrify, then business begins. Since forty I have been regular about going to bed and getting up—and that is one of the main things. I have made it a rule to go to bed when there wasn’t anybody left to sit up with; and I have made it a rule to get up when I had to. (Laughter.) This has resulted in an unswerving regularity of irregularity. It has saved me sound, but it would injure another person.
In the matter of diet—which is another main thing—I have been persistently strict in sticking to the things which didn’t agree with me until one or the other of us got the best of it. Until lately I got the best of it myself. (Laughter.) But last spring I stopped frolicking with mince pie after midnight; up to then I had always believed it wasn’t loaded. (Laughter.) For thirty years I have taken coffee and bread at eight in the morning, and no bite nor sup until 7.30 in the evening. Eleven hours. That is all right for me, and is wholesome, because I have never had a headache in my life, but headachy people would not reach seventy comfortably by that road, and they would be foolish to try it. And I wish to urge upon you this—which I think is wisdom—that if you find you can’t make seventy by any but an uncomfortable road, don’t you go. When they take off the Pullman and retire you to the rancid smoker, put on your things, count your checks, and get out at the first way station where there’s a cemetery. (Laughter.)
I have made it a rule never to smoke more than one cigar at a time. I have no other restriction as regards smoking. I do not know just when I began to smoke, I only know that it was in my father’s lifetime, and that I was discreet. He passed from this life early in 1847, when I was a shade past eleven; ever since then I have smoked publicly. As an example to others, and not that I care for moderation myself, it has always been my rule never to smoke when asleep, and never to refrain when awake. (Laughter.) It is a good rule. I mean, for me; but some of you know quite well that it wouldn’t answer for everybody that’s trying to get to be seventy.
I smoke in bed until I have to go to sleep; I wake up in the night, sometimes once, sometimes twice, sometimes three times, and I never waste any of these opportunities to smoke. This habit is so old and dear and precious to me that I would feel as you, sir, would feel if you should lose the only moral you’ve got—meaning the chairman—if you’ve got one: I am making no charges. (Laughter.) I will grant, here, that I have stopped smoking now and then, for a few months at a time, but it was not on principle, it was only to show off; it was to pulverize those critics who said I was a slave to my habits and couldn’t break my bonds. (Laughter.)
To-day it is all of sixty years since I began to smoke the limit. I have never bought cigars with life-belts around them. (Laughter.) I early found that those were too expensive for me. I have always bought cheap cigars—reasonably cheap, at any rate. Sixty years ago they cost me four dollars a barrel, but my taste has improved, latterly, and I pay seven now. (Laughter.) Six or seven. Seven, I think. Yes, it’s seven. But that includes the barrel. (Laughter.) I often have smoking-parties at my house; but the people that come have always just taken the pledge. I wonder why that is? (Laughter.)
As for drinking, I have no rule about that. When the others drink I like to help; otherwise I remain dry, by habit and preference. (Laughter.) This dryness does not hurt me, but it could easily hurt you, because you are different. (Laughter.) You let it alone.
Since I was seven years old I have seldom taken a dose of medicine, and have still seldomer needed one. But up to seven I lived exclusively on allopathic medicines. (Laughter.) Not that I needed them, for I don’t think I did; it was for economy; my father took a drug-store for a debt, and it made cod-liver oil cheaper than the other breakfast foods. (Laughter.) We had nine barrels of it, and it lasted me seven years. Then I was weaned. (Laughter.) The rest of the family had to get along with rhubarb and ipecac and such things, because I was the pet. I was the first Standard Oil Trust. (Laughter.) I had it all. By the time the drug-store was exhausted my health was established, and there has never been much the matter with me since. But you know very well it would be foolish for the average child to start for seventy on that basis. It happened to be just the thing for me, but that was merely an accident; it couldn’t happen again in a century. (Laughter.)
I have never taken any exercise, except sleeping and resting, and I never intend to take any. Exercise is loathsome. And it cannot be any benefit when you are tired; I was always tired. (Laughter.) But let another person try my way, and see where he will come out.
I desire now to repeat and emphasize that maxim: We can’t reach old age by another man’s road. My habits protect my life, but they would assassinate you.
I have lived a severely moral life. But it would be a mistake for other people to try that, or for me to recommend it. Very few would succeed: you have to have a perfectly colossal stock of morals; and you can’t get them on a margin; you have to have the whole thing, and put them in your box. Morals are an acquirement—like music, like a foreign language, like piety, poker, paralysis—no man is born with them. I wasn’t myself, I started poor. I hadn’t a single moral.
There is hardly a man in this house that is poorer than I was then. (Laughter.) Yes, I started like that—the world before me, not a moral in the slot. Not even an insurance moral. (Laughter.) I can remember the first one I ever got. I can remember the landscape, the weather, the—I can remember how everything looked. It was an old moral, an old second-hand moral, all out of repair, and didn’t fit anyway. But if you are careful with a thing like that, and keep it in a dry place, and save it for processions, and Chautauquas, and World’s Fairs, and so on, and disinfect it now and then, and give it a fresh coat of whitewash once in a while, you will be surprised to see how well she will last and how long she will keep sweet, or at least inoffensive. When I got that mouldy old moral she had stopped growing, because she hadn’t any exercise; but I worked her hard, I worked her Sundays and all. Under this cultivation she waxed in might and stature beyond belief, and served me well and was my pride and joy for sixty-three years; then she got to associating with insurance presidents, and lost flesh and character, and was a sorrow to look at and no longer competent for business. (Laughter.) She was a great loss to me. Yet not all loss. I sold her—ah, pathetic skeleton, as she was—I sold her to Leopold, the pirate King of Belgium; he sold her to our Metropolitan Museum, and it was very glad to get her, for, without a rag on, she stands 57 feet long and 16 feet high, and they think she’s a brontosaur. (Laughter.) Well, she looks it. They believe it will take nineteen geological periods to breed her match.
Morals are of inestimable value, for every man is born crammed with sin microbes, and the only thing that can extirpate these sin microbes is morals. Now you take a sterilized Christian—I mean, you take the sterilized Christian (laughter), for there’s only one. Dear sir, I wish you wouldn’t look at me like that. (Laughter.)
Threescore years and ten!
It is the Scriptural statute of limitations. After that, you owe no active duties; for you the strenuous life is over. You are a time-expired man, to use Kipling’s military phrase: You have served your term, well or less well, and you are mustered out. You are become an honorary member of the republic, you are emancipated, compulsions are not for you, nor any bugle-call but “lights out.” You pay the time-worn duty bills if you choose, or decline if you prefer—and without prejudice—for they are not legally collectable.
The previous-engagement plea, which in forty years has cost you so many twinges, you can lay aside forever; on this side of the grave you will never need it again. If you shrink at thought of night, and winter, and the late home-coming from the banquet and the lights and the laughter through the deserted streets—a desolation which would not remind you now, as for a generation it did, that your friends are sleeping, and you must creep in a-tiptoe and not disturb them, but would only remind you that you need not tiptoe, you can never disturb them more—if you shrink at thought of these things, you need only reply, “Your invitation honors me, and pleases me because you still keep me in your remembrance, but I am seventy; seventy, and would nestle in the chimney corner, and smoke my pipe, and read my book, and take my rest, wishing you well in all affection, and that when you in your turn shall arrive at pier No. 70 you may step aboard your waiting ship with a reconciled spirit, and lay your course toward the sinking sun with a contented heart.” (Prolonged applause.)
On 3 January 1906 Clemens spoke at a dinner at The Players club, held to celebrate his renewed membership; his text was a version of the “Wapping Alice” story (SLC 1981; see AD, 10 Jan 1906, and the note at 256.5–6). The text reproduced here is from a book published in 1943 by the club’s majordomo, Walter Oettel, entitled Walter’s Sketch Book of the Players (Oettel 1943, 54–57). The source of Oettel’s text is not known. The mention of Clemens’s “slow drawling way” suggests that someone at the dinner took down the speech in shorthand, but it is also possible that Clemens gave Oettel his manuscript.

“She was,” he said, in his slow drawling way, “an English importation of Mrs. Clemens. She came well-recommended, and was duly installed as cook in our household. She was a prepossessing maiden of thirty years, well-liked by all the family.
“During the summer months the family went abroad. I and a few of the servants, including English Mary, remained at home. The house underwent renovation that summer, and among other improvements, a burglar alarm system was installed—the annunciator of the alarm being placed in my bedroom.
“One night, shortly after the system was completed, the alarm sounded. It was repeated three nights in succession, but no trace of an intruder could be found. Each time the indicator showed that a window in the basement had been tampered with. Believing it to be of little or no importance, I thought no more of it until the alarm was repeated on the fourth night. I then decided to investigate thoroughly. Putting on my robe and slippers, I quietly descended the stairs. On reaching the basement I found that Mary had company—a big strapping young fellow about twenty-five years of age. Of course I apologized for intruding, and returned to my room. The next morning I sent for Mary, to give her a mild scolding, and likewise to lend her a key to the basement door so that her evening caller might enter without causing a commotion in my room.
“It was a few months later that English Mary came to me one morning with tears in her eyes. She asked me for advice, informing me that her young friend, the handsome young Swede, was about to leave her. She confessed that circumstances made it imperative that he marry her at once. They loved each other devotedly, and she had long expected to become his wife. I told her to cheer up, I would do what I could. She was to advise me when he called that night.
“The servants were told to be in readiness to help me out of any particular difficulty. I telephoned my friend, the Chief of Police, to have a man shadow the young Romeo, to allow him to enter the house but not to leave it. Also, he must have an officer at my door at ten o’clock. In addition, I secured the services of a clerical friend for the evening.
“I stationed the police officer at the right of my library door, and told him to enter if I rang the bell three times. The clergyman hid himself in a little room on the side of my bedroom. (This was, by the way, the hottest place in the whole house.) I explained to my friend that I expected a wedding party, and wanted him to tie the knot. I had ordered good things to eat and drink to celebrate the event—for I anticipated a victory.
“The young man arrived very early, to say good-bye. Mary persuaded him to come up to speak to me also. He entered my room, carrying himself in a most flippant manner. I liked the fellow, however. Despite his self-assurance, he had an open countenance which a woman of Mary’s type could not resist.
“First, I asked his name, and he told me. As to his prospects in life, he said he expected to earn a good living at his trade, carpentering. I told him that he owed it to Mary to propose an immediate marriage. He said he would think it over.
“ ‘Well,’ said I, ‘you have exactly five minutes to think it over. You have your choice of two things, marriage or prison.’ I pulled out my watch and put it on the table beside me, and lit a fresh cigar.
“He said that he was going then, but he would let me know his decision the next day. ‘One minute,’ I said. ‘When you entered this room I locked the door and put the key in my pocket. You have now three minutes to think. In the meantime let me tell you that an indictment for housebreaking is hanging over you for entering my house, night after night. Five years in prison is the penalty for that offense. There is a police officer in the next room, waiting to take you into custody. Now, I want you and Mary to be happy. She loves you, and she is soon to be the mother of your child. She has a good home here, and I want you to share it with her. You may have the best room in the house until the family comes back. Mary will make a good wife to you. A clergyman is waiting in the next room, the servants are ready to witness your marriage, and everything is ready for a fine wedding. We can all have a big time.’
“Well, the fellow made a number of excuses, but I disposed of them all. Finally he consented to be married peaceably. I called Mary, the rest of the servants, and the minister. English Mary became a bride that night. The policeman stood up with her, and we all had a jolly time after the ceremony.
“The couple lived with us for three months before starting their own home. We left Hartford the next year, and it was not until two years later that I returned to the city. I was walking from the depot when I saw a man driving a team of spirited horses. He seemed to be gazing at me. Suddenly he drew up near me and asked: ‘Don’t you know me, Mr. Clemens? I am Frank, Mary’s husband.’ I expressed my gladness at seeing him, and inquired about Mary and the baby.
“ ‘Mr. Clemens,’ he said, ‘it was the best thing you ever did—to make me marry Mary. She has been a fine wife to me. She had a little money saved and with that she started me in business. This is my rig; I am a contractor and builder now. You must come to see us. . . As to my family—there was never a baby, or any suspicion of any.’ ”
Below is a list of each piece in this volume and its publication history. All works cited by an abbreviation such as MTA, by SLC and a date, or by NAR (North American Review) and an installment number are fully defined in References. The term “partial publication” indicates that the text may be merely an excerpt, or be nearly complete. Charles Neider, the editor of The Autobiography of Mark Twain (AMT), reordered and recombined excerpts to such an extent that all publication in his volume is considered partial. At the end of this appendix is a list of the “Chapters from My Autobiography” published in NAR installments between 7 September 1906 and December 1907. Except for the subtitle “Random Extracts from It” (which Clemens himself enclosed in brackets), bracketed titles have been editorially supplied for works that Clemens left untitled.
Preliminary Manuscripts and Dictations, 1870–1905
[The Tennessee Land]: MTA, 1:3–7, partial; AMT, 22–24.
[Early Years in Florida, Missouri]: SLC 1922a, 274–75; MTA, 1:7–10; AMT, 1–3.
[The Grant Dictations]
The Chicago G.A.R. Festival: MTA, 1:13–19; AMT, 241–45.
[A Call with W. D. Howells on General Grant]: MTA, 1:24–27.
Grant and the Chinese: MTA, 1:20–24.
Gerhardt: previously unpublished.
About General Grant’s Memoirs: MTA, 1:27–57, 57–68, partial.
[The Rev. Dr. Newman]: MTA, 1:68–70.
The Machine Episode: MTA, 1:70–78, partial.
Travel-Scraps I: previously unpublished.
[Four Sketches about Vienna]
[Beauties of the German Language]: MTA, 1:164–66.
[Comment on Tautology and Grammar]: MTA, 1:172–74.
[A Group of Servants]: SLC 2009, 61–69.
[A Viennese Procession]: MTA, 1:166–71.
My Debut as a Literary Person: SLC 1899d; SLC 1900b, 84–127; SLC 1903a, 11–47.
Horace Greeley: MTE, 347–48.
Lecture-Times: MTA, 1:147–53, partial; AMT, 161, 166–69.
Ralph Keeler: MTA, 1:154–64; AMT, 161–62, 163–66.
Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX: NAR 2, 453–56, partial; NAR 17, 4–12, partial; MTA, 1:125–43; AMT, 37–43, 44–47; SLC 2004, 157–60, partial.
Scraps from My Autobiography. Private History of a Manuscript That Came to Grief: MTA, 1:175–89, partial.
[Reflections on a Letter and a Book]: SLC 1922c, 312–15, partial.
[Something about Doctors]: previously unpublished.
[Henry H. Rogers]: MTA, 1:250–56, partial.
[Anecdote of Jean]: previously unpublished.
Autobiography of Mark Twain
An Early Attempt: previously unpublished.
My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It]: NAR 1, 322–30, partial; NAR 13, 449–63, partial; SLC 1922a, 275–76, partial; MTA, 1:81–115, partial; AMT, 1, 3–21, 24–25; SLC 2004, 61–62, 97–99, partial.
The Latest Attempt: MTA, 1:193.
The Final (and Right) Plan: SLC 1922a, 273; MTA, 1:xviii.
Preface. As from the Grave (section I): MTA, 1:xv–xvi; AMT, xxviii.
Preface. As from the Grave (sections II and III): previously unpublished.
[The Florentine Dictations]
[John Hay]: NAR 12, 344–46, partial; MTA, 1:232–38.
Notes on “Innocents Abroad”: NAR 20, 465–71; MTA, 1:238–46; AMT, 143, 147–51.
[Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich]: NAR 2, 456–59; MTA, 1:246–50; AMT, 288–90.
[Villa di Quarto]: MTA, 1:195–232, partial; AMT, 314–22.
Note for the Instruction of Future Editors and Publishers of This Autobiography: AMT, xi.
Autobiographical Dictations, January–March 1906
9 January: MTA, 1:269–78, partial.
10 January: MTA, 1:278–91.
11 January: NAR 25, 481–89, partial.
12 January: NAR 16, 785–88, partial; MTA, 1:291–303, partial.
13 January: NAR 16, 788–92, partial; MTA, 1:303–12; AMT, 98–101.
15 January: NAR 16, 792–93, partial; MTA, 1:312–26, partial; AMT, 101–2.
16 January: MTA, 1:326–35.
17 January: NAR 14, 570–71, partial; MTA, 1:335–45, partial.
18 January: MTA, 1:345–50.
19 January: NAR 8, 1217–24, partial; NAR 22, 13–17, partial; MTA, 1:350–61, partial; AMT, 112–18.
23 January: MTA, 2:1–13, partial.
24 January: MTA, 2:13–23.
1 February: NAR 3, 577–80, partial; MTA, 2:23–33; AMT, 183, 185–86, 322.
2 February: NAR 3, 580–85, partial; MTA, 2:33–44, partial; AMT, 190–95, 322–24.
5 February: NAR 3, 585–89, partial; MTA, 2:44–59; AMT, 195–201.
6 February: MTA, 2:59–64, partial.
7 February: NAR 4, 705–10, partial; MTA, 2:64–73, partial; AMT, 201–3, 274–75.
8 February: NAR 4, 710–16; MTA, 2:73–83, partial; AMT, 204–10; SLC 2004, 173–76, partial.
9 February: NAR 5, 833–38; MTA, 2:83–91, partial; AMT, 210–13; SLC 2004, 15–19, partial.
12 February: NAR 5, 838–44; MTA, 2:91–99, partial; AMT, 33–37, 213–14.
13 February: MTA, 2:99–105; AMT, 43–44, 183–85.
14 February: MTA, 2:106–12; AMT, 186–90.
15 February: MTA, 2:112–17, partial; MTE, 249–52, partial.
16 February: MTA, 2:117–19, partial; MTE, 77–81, partial.
20 February: MTA, 2:120–26.
21 February: MTA, 2:126–28, partial.
22 February: MTA, 2:128–34.
23 February: MTA, 2:135–39, partial.
26 February: NAR 6, 961–64, partial; MTA, 2:139–51, partial.
5 March: NAR 7, 1089–91, partial; MTA, 2:151–60; SLC 2004, 20–22, partial.
6 March: NAR 7, 1092–95, partial; MTA, 2:160–66, partial.
7 March: NAR 6, 964–69; MTA, 2:166–72, partial.
8 March: NAR 21, 691–95, partial; MTA, 2:172–80, partial; AMT, 67–70.
9 March: NAR 23, 161–63, partial; MTA, 2:180–86, partial; AMT, 70–73.
12 March: MTA, 2:187–96.
14 March: MTA, 2:196–200, partial.
15 March: MTA, 2:200–212, partial.
16 March: MTA, 2:212–21, partial; AMT, 73–78.
20 March: MTL, 2:790–94, partial; MTE, 83–91, partial.
21 March: MTA, 2:221–29, partial.
22 March: NAR 6, 969–70, partial; MTA, 2:229–37; AMT, 190.
23 March: NAR 7, 1094–95, partial; MTA, 2:237–43, partial.
26 March: NAR 1, 321–22, partial; MTA, 2:243–56, partial; AMT, 107–9.
27 March: MTA, 2:256–68; AMT, 109–12.
28 March: NAR 10, 113–18, partial; MTA, 2:268–75, partial; AMT, 84–88.
29 March: NAR 10, 118–19, partial; NAR 11, 225–29, partial; MTA, 2:275–91, partial; AMT, 88–95, 98, 102–3.
30 March: MTA, 2:291–303, partial.
“Chapters from My Autobiography” in the North American Review, 1906–1907
The texts listed below in italic type were published in full or nearly so—that is, with no more than a paragraph or occasional sentence omitted.

7 Sept 1906
AD, 26 Mar 1906 (Introduction); My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It] (first part)
21 Sept 1906
AD, 21 May 1906; Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX (first part); [Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich]; AD, 3 Apr 1906
5 Oct 1906
ADs, 1 Feb 1906, 2 Feb 1906, 5 Feb 1906
19 Oct 1906
ADs, 7 Feb 1906, 8 Feb 1906
2 Nov 1906
ADs, 9 Feb 1906, 12 Feb 1906
16 Nov 1906
ADs, 26 Feb 1906, 7 Mar 1906, 22 Mar 1906
7 Dec 1906
ADs, 5 Mar 1906, 6 Mar 1906, 23 Mar 1906
21 Dec 1906
AD, 19 Jan 1906
4 Jan 1907
ADs, 13 Dec 1906, 1 Dec 1906, 2 Dec 1906
NAR 10
18 Jan 1907
ADs, 28 Mar 1906, 29 Mar 1906
NAR 11
1 Feb 1907
ADs, 29 Mar 1906 (misdated 28 Mar in the NAR), 2 Apr 1906
NAR 12
15 Feb 1907
[John Hay]; ADs, 5 Apr 1906, 6 Apr 1906
NAR 13
1 Mar 1907
My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It] (second part)
NAR 14
15 Mar 1907
ADs, 6 Dec 1906, 17 Dec 1906, 11 Feb 1907 (misdated 10 Feb in the NAR), 12 Feb 1907, 17 Jan 1906
NAR 15
5 Apr 1907
ADs, 8 Oct 1906, 22 Jan 1907
NAR 16
19 Apr 1907
ADs, 12 Jan 1906, 13 Jan 1906, 15 Jan 1906
NAR 17
3 May 1907
AD, 15 Oct 1906; Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX (second part)
NAR 18
17 May 1907
ADs, 21 Dec 1906, 28 Mar 1907
NAR 19
7 June 1907
ADs, 21 Dec 1906 (with note dated 22 Dec), 19 Nov 1906, 30 Nov 1906, 28 Mar 1907, 5 Sept 1906
NAR 20
5 July 1907
Notes on “Innocents Abroad”; AD, 23 Jan 1907
NAR 21
2 Aug 1907
ADs, 8 Nov 1906, 8 Mar 1906, 6 Jan 1907
NAR 22
Sept 1907
ADs, 10 Oct 1906, 19 Jan 1906 (dated 12 Mar 1906 in the NAR, with note dated 13 May 1907), 20 Dec 1906
NAR 23
Oct 1907
ADs, 9 Mar 1906, 16 Mar 1906, 26 July 1907, 30 July 1907
NAR 24
Nov 1907
ADs, 9 Oct 1906, 16 Oct 1906, 11 Oct 1906, 12 Oct 1906, 23 Jan 1907
NAR 25
Dec 1907
ADs, 11 Jan 1906, 3 Oct 1907

The Introduction traces the history of Clemens’s work on his autobiography, from the preliminary manuscripts and dictations he produced between 1870 and 1905 through the Autobiographical Dictations that he began in early 1906. It also gives an explanation of his final plan for the Autobiography of Mark Twain, based largely on an analysis of various typescripts and manuscripts created in 1906. These source documents are summarized here, and the summary is followed by a description of the editorial policy that has been used to create the critical text of this edition.
Manuscripts and typescripts (before 1906)
The source documents for the texts collected in the section entitled Preliminary Manuscripts and Dictations include manuscripts in the author’s hand as well as a diverse assortment of typescripts made from his dictation by James Redpath, Jean Clemens, or Josephine Hobby. Redpath took down Clemens’s words in an unidentified shorthand and typed the translation himself on an all-capitals typewriter. Jean Clemens, a novice at the typewriter, transcribed Isabel Lyon’s longhand notes. Hobby was a skilled stenographer and her own typist. Her typescripts are the most reliable, with Redpath’s and Jean’s somewhat less so. The manuscripts are the most straightforward record of the author’s intention, but even they sometimes contain errors. The editorial policy discussed below has been applied to each work, with adjustments as needed to accommodate its particular textual history, which is always described in detail in the Textual Commentary at Mark Twain Project Online (MTPO).
TS1 (1906–1909)
Produced between 1906 and 1909, TS1 is the first of three distinct, sequentially paginated typescripts for the final plan of the autobiography as conceived by Clemens in 1906, now in the Mark Twain Papers. Typed by Hobby, it begins with the dictation of 9 January 1906 and ends with the dictation of 14 July 1908, extending far beyond the other sequences. Two later typists, Mary Louise Howden and William Edgar Grumman, produced an additional hundred or so pages of typescript, numbering each dictation separately. TS1 and the typescripts of Howden and Grumman, transcribed by each typist from his or her shorthand notes, are the primary record of Clemens’s dictated text. Together they are the only text for the roughly one hundred and seventy dictations made between late August 1906 and 1909. Clemens revised many of the pages of TS1 for publication in the North American Review, adjusting the wording to accommodate omissions and suppressing or altering text that he considered “written in too independent a fashion for a magazine.”1 Only in TS1 is the date of dictation close to the date the typescript was created. Many pages of TS1 were marked by Paine as the printer’s copy for his 1924 edition of the autobiography; he discarded some of the material he chose not to include, and those pages are now missing.
TS2 and TS4 (1906)
The page numbers on TS2 (made by Hobby) and TS4 (made by an unidentified typist) differ from those on TS1 and from each other because both typescripts begin with material not present in TS1 (everything before the 9 January 1906 dictation). Together TS2 and TS4 total over twenty-five hundred pages. Begun in mid-June, they provide conclusive evidence of exactly which of his accumulated drafts and false starts Clemens decided to include in his final plan for the autobiography. TS2 and TS4 begin with “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” but omit the preface (“An Early Attempt”) that was written to introduce it. The second (three-part) preface—“The Latest Attempt,” “The Final (and Right) Plan,” and “Preface. As from the Grave”—is fully present in TS4, which also includes four Florentine Dictations, but in TS2 the five pages on which the three-part preface was typed, as well as the pages containing the third and fourth Florentine Dictations, are lost. Both typescripts continue with the 1906 Autobiographical Dictations that were begun on 9 January; TS2 ends with the dictation of 7 August, and TS4 ends with that of 29 August. Both typescripts incorporate the revisions that Clemens wrote on TS1. He further revised much of TS2, making improvements in wording as well as softening and censoring the texts for publication in the North American Review. He made no changes on TS4. Whenever TS1 is extant for a given dictation, TS4 is derivative and does not affect the critical text. When TS1 is missing, however, both TS2 and TS4 are relied on to recreate its text, since both derive from it, so that either one may contain authoritative readings that are not found in the other. When TS2 and TS4 do not vary from each other, they confirm the reading of the missing TS1.
TS3 and the NAR Extracts (1906–1907)
Typed by Hobby between early August 1906 and late January 1907, TS3 comprises fewer than one hundred and fifty pages. Prepared as printer’s copy for six installments in the North American Review, it reproduces the first section of “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX,” one Florentine Dictation (“Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich”), and excerpts from the Autobiographical Dictations through 21 May 1906. It consists of four batches, each beginning with page 1. Three of the batches include the text for a single Review installment (NAR 2, NAR 3, and NAR 16), and one batch encompasses three installments (NAR 4, NAR 5, and NAR 6). TS3 was typed primarily from TS1, incorporating its revisions, and includes further changes made to accommodate magazine publication.

Above is a diagram of the textual relationships between TS1, TS2, TS3, and TS4 of the 1906–9 Autobiographical Dictations and the twenty-five NAR installments that published excerpts from them (and from one other typescript). The “Early Attempt” preface is not present in either TS2 (now incomplete) or TS4 (complete), but both typescripts include “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],” followed by the second three-part preface (“The Latest Attempt,” “The Final [and Right] Plan,” and “Preface. As from the Grave”) and four Florentine Dictations. TS3 was typed from the revised TS1 for all but one installment, NAR 16, which was typed from the revised TS2. The first and second parts of “Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX” were published in NAR installments 2 and 17, respectively, typeset directly from a typescript made by Jean Clemens in 1902. See the Appendix “Previous Publication” (pp. 366–67) for a list of the contents of each NAR installment.
Handwriting on the typescripts
Throughout the pages of TS1, TS2, and TS3 there are revisions, corrections, and editorial instructions in two colors of ink, in lead pencil, and in blue, purple, and red pencil. These were made not only by Clemens himself, but also by the following people: his typists, chiefly Hobby; his secretary, Isabel V. Lyon; Albert Bigelow Paine; George Harvey and David Munro, editors for the North American Review; Clara Clemens Gabrilowitsch; Paine’s successor as literary executor, Bernard DeVoto; and DeVoto’s assistant, Rosamond Hart Chapman. There are also specific instructions to omit this or that passage, each signed “ABP” by Paine and (though also in Paine’s hand) “CG” for Clara Clemens Gabrilowitsch, who along with Paine had been charged with deciding which of her father’s papers to publish.
Paine felt free to alter the typescripts (and some manuscripts) by writing his changes on them, and even to hand some of them to the printer to set up his 1924 edition. Markings by Paine and DeVoto have been especially problematic. Paine’s handwriting can be difficult to distinguish from Clemens’s, especially in small verbal changes or punctuation. But he clearly renumbered many pages, styled the texts for his publications, annotated and “corrected” them in large and small ways, and occasionally scissored out passages he intended to suppress. Paine’s blue crayon printer’s-copy page numbers and his typesetter’s galley numbers (in plain lead pencil) for his 1924 edition are scattered throughout, and many typescript pages are smudged with printer’s ink and pierced by a spindle hole, both signs that they literally served as setting copy. In preparing copy for Mark Twain in Eruption, DeVoto also wrote (in pencil) on the original typescript pages. He inscribed editorial notes to himself, to Rosamond Chapman, and to his typist, Henry Beck; he struck through whole sections of text; and he was so irritated by the typed punctuation that he canceled much of it, penciling through the offending marks so emphatically that it is sometimes difficult to recover the original reading.
Authorial intention
This edition of the Autobiography of Mark Twain offers the reader an unmodernized, critically constructed text, both of the preliminary manuscripts and dictations and of the final text that Clemens intended his “heirs and assigns” to publish after his death. The editorial construction adheres to his intention as it is manifest in the most authoritative documents available, or can be reliably inferred from them, and aims at presenting the texts exactly as he would have published them, so far as that is possible—that is, as they were when he ceased to make changes in them. Except for the revisions the author made for magazine publication (discussed below), all of his revisions and corrections are adopted, whether inscribed on a surviving typescript or detected by collation when the revised typescript is missing. Every decision to adopt (or not) is reported in the Textual Commentaries at MTPO, which also record every alteration that the editors have made in the source texts.2
Revisions for magazine publication
Many of the changes that Clemens made on TS1, TS2, and TS3 were aimed at shortening, taming, or softening the texts selected for publication in the North American Review. These changes are not accepted into the edited text, on the grounds that Clemens was clear that they were temporary concessions to propriety, not permanent alterations to the text. Other changes were corrections or revisions made for purely literary reasons, and these are adopted. Very occasionally the two kinds of changes are intermixed, and in those cases we err on the side of caution, retaining the original uncensored version.
Dictated texts
Wherever works like the Autobiography were created solely by dictation, they pose all the usual problems of textual transmission plus some additional ones not native to manuscripts in the author’s hand. In a dictated text, unless the author has specified more than words while or before dictating (“use a semicolon not a period after that word”), the punctuation, spelling, emphasis, paragraphing, and many other small details simply never existed—only the inflections, gestures, and pauses of the author speaking and the grammatical structure of his sentences. It makes no sense to say that the author “intended” to spell a word in a certain way, since in speaking the word he may not have been thinking of any particular spelling at all. For some kinds of punctuation, like end-of-sentence periods and question marks, the speaker is more constrained by “rules” and probably comes a little closer to actually intending terminal punctuation, whereas the intended placement of commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and so forth is less clear.
Of course Clemens did not dictate his autobiography in order to produce a text without punctuation. Unlike a public speech, where the authorially intended form is actually an oral performance, dictation was intended to result in a written record, in this case a double-spaced typescript that could be reviewed and corrected and ultimately published in the normal way. So to what extent should we accept the spelling, punctuation, and other details as typed by the stenographer who, we must assume, produced such details without specific instructions from the author? Clemens’s review and correction of the typescript made from Hobby’s stenographic notes (TS1) is some assurance that whatever he found wrong or misleading he corrected, but such assurance only goes so far, and his ability or willingness to scrutinize the transcript for such details was limited.
A dictating author and his stenographer collaborate to produce a text, and their respective contributions cannot easily be pried apart after the fact. To take a simple example, nowhere do Hobby’s typescripts record the kind of hesitation, reiteration, and self-correction that must have occurred even in Clemens’s slow and deliberate speech. By mutual though tacit agreement, such things were no doubt omitted, or silently repaired and smoothed over by the stenographer. Fortunately, in the case of Hobby, the collaboration was highly satisfactory to Clemens. Her stenographic notes are presumed lost, but the accuracy of her work can to some extent be judged from the resulting typescripts. They are double spaced (leaving room for revision and correction) and unfailingly neat; the rare typing errors are discreetly erased and corrected by her, with occasional doubtful spellings likewise identified by a lightly penciled question mark. And the number of corrections (as distinct from revisions) inscribed by Clemens is very small. There is some evidence that he trained Hobby to punctuate as he liked. Twenty months after dictation began, a journalist who visited Clemens reported that he “dictates slowly, using the semicolon mark, of which he is particularly fond, as frequently as possible. When the copy is handed to him by the stenographer it is almost always ready for the press, so few are the corrections to be made.”3 It is easy to find passages in the dictations that exemplify this pattern, in which the typist used semicolons where full stops would, to an uninstructed listener, seem the more natural punctuation.4 There is other evidence that Clemens actually dictated punctuation and other details. Almost forty years after his death, Lyon remembered that “Paine used to say when he was dictating he’d walk slowly up & down and say ‘period’ or ‘paragraph.’” And in 1908, when Hobby left Clemens’s employment and he had to break in a new stenographer, Mary Louise Howden, he took even more explicit control of these details. Howden herself recalled in 1925 that Clemens “put in the punctuation himself. His stenographer was never allowed to add so much as a comma.”5
Whether Clemens literally expressed the punctuation, described his preferences to Hobby, or expected her to learn his style more or less osmotically makes little difference: her punctuation of the typescripts is remarkably close to the use patterns found in Clemens’s holograph manuscripts. We know Hobby did learn from his corrections on the typescripts, eventually spelling “Twichell” and “Susy” correctly, for instance. Inevitably, when expanding her shorthand she sometimes mistyped slightly unusual words: “silver boring” for “silver bearing,” “visited” for “billeted,” and “driveling” for “drizzling.”6 But the author and the stenographer were remarkably well attuned to one another. As a result, Hobby’s spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, and so forth on TS1 (made directly from her notes), as well as her rare corrections of these details on any subsequent typescript, whether marked in her hand or introduced while typing, command assent. So, if TS1 lacks aparagraph break which was then supplied by Hobby when she created TS2, we adopt her change as a correction of the original typescript. On the other hand, when TS2 shows a change in wording not initiated by Clemens on TS1, the change is not accepted unless it is a necessary correction, one that would have been made by the editors whether or not Hobby made it. Most such small verbal differences between typescripts were obviously inadvertent.
Incomplete revision
Because Clemens never prepared any of the texts for actual typesetting and publication, it is not always possible to follow his instructions. For instance, to the dictation of 20 February 1906 Clemens added a note: “Insert, here my account of the ‘Hornet’ disaster, published in the ‘Century’ about 1898 as being a chapter from my Autobiography”—a reference to “My Debut as a Literary Person.”7 But if that bald instruction were carried out, the resulting text would be both self-contradictory, because it would still include the remark “I will go no further with the subject now,” and deeply puzzling, because it would contain a very long and rather irrelevant digression. Similarly, he noted in the dictation of 12 January 1906, “(Here paste in the proceedings of the Birthday Banquet)”—referring to the thirty-two-page illustrated issue of Harper’s Weekly commemorating his seventieth birthday.8 The length and nature of this publication make it impractical to carry out his instruction in a printed volume. Indeed both instructions are more plausibly construed as instructions to himself rather than to his editors. In such cases, Clemens’s intention can be described and—wherever possible—the reader directed to the relevant text. In the case of “My Debut,” the text is already included with the preliminary manuscripts and dictations in this volume. The impracticality of including the Harper’s Weekly issue is overcome by directing the reader to a scanned copy at MTPO, and the elastic boundaries of the website may be used for other, similar cases, the rationale for which is always explained in the Textual Commentary. In general, such rough edges are an inevitable part of works that were not set into type and published by the author. On the other hand, if informal remarks can be rendered intelligibly in their own right (“I will ask Miss Lyon to see—but I will go on and dictate the dream now”) they are included in the edited text, even though the author would doubtless have removed them had he carried out the revision he planned.9
Errors of external fact
Clemens’s misstatements of fact are almost always allowed to remain uncorrected in the text. For example, when he gave the year of his first meeting with Ulysses S. Grant as 1866 (rather than the correct year, 1868), the error is merely pointed out in the explanatory notes, because it is clear that his memory (not the typist) was at fault. Likewise, in a paragraph of reminiscence about his family in the dictation of 28 March 1906, Clemens said that his sister Margaret died at the age of “ten, in 1837” when she in fact died at the age of nine in 1839, and that his brother Orion was “twelve and a half years old” at the time of the family’s move to Hannibal, when he was actually fourteen. In the dictation of 8 March 1906 he mistakenly referred to a “Miss Hill,” dean of Barnard College, whose name was actually “Gill.” And in the dictation of 12 March 1906 he relied on a New York Times article that misnamed someone “Johnson” instead of “Johnston.” In all these cases the text is permitted to stand as Clemens left it, and its factual errors are addressed only in the notes.
On the other hand, if Clemens indicated that he wanted something checked, and by implication made accurate, the text has been corrected. For example, in the dictation of 5 March 1906 Clemens described a room in the Villa Viviani as “forty-two feet square and forty-two feet high,” but added a query in the margin of the typescript: “42? or was it 40? See previous somewhere.” He had used the lower number in the manuscript about the Villa Viviani inserted into “Villa di Quarto,” so that number has been adopted in the text. Errors introduced by the stenographer or typist have also been corrected, since they cannot have been intended by Clemens. For example, in TS2 and TS4 of the dictation for 11 January 1906 (TS1 is lost), Clemens appears to say that he was in Venice in “1888,” when in fact the year was 1878. It is extremely unlikely that the error was his, since he did not travel in Europe in the 1880s. But the difference of one digit could easily have been a transcription error, and it is therefore corrected.
Errors of form: spelling, syntax, and punctuation
Factual errors apart, it is naturally the case that publishing the autobiography texts as Clemens intended does sometimes require the correction of trivial spelling errors and lapses such as omitted words. We take it as given that he did not intend his published works to contain such obvious errors: there can be no doubt that he would want “monotonous” substituted for manuscript “monotous,” and “initiated” printed instead of manuscript “iniated.” Nor could he have expected phrases such as “look her” or “either us” to remain uncorrected, and they have therefore been altered to “look at her” and “either of us.” Simple errors in the typescripts (such as “publsher”) or in printed texts being quoted by Clemens (such as “yaung” for “young” in the New York Times) are likewise corrected. If the name of a real person is correct but misspelled, it is mended, whether the error originated with Clemens or with his stenographer (“Greeley” instead of “Greely,” for example).10
We approach the task of correction with caution, always bearing in mind Clemens’s well-documented attitude toward misguided interference with his text. Whenever seeming errors were in fact intended (dialect spellings, for instance), we of course make no change. Small grammatical quirks deemed more or less peculiar to spoken language are also preserved intact. Clemens himself was highly appreciative of this aspect of dictated narrative, “the subtle something which makes good talk so much better than the best imitation of it that can be done with a pen.”11 For that reason (among others) we do not alter sentences like the following: “To-day she is suing for a separation from her shabby purchase, and the world’s sympathy and compassion are with her, where it belongs.” Or, “A careful statement of Mr. Langdon’s affairs showed that the assets were worth eight hundred thousand dollars, and that against them was merely the ordinary obligations of the business.”12 And although there is evidence that Clemens sometimes welcomed corrections of his grammar (see the letter to Ticknor quoted below), errors that are common in spoken language, like “who” for “whom,” have been retained.
It is well known that Clemens wanted his punctuation respected, and not altered by anyone else. “Yesterday Mr. Hall wrote that the printer’s proof-reader was improving my punctuation for me,” he once wrote to Howells, “& I telegraphed orders to have him shot without giving him time to pray.”13 He was equally alert to the well-intentioned “corrections” of the various typists he hired to copy his manuscripts. In revising the typescript for chapter 25 of Connecticut Yankee (where one of the knights applies for a position in the Yankee’s standing army), Clemens added the following remark: “Try to conceive of this mollusk gravely applying for an official position, of any kind under the sun! Why, he had all the ear-marks of a type-writer copyist, if you leave out the disposition to contribute uninvited emendations of your grammar and punctuation.”14
His objection to “uninvited emendations of... grammar and punctuation” was, however, somewhat less absolute than those words might suggest. To the publisher Benjamin H. Ticknor, then overseeing the typesetting of The Prince and the Pauper, he wrote in mid-August 1881:
Let the printers follow my punctuation—it is the one thing I am inflexibly particular about. For corrections turning my “sprang” into “sprung” I am thankful; also for corrections of my grammar, for grammar is a science that was always too many for yours truly; but I like to have my punctuation respected. I learned it in a hundred printing-offices when I was a jour. printer; so it’s got more real variety about it than any other accomplishment I possess, & I reverence it accordingly.15
And to Chatto and Windus in 1897 he complained about the proofreader of More Tramps Abroad (the English edition of Following the Equator):
Conceive of this tumble-bug interesting himself in my punctuation—which is none of his business & with which he has nothing to do—& then instead of correcting misspelling, which is in his degraded line, striking a mark under the word & silently confessing that he doesn’t know what the hell to do with it! The damned half-developed foetus! But this is the Sabbath Day, & I must not continue in this worldly vein.16
The punctuation in Clemens’s manuscripts, as well as in the typescripts, is faithfully reproduced except where it is deemed defective—for example, in the rare instances when he omitted a closing quotation mark or the second comma in an appositional clause. Dictated texts, in which the punctuation is somewhat less authorial than in the manuscripts, have received a few additional corrections, to accord with Clemens’s consistent manuscript usage. The following examples illustrate the three categories in which punctuation has been added: 1. “Mr. Twichell, do you take me for a God damned papist?” (comma supplied); 2. “Yes,” I said, “that is my position” (second comma supplied); 3. “and we said,  ‘That is a very good thing to do’” (comma supplied before a paragraph break).
It is well established that throughout his career Clemens strove to avoid spelling, capitalizing, or abbreviating the same word in more than one way within a given work, and the extraordinary consistency of his manuscripts in this respect is itself strong testimony to that intention. But he also knew that he required the cooperation of the typesetter to achieve and maintain uniformity of this kind in print. In 1897 we find him complaining, again on the proofs for More Tramps Abroad, that this “proof-reader doesn’t even preserve uniformity.” And on the first manuscript page of “A Horse’s Tale” he addressed himself to the “composing-room,” asking it to “ignore my capitalization of military titles, & apply its own laws—the which will secure uniformity, & that is the only essential thing.”17
To fall short of “uniformity” in this sense meant to Clemens that unintended, pointless, and therefore potentially misleading variation in spelling, capitalization, and the rendering of numbers and abbreviations (expanded or not) would mar the published text. Variation in these formal elements within a single work has therefore been treated as an error and corrected in all parts of the text, except where Clemens is quoting someone else. The preliminary manuscripts and dictations, written or dictated over a period of thirty-five years, are each made uniform within themselves; the final text of the Autobiography is made uniform throughout. In cases where the stenographer spelled or capitalized a word consistently, that form has been retained. Where the typescripts vary, however, Clemens’s preferred forms have been adopted. These have been identified through a wide-ranging search of all available manuscripts, whose results are recorded in a 125-page document in the Mark Twain Papers (1,456 entries, from “acoming” to “zig-zag”) that lists every variant form in the Autobiographical Dictations, as well as the form or forms found in Clemens’s handwritten additions to the typescripts and in hundreds of other manuscripts. The result is that the rendering of these details is brought into uniformity, while the form adopted is as completely authorial as the evidence permits.
Inserted documents
Into the typescripts of his dictations, Clemens frequently inserted not only his own earlier manuscripts, but also newspaper clippings, letters he had received, and other documents. His own inserted manuscripts have been treated in accord with the editorial policy already described. In the case of other texts, simple errors (typographical and otherwise) are corrected, but they are not altered to achieve uniformity of spelling, capitalization, and so forth. If we have the document that Hobby transcribed into the text, we retranscribe it as the primary source. Her transcription tells us how detailed or inclusive Clemens wanted such a text to be (in other words, what he instructed her to leave out). If the document from which she worked cannot be found, we of course rely on her transcription, correcting only manifest errors. Inserted texts can on occasion be very complex and require exceptions to these rules of thumb.18 In all such cases the rationale for changing the readings of the source documents in any way is fully spelled out in the Textual Commentary available online for each text.
H. E. S.
1. 10 Oct 1898 to Bok, ViU. See “Revisions for magazine publication,” below.
2. Only nontextual changes, such as the typographic style of titles, are omitted from this record. But all such “silent” changes are still listed by category at MTPO.
3. “A Day with Mark Twain,” Chicago Tribune, 29 Sept 1907, F6. It is not clear whether the reporter observed Clemens at work or was repeating remarks by Isabel Lyon.
4. See AD, 30 Mar 1906, p.462.
5. Notes made by Doris Webster for Dixon Wecter about an interview with Isabel Lyon, ca. March 1948, CUMARK; Howden 1925. Typescripts prepared by Howden show that she typed some punctuation, presumably because Clemens spoke it aloud, but that he supplied the vast bulk of it by hand—as in the AD of 6 Oct 1908, for example. Clemens’s practice with Hobby does not show this same kind of after-the-fact punctuation of the typescript, suggesting that she, more than Howden, had learned what was expected.
6. Each of these errors is identified by Clemens’s correction of them on the ADs of 9 Jan, 13 Jan, and 14 Feb 1906.
7. This essay was written in 1898 and published as a magazine article in 1899, but without any indication that it came from the autobiography
8. Clemens referred to “Mark Twain’s 70th Birthday: Souvenir of Its Celebration” (SLC 1905g). In the dictation of 16 December 1908 he again said, “I think I will insert here (if I have not inserted it in some earlier chapter of this autobiography) the grand account of the banquet which ... appeared in Harper’s Weekly a week later.”
9. AD, 13 Jan 1906, p. 274.
10. See the Textual Commentaries at MTPO for “Travel-Scraps I,” “Ralph Keeler,” the ADs of 17 Jan 1906 and 15 Mar 1906, and “Horace Greeley.”
11. 16 Jan 1904 to Howells, MH-H, in MTHL, 2:778. This letter is quoted more fully in the Introduction, pp. 20–21.
12. In the ADs of l6 Feb and 23 Feb l906.
13. 21 Aug 1889 to Howells, MH-H, in MTHL, 2:610.
14. CY, 292.
15. 16–22 Aug 1881 to Ticknor, Ticknor 1922, 140.
16. 25 July 1897 to Chatto and Windus, ViU. The proofreader had made half a dozen changes in the punctuation (which Clemens corrected) and he had struck a line under the word “drouths” (which was exactly as Clemens had spelled it in the manuscript). Clemens made the correction himself to “droughts” on the proof of chapter 25, page 147, of More Tramps Abroad (SLC 1897b). The proof with these changes is bound with the manuscript for the book at NN-BGC, part 2, following MS page 473.
17. In the first example the typesetter had set “FROM DIARY” instead of “From Diary” (as in the manuscript) on the proof of page 147 of More Tramps Abroad (NN-BGC). There Clemens explained: “Lower-case, as always before,” referring to his consistent practice with “From Diary” earlier in the text. In the example from “A Horse’s Tale” (SLC 1906c, MS at NN-BGC), he simply realized he was incapable of capitalizing the military titles consistently (and correctly). The typesetters did as he asked.
18. See, for example, the Textual Commentary for AD, 11 Jan 1906 (MTPO), in which Clemens inserted a text of his Whittier dinner speech (1877).

The following compound words that could be rendered either solid or with a hyphen are hyphenated at the end of a line in this volume. For purposes of quotation each is listed here with its correct form.

This list defines the abbreviations used in this volume and provides full bibliographic information for works cited by an author’s name and a date, a short title, or an abbreviation. Works by members of the Clemens family may be found under the writer’s initials: SLC, OLC, OSC, and CC.
AD. Autobiographical Dictation.
Adams, Alton D. 1903. “New England Gas and Coke.” The Journal of Political Economy 11 (March): 257–72.
Agassiz, Louis. 1886. Louis Agassiz: His Life and Correspondence. Edited by Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
American Civil War.
2009a. “Ball’s Bluff, Harrison’s Landing, Leesburg, Civil War, Virginia.” Accessed 2 April 2009.
2009b. “Civil War Battle Statistics, Commanders, and Casualties.” Accessed 28 April 2009.
AMT. 1959. The Autobiography of Mark Twain. Edited by Charles Neider. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Andrews, Gregg. 1996. City of Dust: A Cement Company Town in the Land of Tom Sawyer. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Andrews, Kenneth R. 1950. Nook Farm: Mark Twain’s Hartford Circle. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Angel, Myron, ed. 1881. History of Nevada. Oakland, Calif.: Thompson and West. Index in Poulton 1966.
Annual Cyclopaedia 1883. 1884. Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1883. Vol. 23 (n.s. vol. 8). New York: D. Appleton and Co.
Annual Cyclopaedia 1884. 1885. Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1884. Vol. 24 (n.s. vol. 9). New York: D. Appleton and Co.
Annual Cyclopaedia 1885. 1886. Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1885. Vol. 25 (n.s. vol. 10). New York: D. Appleton and Co.
Annual Cyclopaedia 1901. 1902. Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1901. Vol. 41 (3d ser. vol. 6). New York: D. Appleton and Co.
“Antarctic Discoveries.” 1840. Monthly Chronicle of Events, Discoveries, Improvements and Opinions 1 (July): 210–19.
Applegate, Debby. 2006. The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. New York: Doubleday.
Arlington National Cemetery. 2009. “Gordon Johnston.” Accessed 27 May 2009.
Ashcroft, Ralph W. 1904. “Plasmon’s Career in America: As Recounted by R. W. Ashcroft.” TS in CU-MARK.
2008a. “Barry Faulkner.” = 21782. Accessed 30 July 2008.
2008b. “Emma Beach Thayer.” = 80017. Accessed 30 July 2008.
2008c. “Gerald Handerson Thayer.” = 19926. Accessed 29 July 2008.
2008d. “Gladys Thayer (Mrs. David) Reasoner.” = 86887. Accessed 30 July 2008.
2008e. “Karl Gerhardt.” = 116168. Accessed 28 August 2008.
Austen, Roger. 1991. Genteel Pagan: The Double Life of Charles Warren Stoddard. Edited by John W. Crowley. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Austin, James C.
1953. Fields of “The Atlantic Monthly”: Letters to an Editor, 1861–1870. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library.
1965. Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke). Twayne’s United States Authors Series, edited by Sylvia E. Bowman, no. 89. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Bacevich, Andrew J. 2006. “What Happened at Bud Dajo: A Forgotten Massacre—and Its Lessons.” Boston Globe, 12 March, C2.
Badeau, Adam.
1868–81. Military History of Ulysses S. Grant, from April, 1861, to April, 1865. 3 vols. New York: D. Appleton and Co.
1887. Grant in Peace. Hartford: S. S. Scranton and Co.
Baedeker, Karl.
1880. The Rhine from Rotterdam to Constance. Handbook for Travellers. 7th remodelled ed. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker.
1893. The United States, with an Excursion into Mexico. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker.
1903. Italy: Handbook for Travellers. First Part: Northern Italy. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker.
Baetzhold, Howard G. 1970. Mark Twain and John Bull: The British Connection. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Bailey, Hugh C. 2009. “Edgar Gardner Murphy.” Encyclopedia of Alabama. = h-1183. Accessed 4 September 2009.
BAL. 1955–91. Bibliography of American Literature. Compiled by Jacob Blanck. 9 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Barnard College.
2008a. “The Making of Barnard. From Madison to Morningside.” Accessed 3 September 2008.
2008b. “Past Barnard Leaders.” Accessed 3 September 2008.
Beecher, William C., and Rev. Samuel Scoville, assisted by Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher. 1888. A Biography of Rev. Henry Ward Beecher. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
Beers, Ethel Lynn. 1861. “The Picket-Guard.” Harper’s Weekly 5 (30 November): 766.
Bell, Raymond Martin. 1984. “The Ancestry of Samuel Clemens, Grandfather of Mark Twain.” 413 Burton Avenue, Washington, Pa.: Raymond Martin Bell. Mimeograph.
Bierce, Ambrose. 1868. “The Pi-Ute Indians of Nevada.” Golden Era 16 (4 July): 2–3.
Biographical Review. 1898. Biographical Review, Containing Life Sketches of Leading Citizens of New London County, Connecticut. Atlantic States Series of Biographical Reviews, Vol. 26. Boston: Biographical Review Publishing Company.
Bishop, William Henry.
1877–78. “Detmold: A Romance.” Atlantic Monthly 40 (December 1877): 732–43, 41 (January–June 1878): 76–87, 189–201, 273–85, 409–20, 553–65, 697–710.
1879. Detmold: A Romance. Boston: Houghton, Osgood and Co.
Bissell, Arthur H., and Thomas B. Kirby, comps. and eds. 1879. The Postal Laws and Regulations of the United States of America, Published in Accordance with the Act of Congress Approved March 3, 1879. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Blackstone, William. 1765–69. Commentaries on the Laws of England. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bollet, Alfred Jay. 2005. “Military Medicine in the Spanish-American War.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (Spring): 293–300.
Boone Census. 1900. Population Schedules of the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Roll T623. Missouri: Boone County. Photocopy in CU-MARK.
Boothby, H. E. 1919. “Up from Idolatry.” Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1920, 53–78.
Boston Medical Journal. 1899. “Major-General Leonard Wood, M.D.” Boston Medical Journal (22 April): 973.
Bowditch, Nathaniel. 1854. The New American Practical Navigator. New York: E. and G. W. Blunt.
Boyd, Andrew, and W. Harry Boyd, comps. 1872. Boyds’ Elmira and Corning Directory: Containing the Names of the Citizens, a Compendium of the Government, and Public and Private Institutions . . . 1872–73. Elmira, N.Y.: Andrew and W. Harry Boyd.
Bragg, Marion. 1977. Historic Names and Places on the Lower Mississippi River. Vicksburg, Miss.: Mississippi River Commission.
Brainard, Wendell. [n.d.]. “Tonk.” Undated clipping from the Shoshone County, Idaho News-Press, photocopy in CU-MARK.
Branch, Edgar Marquess.
1985. Men Call Me Lucky: Mark Twain and the “Pennsylvania.” Oxford, Ohio: Friends of the Library Society, Miami University.
1992. “Bixby vs. Carroll: New Light on Sam Clemens’s Early River Career.” Mark Twain Journal 30 (Fall): 2–22.
Brashear, Minnie M. 1935. “Mark Twain’s Niece, Daughter of His Sister, Pamela, Taking Keen Interest in Centennial.” Hannibal Evening Courier-Post, 6 March, 11.
Briggs, Charles A., ed. 1890. How Shall We Revise the Westminster Confession of Faith? A Bundle of Papers. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Briggs, Emily Edson. 1906. The Olivia Letters: Being Some History of Washington City for Forty Years as Told by the Letters of a Newspaper Correspondent. New York: The Neale Publishing Company.
Brigidi, E. A. 1885. La Nuova Guida di Siena. 2d ed. Siena: E. Torrini.
British Census. 1881. Census Returns of England and Wales, 1881. Kew, Surrey, England. RG11/649. The National Archives of the United Kingdom: Public Records Office. PH in CU-MARK.
Broadway League. 2009. Internet Broadway Database. = 7246. Accessed 4 May 2009.
Brooks, Noah. 1898. “Mark Twain in California.” Century Magazine, n.s. 57 (November): 97–99.
Brougham, John, and John Elderkin, eds. 1875. Lotos Leaves. Boston: William F. Gill and Co.
Brown, Alexander Crosby. 1974. Longboat to Hawaii: An Account of the Voyage of the Clipper Ship Hornet of New York Bound for San Francisco in 1866. Cambridge, Md.: Cornell Maritime Press.
Brown, Curtis. 1899. “Mark Twain Talks.” Buffalo Express, 30 July, 1. Reprinted in Scharn-horst 2006, 340–45.
Brown, John.
1863a. “Pet Marjorie: A Story of Child Life Fifty Years Ago.” North British Review 39 (November): 379–98.
1863b. Marjorie Fleming, a Sketch. Being the Paper Entitled “Pet Marjorie: A Story of Child Life Fifty Years Ago.” Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas.
1907. Letters of Dr. John Brown. With Letters from Ruskin, Thackeray, and Others. Edited by John Brown and D. W. Forrest. With biographical introductions by Elizabeth T. McLaren. London: Adam and Charles Black.
Brown, John Taylor. 1903. Dr. John Brown: A Biography and a Criticism. Edited, with a Short Sketch of the Biographer, by W. B. Dunlop. London: Adam and Charles Black.
Budd, Louis J.
1962. Mark Twain: Social Philosopher. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
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Lystra, Karen. 2004. Dangerous Intimacy: The Untold Story of Mark Twain’s Final Years. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
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1897. “The Criticism of Mr. Savage.” New York Times, 25 December, 6.
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1917. These Many Years: Recollections of a New Yorker. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
1922. “Memories of Mark Twain.” In The Tocsin of Revolt and Other Essays, 253–94. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Maudslay, Alfred P., and Joseph T. Goodman. 1899–1902. Archaeology. 6 vols. London: R. H. Porter and Dulau and Co.
MB. Boston Public Library and Eastern Massachusetts Regional Public Library System, Boston.
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MEC. Mary E. (Mollie) Clemens.
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MFai. Millicent Library, Fairhaven, Mass.
MH-H. Harvard University, Houghton Library, Cambridge, Mass.
MHi. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.
Missouri Digital Heritage.
2009a. “Missouri Birth and Death Records Database, pre-1910” and “Missouri Death Certificates 1910–1958.” Missouri State Archives. Accessed 4 March 2009.
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1866. “Diary of Capt. J. A. Mitchell of the Ship Hornet for the Year 1866.” MS in C. Published in Mitchell 1927 and in Alexander Crosby Brown 1974.
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MiU-H. University of Michigan, Michigan Historical Collection, Ann Arbor.
MnHi. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
MoCoJ. Western Historical Manuscript Collection, Columbia, Mo.
Moffett, Samuel E.
1899. “Mark Twain: A Biographical Sketch.” McClure’s Magazine 13 (October): 523–29. Reprinted with revisions in SLC 1900a, 314–33.
1907. The Americanization of Canada. Ph.D. diss., Columbia University. N.p.
MoHM. Mark Twain Museum, Hannibal, Mo.
Monk, John. 2003. “Bitter S.C. Feud Led to 1903 ‘Crime of the Century.’ ” Accessed 18 September 2008. Reprinted from Columbia (South Carolina) State, 12 January 2003.
MoPlS. School of the Ozarks, Point Lookout, Mo.
MoSW. Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.
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1938. A History of American Magazines, 1850–1865. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
1957. A History of American Magazines, 1865–1885. 2d printing [1st printing, 1938]. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
MS. Manuscript.
MSM. 1969. Mark Twain’s Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts. Edited by William M. Gibson. The Mark Twain Papers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
MTA. 1924. Mark Twain’s Autobiography. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. 2 vols. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTB. 1912. Mark Twain: A Biography. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. 3 vols. New York: Harper and Brothers. [Volume numbers in citations are to this edition; page numbers are the same in all editions.]
MTBus. 1946. Mark Twain, Business Man. Edited by Samuel Charles Webster. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
MTE. 1940. Mark Twain in Eruption. Edited by Bernard DeVoto. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTEnt. 1957. Mark Twain of the “Enterprise.” Edited by Henry Nash Smith, with the assistance of Frederick Anderson. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
MTH. 1947. Mark Twain and Hawaii. By Walter Francis Frear. Chicago: Lakeside Press.
MTHL. 1960. Mark Twain–Howells Letters. Edited by Henry Nash Smith and William M. Gibson, with the assistance of Frederick Anderson. 2 vols. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
MTL. 1917. Mark Twain’s Letters. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. 2 vols. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTLP. 1967. Mark Twain’s Letters to His Publishers, 1867–1894. Edited by Hamlin Hill. The Mark Twain Papers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
MTMF. 1949. Mark Twain to Mrs. Fairbanks. Edited by Dixon Wecter. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library.
MTN. 1935. Mark Twain’s Notebook. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTPO. Mark Twain Project Online. Edited by the Mark Twain Project. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. [Launched 1 November 2007.]
MTS 1910. 1910. Mark Twain’s Speeches. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTS 1923. 1923. Mark Twain’s Speeches. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper and Brothers.
MTTB. 1940. Mark Twain’s Travels with Mr. Brown. Edited by Franklin Walker and G. Ezra Dane. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Murphy, Edgar Gardner. 1904. Problems of the Present South. New York: Macmillan.
Myers, Gustavus. 1901. The History of Tammany Hall. New York: The author. [Second edition published in 1917 by Boni and Liveright.]
N&J1. 1975. Mark Twain’s Notebooks & Journals, Volume 1 (1855–1873). Edited by Frederick Anderson, Michael B. Frank, and Kenneth M. Sanderson. The Mark Twain Papers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
N&J2. 1975. Mark Twain’s Notebooks & Journals, Volume 2 (1877–1883). Edited by Frederick Anderson, Lin Salamo, and Bernard Stein. The Mark Twain Papers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
N&J3. 1979. Mark Twain’s Notebooks & Journals, Volume 3 (1883–1891). Edited by Robert Pack Browning, Michael B. Frank, and Lin Salamo. The Mark Twain Papers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
NAR 1. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—I. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (7 September): 321–30. Galley proofs of the “Introduction” only (NAR 1pf) at ViU.
NAR 2. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—II. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (21 September): 449–60. Galley proofs (NAR 2pf) at ViU.
NAR 3. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—III. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (5 October): 577–89. Galley proofs (NAR 3pf) at ViU.
NAR 4. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—IV. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (19 October): 705–16. Galley proofs (NAR 4pf) at ViU.
NAR 5. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—V By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (2 November): 833–44. Galley proofs (NAR 5pf) at ViU.
NAR 6. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—VI. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (16 November): 961–70. Galley proofs (NAR 6pf) at ViU.
NAR 7. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—VII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (7 December): 1089–95. Galley proofs (NAR 7pf) at ViU.
NAR 8. 1906. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—VIII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 183 (21 December): 1217–24. Galley proofs (NAR 8pf) at ViU.
NAR 9. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—IX. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (4 January): 1–14. Galley proofs (NAR 9pf) at ViU.
NAR 10. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—X. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (18 January): 113–19. Galley proofs (NAR 10pf) at ViU.
NAR 11. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XI. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (1 February): 225–32. Galley proofs (NAR 11pf) at ViU.
NAR 12. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (15 February): 337–46. Galley proofs (NAR 12pf) at ViU.
NAR 13. 1907 “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XIII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (1 March): 449–63. Galley proofs (NAR 13pf) at ViU.
NAR 14. 1907 “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XIV. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (15 March): 561–71.
NAR 15. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XV. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (5 April): 673–82. Galley proofs (NAR 15pf) at ViU.
NAR 16. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XVI. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 184 (19 April): 785–93.
NAR 17. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XVII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 185 (3 May): 1–12. Galley proofs (NAR 17pf) at ViU.
NAR 18. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XVIII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 185 (17 May): 113–22.
NAR 19. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XIX. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 185 (7 June): 241–51. Galley proofs (NAR 19pf) at ViU.
NAR 20. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XX. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 185 (5 July): 465–74.
NAR 21. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography—XXI. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 185 (2 August): 689–98. Galley proofs (NAR 21pf) at ViU.
NAR 22. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XXII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 186 (September): 8–21.
NAR 23. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XXIII. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 186 (October): 161–73.
NAR 24. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XXIV. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 186 (November): 327–36. Galley proofs (NAR 24pf) at ViU.
NAR 25. 1907. “Chapters from My Autobiography.—XXV. By Mark Twain.” North American Review 186 (December): 481–94. Galley proofs (NAR 25pf) at ViU.
National Park Service. 2008. “Mammoth Cave National Park. Frequently Asked Questions.” U.S. Department of the Interior. Accessed 2 July 2008.
Newton, A. E. 1879. The Modern Bethesda, or the Gift of Healing Restored. Being Some Account of the Life and Labors of Dr. J. R. Newton, Healer. New York: Newton Publishing Company.
NIC. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Nicolay, John G., and John Hay. 1890. Abraham Lincoln: A History. 10 vols. New York: The Century Company.
NjWoE. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Thomas A. Edison Papers Project.
NMh. Library of Poultney Bigelow, Bigelow Homestead, Malden-on-Hudson, N.Y.
NNAL. American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, N.Y.
NN-BGC. New York Public Library, Albert A. and Henry W. Berg Collection, New York, N.Y.
NNC. Columbia University, New York, N.Y.
NNDB. 2009. “Benjamin Franklin Butler.” Accessed 2 April 2009.
NNPM. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, N.Y.
NNWH. Walter Hampden Memorial Library, New York, N.Y.
“Nook Farm Genealogy.” 1974. TS by anonymous compiler, CtHSD.
NPV. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
NRivd2. Wave Hill House, Riverdale, Bronx, N.Y.
NYC10044. 2009. “Roosevelt Island: Timeline of Island History.” Accessed 13 May 2009.
Ober, K. Patrick. 2003. Mark Twain and Medicine: “Any Mummery Will Cure.” Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
OC. Orion Clemens.
ODaU. University of Dayton, Roesch Library, Dayton, Ohio.
Oettel, Walter. 1943. Walter’s Sketch Book of The Players. [New York]: Privately printed by the Gotham Press.
Ohio County Public Library. 2008. “The Wheeling Stogie.” Accessed 27 June 2008.
OKeU. Kent State University, Kent, Ohio.
OLC (Olivia [Livy] Langdon Clemens). 1877–1902. Diary of twenty-five leaves, written intermittently between 1877 and 1902, CU-MARK.
OLL. Olivia (Livy) Louise Langdon.
OSC (Olivia Susan [Susy] Clemens).
1885–86. Untitled biography of her father, MS of 131 pages, annotated by SLC, ViU. Published in OSC 1985, 83–225; in part in MTA, vol. 2, passim; and in Salsbury 1965, passim.
1985. Papa: An Intimate Biography of Mark Twain. Edited by Charles Neider. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co.
Owsley, Harry Bryan. 1890. “Genealogical Facts of the Owsley Family in England and America from the Time of the ‘Restoration’ to the Present.” TS of 105 pages, DNDAR.
PAM. Pamela Ann Moffett.
Panama Canal Authority. 2008. “Frequently Asked Questions: History.” Accessed 28 February 2008.
P&P. 1979. The Prince and the Pauper. Edited by Victor Fischer and Lin Salamo with the assistance of Mary Jane Jones. The Works of Mark Twain. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Pasko, Wesley Washington. 1894. American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking. New York: Howard Lockwood and Co. [Citations are to the 1967 reprint edition, Detroit: Gale Research Company.]
Peirce, Henry B., and D. Hamilton Hurd. 1879. History of Tioga, Chemung, Tompkins and Schuyler Counties, New York. Philadelphia: Everts and Ensign.
Pond, James B. 1900. Eccentricities of Genius: Memories of Famous Men and Women of the Platform and Stage. New York: G. W. Dillingham Company.
Portrait. 1895. Portrait and Biographical Record of Marion, Ralls and Pike Counties, with a Few from Macon, Adair, and Lewis Counties, Missouri. Chicago: C. O. Owen and Co. [Citations are to the 1982 revised reprint edition, edited by Oliver Howard and Goldena Howard. New London, Mo.: Ralls County Book Company.]
Poulton, Helen J. 1966. Index to History of Nevada. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Prime, William C. 1857. Tent Life in the Holy Land. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Quicherat, Jules. 1841–49. Procès de la Condamnation et de Réhabilitation de Jeanne d’Arc, dite la Pucelle. Paris: Société de l’Histoire de France.
Ralls Census. 1850. Population Schedules of the Seventh Census of the United States, 1850. Roll 411. Missouri: District 73, Ralls County. Photocopy in CU-MARK.
Ramsay, Robert L., and Frances G. Emberson. 1963. A Mark Twain Lexicon. New York: Russell and Russell.
Rasmussen, R. Kent. 2007. Critical Companion to Mark Twain: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. 2 vols. New York: Facts on File.
Raymond, R. W. 1881. A Glossary of Mining and Metallurgical Terms. Easton, Pa.: American Institute of Mining Engineers.
“Rev. Dr. Buckley and Newton the Healer.” 1883. The Medical Record 24 (10 November): 519–20.
RI 1993. 1993. Roughing It. Edited by Harriet Elinor Smith, Edgar Marquess Branch, Lin Salamo, and Robert Pack Browning. The Works of Mark Twain. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. [This edition supersedes the one published in 1972.]
RoBards, John L. 1909. “How a Boy of Eleven Years Crossed the Plains in Forty-Nine. Recollections of Col. John L. Robards of Hannibal, Missouri, Whose Trip to California Made Him the Wonder of Other Boys.” Newspaper interview dated 6 November 1909. In Genealogy of the RoBards Family (1910). Part 15, 70–77. Accessed 2 February 2009.
Robards Family Genealogy. 2009. History and Genealogy of the RoBards Family (1910). James Harvey Robards, comp. 18 parts; Accessed 2 February 2009.
Robarts, William Hugh. 1887. Mexican War Veterans: A Complete Roster of the Regular and Volunteer Troops in the War between the United States and Mexico, from 1846 to 1848. Washington, D.C.: Brentano’s.
Robinson, Forrest G. 2007. The Author-Cat: Clemens’s Life in Fiction. New York: Fordham University Press.
Robinson, William S. 1869. “Letter from ‘Warrington.’ ” Springfield (Mass.) Republican, 13 November, 2.
Roosevelt, Theodore. 1906. A Square Deal. Allendale, N.J.: Allendale Press.
Roosevelt Island Historical Society. 2009. “The Roosevelt Island Story.” Accessed 13 May 2009.
Ross, Janet. 1912. The Fourth Generation: Reminiscences by Janet Ross. London: Constable and Co.
RPB-JH. Brown University, John Hay Library of Rare Books and Special Collections, Providence, R.I.
Salm. Collection of Peter A. Salm.
Salsbury, Edith Colgate, ed. 1965. Susy and Mark Twain: Family Dialogues. New York: Harper and Row.
S&B. 1967. Mark Twain’s Satires & Burlesques. Edited by Franklin R. Rogers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Satre, Lowell J. 1982. “After the Match Girls’ Strike: Bryant and May in the 1890s.” Victorian Studies 26 (Autumn): 7–31.
Sayre, Paul L. 1932. Review of W. P. Barrett, The Trial of Jeanne d’Arc. Harvard Law Review 45 (June): 1449–51.
Scharnhorst, Gary.
2004. “Kate Field and the New York Tribune.” American Periodicals: A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography 14 (2):159–78.
2006. Mark Twain: The Complete Interviews. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Schmidt, Barbara.
2008a. “Chronology of Known Mark Twain Speeches, Public Readings, and Lectures.” Accessed 24 October 2008.
2008b. “The Lost Autobiography of Orion Clemens.” Accessed 10 July 2008.
2009a. “Mark Twain’s Angel-Fish Roster and Other Young Women of Interest.” Accessed 20 May 2009.
2009b. “Mark Twain’s Illustrated Autobiography.” Accessed 21 September 2009.
2009c. “Mark Twain and Karl Gerhardt.” Accessed 25 September 2009.
2009d. “Works of Karl Gerhardt.” Accessed 27 September 2009.
Scientific American. 1901. “Mark Twain, James W. Paige and the Paige Typesetter.” Scientific American 84 (9 March): 150.
Scott, Arthur L. 1963. “The Innocents Adrift Edited by Mark Twain’s Official Biographer.” PMLA 78 (June): 230–37.
Selby, P. O., comp. 1973. Mark Twain’s Kinfolks. Kirksville, Mo.: Missouriana Library, Northeast Missouri State University.
Sellers, Ruth Aulbach. 1972. “Captain Tonk Was Clown Prince of Murray, Idaho.” Kellogg (Idaho) Evening News, 22 December, unknown page.
Shapiro, Fred R., ed. 2006. The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Shaw, Henry Wheeler [Josh Billings, pseud.]. 1869. Josh Billings’ Farmer’s Allminax for the Year of Our Lord 1870. New York: G. W. Carleton.
Sheridan, Philip H. 1888. Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
Sherman, William T. 1875. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton and Co.
Skandera-Trombley, Laura E. 1994. Mark Twain in the Company of Women. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
SLC (Samuel Langhorne Clemens).
1851. “A Gallant Fireman.” Hannibal Western Union, 16 January, 3. Reprinted in ET&S1, 62.
1855–56. “ ‘Jul’us Caesar.’ ” MS of fourteen pages on four folios, NPV. Published in ET&S1, 110–17.
1864a. “Doings in Nevada.” Letter dated 4 January. New York Sunday Mercury, 7 February, 3. Reprinted in MTEnt, 121–26.
1864b. “Those Blasted Children.” New York Sunday Mercury, 21 February, 3.
1865. “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog.” New York Saturday Press 4 (18 November): 248–49. Reprinted in ET&S2, 282–88.
1866a. “Captain Montgomery.” San Francisco Golden Era 14 (28 January): 6.
1866b. “Scenes in Honolulu—No. 13.” Letter dated 22 June. Sacramento Union, 16 July, 3. Reprinted in MTH, 328–34.
1866c. “Letter from Honolulu.” Letter dated 25 June. Sacramento Union, 19 July, 1. Reprinted in MTH, 335–47.
1866d. “Forty-three Days in an Open Boat.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 34 (December): 104–13.
1867a. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches. Edited by John Paul. New York: C. H. Webb.
1867b. “The Winner of the Medal.” New York Sunday Mercury, 3 March, 3.
1867c. “A Curtain Lecture Concerning Skating.” New York Sunday Mercury, 17 March, 3.
1867d. “Barbarous.” New York Sunday Mercury, 24 March, 3.
1867e. “From Mark Twain. Explanatory.” St. Louis Missouri Republican, 24 March, 1.
1867f. “Female Suffrage.” New York Sunday Mercury, 7 April, 3.
1867g. “Official Physic.” New York Sunday Mercury, 21 April, 3.
1867h. “Letter from ‘Mark Twain.’ [No. 14.]” Letter dated 16 April. San Francisco Alta California, 26 May, 1. Reprinted in MTTB, 141–48.
1867i. “Letter from ‘Mark Twain.’ [No. 18.]” Letter dated 18 May. San Francisco Alta California, 23 June, 1. Reprinted in part in MTTB, 180–91.
1867j. “A Reminiscence of Artemus Ward.” New York Sunday Mercury, 7 July, 3.
1867k. “Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats.” New York Sunday Mercury, 14 July, 3. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 235–37.
1867l. “The Mediterranean Excursion.” Letter dated 23 June. New York Tribune, 30 July, 2. Reprinted in TIA, 10–18.
1867m. “The Mediterranean Excursion.” New York Tribune, 6 September, 2. Reprinted in TIA, 72–74.
1867n. “Americans on a Visit to the Emperor of Russia.” Letter dated 26 August. New York Tribune, 19 September, 1. Reprinted in TIA, 142–50.
1867o. “A Yankee in the Orient.” Letter dated 31 August. New York Tribune, 25 October, 2. Reprinted in TIA, 128–32.
1867p. “The American Colony in Palestine.” Letter dated 2 October. New York Tribune, 2 November, 2. Reprinted in TIA, 306–9.
1867q. “The Holy Land Excursion. Letter from ‘Mark Twain.’ Number Twenty-one.” San Francisco Alta California, 3 November, 1. Reprinted in TIA, 137–42.
1867r. “The Holy Land. First Day in Palestine.” New York Tribune, 9 November, 1. Reprinted in TIA, 209–13.
1867s. “The Cruise of the Quaker City.” Undated letter written 19 November. New York Herald, 20 November, 7. Reprinted in TIA, 313–19.
1867t. “Interview with Gen. Grant.” MS of nine leaves, datelined “Washington, Dec. 6,” NPV.
1868a. “Mark Twain in Washington. Special Correspondence of the Alta California.” Letter dated 10 December 1867. San Francisco Alta California, 15 January, 1.
1868b. “General Washington’s Negro Body-Servant. A Biographical Sketch.” Galaxy 5 (February): 154–56.
1868c. “Mark Twain in Washington. Special Correspondent of the Alta California.” Letter dated 11 January. San Francisco Alta California, 5 February, 2.
1868d. “Letter from Mark Twain.” Letter dated 31 January. Chicago Republican, 8 February, 2.
1868e. “Boy’s Manuscript.” MS of fifty-eight leaves, written in October–November, CU-MARK. Published in Inds, 1–19.
1869a. The Innocents Abroad; or, The New Pilgrims’ Progress. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1869b. “Letter from Mark Twain.” Letter dated July. San Francisco Alta California, 25 July, 1.
1870a. “Anson Burlingame.” Buffalo Express, 25 February, 2. Reprinted in SLC 1923, 17–23.
1870b. “The Facts in the Case of the Great Beef Contract.” Galaxy 9 (May): 718–21. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 367–73.
1870c. “The Late Benjamin Franklin.” Galaxy 10 (July): 138–40.
1870d. “Fortifications of Paris.” Buffalo Express, 17 September, 2.
1870e. “Riley—Newspaper Correspondent.” Galaxy 10 (November): 726–27.
1871a. Mark Twain’s (Burlesque) Autobiography and First Romance. New York: Sheldon and Co.
1871b. “The Facts in the Case of George Fisher, Deceased.” Galaxy 11 (January): 152–55. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 500–506.
1871c. “An Autobiography.” Aldine 4 (April): 52.
1872. Roughing It. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1873–74. The Gilded Age: A Tale of To-day. Charles Dudley Warner, coauthor. Hartford: American Publishing Company. [Early copies bound with 1873 title page, later ones with 1874 title page: see BAL 3357.]
1874a. Colonel Sellers. A Drama in Five Acts. By Samuel L. Clemens. Mark Twain. Elmira N. Y. Entered in the Office of the Librarian of Congress. July 1874. A dramatization of The Gilded Age. Three manuscripts survive: one in DLC, and two in CU-MARK.
1874b. “A True Story, Repeated Word for Word as I Heard It.” Atlantic Monthly 34 (November): 591–94. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 578–82.
1875a. “Old Times on the Mississippi.” Atlantic Monthly 35 (January–June): 69–73, 217–24, 283–89, 446–52, 567–74, 721–30; Atlantic Monthly 36 (August): 190–96.
1875b. “Encounter with an Interviewer.” In Brougham and Elderkin 1875, 25–32. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 583–87.
1875c. Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1876. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1876–85. “A Record of the Small Foolishnesses of Susie & ‘Bay’ Clemens (Infants).” MS of 111 pages, ViU.
1877a. A True Story, and the Recent Carnival of Crime. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co.
1877b. “Autobiography of a Damned Fool.” MS of 115 leaves, written March–May, with minor revisions after 1880, CU-MARK. Published in S&B, 136–61.
1880a. A Tramp Abroad. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1880b. “On the Decay of the Art of Lying.” Paper presented at the Hartford Monday Evening Club on 5 April. Published in SLC 1882a, 217–25. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 824–29.
1880c. “The Shakspeare Mulberry.” MS of twelve pages, written on 23 November, CtHMTH.
1881. The Prince and the Pauper: A Tale for Young People of All Ages. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co.
1882a. The Stolen White Elephant, Etc. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co.
1882b. “The McWilliamses and the Burglar Alarm.” Harper’s Christmas: Pictures and Papers Done by the Tile Club and Its Literary Friends (December): 28–29. Reprinted in Budd 1992a, 837–43.
1883. Life on the Mississippi. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co.
1884. “Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians.” MS originally of 228 pages, written beginning in July, primarily in MiD (some of the MS is at other institutions, some is missing: see Inds, 372–73). Published in HH&T, 81–140, and Inds, 33–81.
1885a. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
1885b. “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed.” Century Magazine 31 (December): 193–204. Reprinted in Budd 1992b, 863–82.
1887. “English as She Is Taught.” Century Magazine 33 (April): 932–36.
1889. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
1891a. “The Innocents Adrift.” MS of 174 pages, CU-MARK. Published in part as “Down the Rhone” in SLC 1923, 129–68.
1891b. “Mental Telegraphy.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 84 (December): 95–104.
1892. The American Claimant. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
1893. “The Back Number: A Monthly Magazine.” MS of five leaves, NNPM.
1894a. Tom Sawyer Abroad. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co.
1894b. The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson and the Comedy Those Extraordinary Twins. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1895. “Mental Telegraphy Again.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 91 (September): 521–24.
1896a. Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1896b. Tom Sawyer Abroad, Tom Sawyer, Detective and Other Stories Etc., Etc. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1896c. “Tom Sawyer, Detective.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 93 (August–September): 344–61, 519–37.
1896–1906. “Memorial to Susy.” MS of 104 leaves, various drafts and parts, CU-MARK.
1897a. Following the Equator: A Journey around the World. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1897b. More Tramps Abroad. London: Chatto and Windus.
1897c. Untitled MS of thirty-nine leaves concerning Wilhelmine, Margravine of Bayreuth, CU-MARK.
1897d. “England’s Jubilee Pageant to Be the Greatest in History.” San Francisco Examiner, 20 June, 13. Reprinted in SLC 1923, 193–206.
1897e. “His Jubilee Art.” San Francisco Examiner, 20 June, 13–14.
1897f. “All Nations Pay Homage to Victoria.” San Francisco Examiner, 23 June, 1, 4. Reprinted in SLC 1923, 206–10.
1897g. “Villagers of 1840–3.” MS of forty-three leaves, written in July–August, CU-MARK. Published in Inds, 93–108.
1897–?1902. “Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy.” MS of 241 pages, CU-MARK. Published in HH&T, 152–242, and Inds, 134–213.
1898a. “Dueling.” MS of sixteen pages, written on 8 March, CU-MARK.
1898b. “At the Appetite-Cure.” Cosmopolitan 25 (August): 425–33.
1898c. “Schoolhouse Hill.” MS of 139 pages, written in November–December, CU-MARK. Published in MSM, 175–220, and Inds, 214–59.
1899a. “Samuel Langhorne Clemens.” MS of fourteen leaves, notes written in March for Samuel E. Moffett to use in preparing a biographical sketch, NN-BGC.
1899b. “Concerning the Jews.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 99 (September): 527–35. Reprinted in SLC 1900a, 250–75.
1899c. “Christian Science and the Book of Mrs. Eddy.” Cosmopolitan 27 (October): 585–94.
1899d. “My Début as a Literary Person.” Century Magazine 59 (November): 76–88.
1899e. “My First Lie and How I Got Out of It.” New York World, 10 December, Supplement, 1–2. Reprinted in Budd 1992b, 439–46.
1900a. How to Tell a Story and Other Essays. The Writings of Mark Twain. Édition de Luxe. Volume 22. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1900b. The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg and Other Stories and Essays. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1901. “Two Little Tales.” Century Magazine 63 (November): 24–32.
1902a. “Aguinaldo.” MS of sixty-two leaves and TS of twenty-one leaves, CU-MARK. Published as “Review of Edwin Wildman’s Biography of Aguinaldo” in Zwick 1992, 86–108.
1902b. “Huck.” MS of one page, probably written in 1902, CU-MARK.
1902c. “A Defence of General Funston.” North American Review 174 (May): 613–24. Reprinted in Zwick 1992, 119–32.
1902d. “Christian Science.” North American Review 175 (December): 756–68.
1903a. My Début as a Literary Person with Other Essays and Stories. Hartford: American Publishing Company.
1903b. “Christian Science—II.” North American Review 176 (January): 1–9.
1903c. “Christian Science—III.” North American Review 176 (February): 173–84.
1903d. “Mrs. Eddy in Error.” North American Review 176 (April): 505–17.
1903e. “Major General Wood, M.D.” MS of ten leaves, written 15 December, and TS of five leaves, typed and revised before 28 December, CU-MARK. Published in Zwick 1992, 151–55.
1904a. “The Countess Massiglia.” MS of thirty-six leaves, CU-MARK.
1904b. “Saint Joan of Arc.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 110 (December): 3–12.
1905a. King Leopold’s Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule. Boston: P. R. Warren Company.
1905b. “Concerning Copyright: An Open Letter to the Register of Copyrights.” North American Review 180 (January): 1–8. Reprinted in Budd 1992b, 627–34.
1905c. “From My Unpublished Autobiography.” Harper’s Weekly 49 (18 March): 391. Reprinted as “Mark Twain Was Pioneer in Use of Typewriter,” Atlanta Constitution, 3 April, 6.
1905d. “ ‘Russian Liberty Has Had Its Last Chance,’ Says Mark Twain.” Letter to the editor dated 29 August. Boston Globe, 30 August, 4 (morning edition), 11 (evening edition). Also known as “The Treaty of Portsmouth.”
1905e. “John Hay and the Ballads.” Harper’s Weekly 49 (21 October): 1530.
1905f. “ ‘Mark Twain’ Talks Peace.” Chicago Tribune, 5 November, 1. Text of speech available online at
1905g. “Mark Twain’s 70th Birthday: Souvenir of Its Celebration.” Supplement to Harper’s Weekly 49 (23 December): 1883–1914. Facsimile available at MTPO.
1906a. “A Family Sketch.” MS of sixty-five pages, CLjC.
1906b. What Is Man? New York: De Vinne Press.
1906c. “A Horse’s Tale.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 113 (August–September): 327–42, 539–49.
1906d. “Hunting the Deceitful Turkey.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 114 (December): 57–58.
1909a. “To Rev. S. C. Thompson.” MS of seventeen pages, written 23 April, CU-MARK. Published in part in MTB, 1:482–83.
1909b. “Ashcroft-Lyon Manuscript.” MS of 464 leaves, written May–September, CU-MARK.
1909c. “H. H. Rogers.” MS of twenty pages, consisting of several pagination sequences, written between August and December, CU-MARK. Published in MTA, 1:256–65.
1909d. “Marjorie Fleming, the Wonder Child.” Harper’s Bazar 43 (December): 1182–83, 1229.
1909e. “Closing Words of My Autobiography.” MS of forty-four pages, written on 24, 25, and 26 December, CU-MARK. Published as “The Death of Jean” in Harper’s Monthly Magazine 122 (January 1911): 210–15.
1910. “The Turning Point of My Life.” Harper’s Bazar 44 (February): 118–19. Reprinted in Budd 1992b, 929–38, and WIM, 455–64.
1917. What Is Man? And Other Essays. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1922a. “Unpublished Chapters from the Autobiography of Mark Twain: Part I.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 144 (February): 273–80.
1922b. “Unpublished Chapters from the Autobiography of Mark Twain: Part II.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 144 (March): 455–60.
1922c. “Unpublished Chapters from the Autobiography of Mark Twain.” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 145 (August): 310–15.
1923. Europe and Elsewhere. With an Appreciation by Brander Matthews and an Introduction by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1981. Wapping Alice:Printed for the First Time, Together with Three Factual Letters to Olivia Clemens; Another Story, the McWilliamses and the Burglar Alarm; and Revelatory Portions of the Autobiographical Dictation of April 10, 1907. . . . Berkeley: Friends of The Bancroft Library.
1982. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Foreword and notes by John C. Gerber; text established by Paul Baender. The Mark Twain Library. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
1990. Mark Twain’s Own Autobiography: The Chapters from the North American Review. With an introduction and notes by Michael J. Kiskis. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
1996. Chapters from My Autobiography. With an introduction by Arthur Miller and an afterword by Michael J. Kiskis. The Oxford Mark Twain, edited by Shelley Fisher Fishkin. New York: Oxford University Press.
2004. Mark Twain’s Helpful Hints for Good Living: A Handbook for the Damned Human Race. Edited by Lin Salamo, Victor Fischer, and Michael B. Frank. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
2009. Who Is Mark Twain? Edited, with a note on the text, by Robert H. Hirst. New York: HarperStudio.
Smith, Elizabeth H. 1965. “Reuel Colt Gridley.” Tales of the Paradise Ridge 6 (June): 11–18.
Smith, Henry Nash.
1955. “That Hideous Mistake of Poor Clemens’s.” Harvard Library Bulletin 9 (Spring): 145–80.
1962. Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Smith, Jean Edward. 2001. Grant. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Smith, Stephanie. 2006. Former Presidents: Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits. CRS Report for Congress.–249.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2006.
Sonoma Census. 1860. Population Schedules of the Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. Roll M653. California: Sonoma, Sonoma County. Photocopy in CU-MARK.
Soria, Regina. 1964. “Mark Twain and Vedder’s Medusa.” American Quarterly 16:602–6.
StEdNL. National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh [formerly UkENL].
Stein, Bernard L. 2001. “Life on the Hudson: A Mark Twain Idyll.” Riverdale Press 52 (25 October): A1, B1, B4.
Stewart, A. A., comp. 1912. The Printer’s Dictionary of Technical Terms. Boston: School of Printing, North End Union.
Stoddard, Charles Warren.
1867. Poems. San Francisco: A. Roman.
1873. South-Sea Idyls. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co.
1885. A Troubled Heart and How It Was Comforted at Last. Notre Dame, Ind.: Joseph A. Lyons.
1903. Exits and Entrances: A Book of Essays and Sketches. Boston: Lothrop Publishing Company.
Stoddard, Lothrop. 1931. Master of Manhattan: The Life of Richard Croker. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Stone, H. N., D. M. Davidson, and W. R. McIntosh. 1885. Stone, Davidson & Co.’s Hannibal City Directory. Hannibal: Stone, Davidson and Co.
Streamer, Volney, comp.
1897. Voices of Doubt and Trust. New York: Brentano’s.
1904. In Friendship’s Name. 14th ed. New York: Brentano’s.
Strong, Leah A. 1966. Joseph Hopkins Twichell: Mark Twain’s Friend and Pastor. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Sweets, Henry H., III.
1986a. “Cave’s Fun Disguised Inherent Commercial Wealth.” The Fence Painter 6 (Summer): 3.
1986b. “Hannibal’s Great Cave Is Steeped in History.” The Fence Painter 6 (Summer): 1–2.
Teller, Charlotte. 1925. S.L.C. to C.T. New York: Privately printed.
Thayer, William Roscoe. 1915. The Life and Letters of John Hay. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
TIA. 1958. Traveling with the Innocents Abroad: Mark Twain’s Original Reports from Europe and the Holy Land. Edited by Daniel Morley McKeithan. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Ticknor, Caroline. 1922. Glimpses of Authors. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Tinkham, George H. 1921. History of Stanislaus County, California. Los Angeles: Historic Record Company.
Tooke, Thomas. 1838–57. A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, from 1793 to 1837; Preceded by a Brief Sketch of the State of the Corn Trade in the Last Two Centuries. 6 vols. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
Towner, Ausburn [Ishmael, pseud.]. 1892. Our County and Its People: A History of the Valley and County of Chemung from the Closing Years of the Eighteenth Century. Syracuse, N.Y.: D. Mason and Co.
Tozzer, Alfred M. 1931. “Alfred Percival Maudslay.” American Anthropologist, n.s. 33 (July–September): 403–12.
Trumbull, James Hammond, ed. 1886. The Memorial History of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633–1884. 2 vols. Boston: Edward L. Osgood.
TS. Typescript.
TS1. First typescript, in CU-MARK, made in 1906–8 by Josephine Hobby from her stenographic notes of Clemens’s dictation; it includes the Autobiographical Dictations of 9 January 1906 through 14 July 1908 and was revised by Clemens.
TS2. Second typescript, in CU-MARK, made in 1906 by Josephine Hobby; it includes “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It]” and four Florentine Dictations (“John Hay,” “Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad,’ ” “Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich,” and “Villa di Quarto”), plus the Autobiographical Dictations of 9 January 1906 through 7 August 1906, incorporating the revisions on TS1, and was revised by Clemens.
TS3. Third typescript, in CU-MARK, made in 1906–7 by Josephine Hobby from the revised TS1 or the revised TS2, to serve as printer’s copy for several installments of “Chapters from My Autobiography” in the North American Review; it consists of four independently paginated batches of selections from pre-1906 writings and the Autobiographical Dictations of January–May 1906, and was revised by Clemens.
TS4. Fourth typescript, in CU-MARK, made in 1906 by an unidentified typist; it includes the same pre-1906 pieces as TS2, plus the Autobiographical Dictations of 9 January 1906 through 29 August 1906 and incorporates the revisions on TS1, but was not further reviewed by Clemens.
Tugwell, Rexford G. 1968. Grover Cleveland. New York: Macmillan Company.
Twichell, Joseph Hopkins.
1874–1916. “Personal Journal.” MS, Joseph H. Twichell Collection, CtY-BR.
2006. The Civil War Letters of Joseph Hopkins Twichell: A Chaplain’s Story. Edited by Peter Messent and Steve Courtney. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
TxU. University of Texas, Austin.
TxU-Hu. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.
Urmy, Clarence. 1906. “A Song.” Harper’s Bazar 40 (March): 124.
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
1907–9. Fentress Land Co. et al. v. Bruno Gernt et al. Civil Case No. 967, Circuit Court of the United States for the Southern Division of the Eastern District of Tennessee, Southeast Region Archives, Morrow, Georgia.
1950–54. “Massiglia, Frances Paxton.” Department of State General Records, Record Group 59, Central Decimal Files, 1950–54, 265.113, 4–1863, Box 1101, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Varble, Rachel M. 1964. Jane Clemens: The Story of Mark Twain’s Mother. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co.
Vassar College.
2008a. “Lady Principals.” Accessed 29 August 2008.
2008b. “Samuel L. Caldwell.” Accessed 28 August 2008.
Veteran’s Museum and Memorial Center. 2009. “Spanish-American War, 1898.” Accessed 29 April 2009.
Victoria, Empress, consort of Frederick III. 1913. The Empress Frederick: A Memoir. London: James Nisbet and Co.
ViU. University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Walker, Franklin. 1969. San Francisco’s Literary Frontier. Rev. ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Wave Hill. 2008. “A Brief History of Wave Hill: 1843–1903.” = true. Accessed 18 June 2008.
Weaver, H. Dwight. 2008. Missouri Caves in History and Legend. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Webster, Noah. 1828. An American Dictionary of the English Language. 2 vols. New York: S. Converse.
Wecter, Dixon. 1952. Sam Clemens of Hannibal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Riverside Press.
Wetzel, Betty. 1985. “Huckleberry Finn in Montana: One of Twain’s Last Jokes?” Montana Magazine (November–December): 33–35.
White, Edgar. 1924. “The Old Home Town.” The Mentor 12 (May): 51–53.
White, Horatio S. 1925. Willard Fiske, Life and Correspondence: A Biographical Study. New York: Oxford University Press.
Whitney, William Dwight, and Benjamin E. Smith, eds. 1889–91. The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. 6 vols. New York: The Century Company.
Wildman, Edwin. 1901. Aguinaldo: A Narrative of Filipino Ambitions. Boston: Lothrop Publishing Company.
Wilhelmine, Margravine, consort of Friedrich, Margrave of Bayreuth. 1877.Memoirs of Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina, Princess Royal of Prussia, Margravine of Baireuth, Sister of Frederick the Great. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co. SLC copy in CU-MARK.
WIM. 1973. What Is Man? And Other Philosophical Writings. Edited by Paul Baender. The Works of Mark Twain. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Winship, Michael. 1995. Literary Publishing in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Business of Ticknor and Fields. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Winter, William. 1893. Life and Art of Edwin Booth. New York: Macmillan and Co.
Wright, William [Dan De Quille, pseud.]. 1893. “Reminiscences of the Comstock,” in “The Passing of a Pioneer.” San Francisco Examiner, 22 January, 15. Reprinted as “The Story of the Enterprise” in Lewis 1971, 5–10.
Young, John Russell. 1879. Around the World with General Grant: A Narrative of the Visit of General U. S. Grant, Ex-President of the United States, to Various Countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in 1877, 1878, 1879. New York: American News Company.
Youngquist, Sally. 2001. “Iowa Second Infantry, Lee County Iowa.” Iowa in the Civil War Project. Accessed 19 March 2009.
Yung, Wing. 1909. My Life in China and America. New York: Henry Holt and Co.
Zwick, Jim. 1992. Mark Twain’s Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

The index that appeared in the print version of this title was intentionally removed from the eBook. Please use the search function on your eReading device for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below
Boldfaced page numbers indicate principal identifications or short biographies. Clemens’s frequently mentioned works are listed in main entries; his other writings are listed only under “Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, WORKS.” Place names are indexed only when they refer to locations that Clemens lived in, visited, or commented upon. Newspapers are listed by city, other periodicals by title. Entries for Clemens’s family members, friends, and employees do not include references to their photographs, which may be found following page 204.
A. B. Chambers (steamboat)
“About General Grant’s Memoirs,”
Adams, Henry
Addicks, J. Edward
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
money earned from
prototypes for characters
sources of content
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
McDougal’s cave
prototypes for characters
sources of content
African Americans: fundraiser for Tuskegee Institute
minstrel shows. See also Slavery
Agassiz, Alexander
Agassiz, Louis
Aguinaldo, Emilio
Ainsworth, William Harrison
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales
Aldine (periodical)
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey
“Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich,”
Alexander, James W.
Alexander VI (pope)
Alexander the Great
Alexander and Green
Alighieri, Dante
Allee, James Frank
Alonzo Child (steamboat)
Amalgamated Copper Company
Ament, Joseph P.
Ament, Judith D.
Ament, Sarah (Mrs. Joseph P. Ament)
American Copyright League
American Plasmon Company
American Publishing Company. See also Bliss, Elisha P., Jr.; Bliss, Francis
“Anecdote of Jean,”
Angels Camp, California
Animals: cat given Pain-Killer
Clemens family cats
compared to humans;
Jean Clemens’s love
“Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats,”
Susy Clemens’s compassion
Anthony, James
Arnot, John
Arthur, Chester A.
Ashcroft, Ralph W.
Associated Press
Atlantic Monthly
Fields as editor
hosts Whittier birthday dinner
Howells as editor
publication of Keeler’s writings
publication of SLC’s writings
Atwater, Dwight
Aunt Clara. See Spaulding, Clara L.
Aunt Patsy. See Quarles, Martha Ann Lampton
Aunt Susy. See Crane, Susan Langdon
Austria: Vienna
“A Viennese Procession,”
Authors’ Readings
Autobiography (SLC’s conception and creation): contract with Harper and Brothers
copyright extension scheme
decision to include earlier writings
discussion with Hay
discussions with Howells
discussion with Mrs. Fields
discussion with Paine
discussion with Rogers
familiarity with other autobiographies
instructions for publishing
multiple attempts to write
partial publication
posthumous publication
remarks about form and content
sequence of prefatory pages
stenographers for dictation
truth telling
The Autobiography of Mark Twain (AMT) (Neider)
Neider’s editorial treatment
Autobiography of Mark Twain (Mark Twain Project edition): contents of volumes
diagram of textual history
editorial policy for texts
online edition (MTPO)
problem of identifying handwriting on typescripts
problem of multiple typescripts
source documents described
Ayres, Irving
Ayres, Tubman
The Back Number (planned periodical)
Badeau, Adam
works on Grant’s memoirs
writes military history of Grant
Badeni, Kasimir Felix
Barnard, Henry
Barnard College
Barnes, Benjamin F.
Barnes, George Eustace
Barrett, Lawrence
Bates, Edward
Batterson, James G.
Bayard the Spotless (Pierre du Terrail)
Bay State Gas Company
Beatty, Jean Burlingame (Mrs. Robert Chetwood Beatty)
“Beauties of the German Language,”
Beck, Henry
Beecher, Henry Ward
SLC’s letters to
Beecher, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas K.
Ben Franklin Book and Job Office
Bermingham, Ellen (Nellie)
Bernhardt, Sarah
Berry, Mrs.
Bierce, Ambrose
“Big Bonanza” silver strike
Billings, Josh. See Shaw, Henry Wheeler
Bishop, William Henry
Bispham, William
Bixby, Horace E.
Black, William
Blackstone, William
Blaine, James G.. See also Cleveland-Blaine election
Blankenship, Tom
Blind, associations for. See also Keller, Helen
Bliss, Elisha P., Jr.
Bliss, Francis
Bok, Edward
Bolton, William Compton
Bonaparte, Catherine, Princess
Bonaparte, Jérôme
Bonaparte, Napoleon
Booth, Edwin
Booth, John Wilkes
Boston Evening Transcript
Boston Globe
Boston Herald
Boston Lyceum Bureau. See Redpath Lyceum Bureau
Boston Massacre
Boston Saturday Evening Gazette
Boston Sunday Post
Boutwell, George S.
Bowen, Barton Stone
Bowen, Samuel Adams, Jr.
Bowen, William
Briggs, Artemissa (Mrs. William J. Marsh)
Briggs, Emily Edson
Briggs, John B.
Brookline Gas Company
Brooklyn Bridge
Brooks, Noah
Brooks, Preston S. (“Potter”)
Brown, Anna Marsh (Mrs. Talmage Brown)
Brown, Alex
Brown, Isabella Cranston
Brown, Jake
Brown, John (abolitionist)
Brown, John (Dr.)
letters from
letters to
“Rab and His Friends,”
relationship with Susy Clemens
SLC’s regret about not making last visit
Brown, John (Jock)
Brown, John Taylor
Brown, Mr. (steamboat pilot)
Brown, Owen
Brown, Talmage
Brown, William
Browning, Robert
Buckland, Francis Trevelyan
Buckly, Mr.
Buell, Dwight H.
Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Courier
Grover Cleveland as mayor and sheriff
SLC and OLC’s difficult year
SLC and OLC’s first home after marriage
Buffalo Express
SLC’s eulogy of Burlingame
Buffum, Arnold
Burglar alarm: Goodwin’s
Bunce, Edward M.
Burk, George
Burlingame, Anson
Burlingame, Edward L.
Burns, Anthony
Burns, Robert
Burton, Nathaniel J.
Bushnell, Horace
Butler, Andrew Jackson
Butler, Benjamin Franklin
Butler, George H.
Butters, Henry A.
Bynner, Witter
Cable, George Washington
lecture tour with SLC
visit to Governor Cleveland with SLC
Cadets of Temperance
Caesar, Julius
Caldwell, Samuel L.
California: SLC’s lecture tours
SLC’s trip to Jackass Hill and Angels Camp. See also Sacramento Union; San Francisco
Californian (periodical)
“A Call with W. D. Howells on General Grant,”
Campbell, Alexander
Campbell, Thomas
Campbell, William Wilfred
Carnegie, Andrew
Carroll, Lewis. See Charles L. Dodgson
Carryl, Charles E.
Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo
Case, Newton
Cash, Mr. (New York Herald employee)
Cauchon, Pierre
Cavallotti, Felice Carlo Emmanuele
Cellini, Benvenuto
Century Company: employment of Hobby and Paine
negotiations to publish Grant’s memoirs
Century Magazine
Noah Brooks’s biographical sketch of SLC
publication of Grant’s war articles
publication of SLC’s writings
Chaffee, Fannie Josephine
Chaffee, Jerome B.
Chamberlaine, Mr. and Mrs. Augustus P.
Chapman, Elizabeth (Mrs. Jesse Grant)
Chapman, Rawley
Chapman, Rosamond Hart
“The Character of Man” manuscript
Charles I (king of England)
Charles II (king of England)
Charles L. Webster and Company: failure
publication of Grant’s memoirs
publication of McClellan’s Own Story
publication of Sheridan’s Personal Memoirs
publication of SLC’s books. See also Webster, Charles L.
Charlotte (servant)
Chaykovsky, Nikolai Vasilievich
Cheney, Frank Woodbridge
Cheney, Mary Bushnell
“The Chicago G. A. R. Festival,”
Chicago Republican: SLC as Washington, D.C., correspondent
Childs, George W.
China: Grant’s concern for students
political unrest (1906)
Chin Lan Pin (“Wong”)
Choate, Joseph H.
Chowning, Thomas Jefferson
The Cid (Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar)
Cincinnati, Ohio
Clark, Charles Hopkins
Clemens, Benjamin: birth and death
Clemens, Clara Langdon (Bay)
childhood and youth
Clemens family plays and charades
collaboration with Paine
death of mother
letters from
letters to
opinion of Autobiographical Dictations
relationship with Susy Clemens
Clemens, Ezekiel
Clemens, Henry: birth
childhood and youth
prototype for Sid in Tom Sawyer
Clemens, James
Clemens, James, Jr.
Clemens, Jane Lampton
death of Henry Clemens
facility with words
letters from
letters to
on SLC’s character
on SLC’s drinking and swearing
prototype for Aunt Polly
slaves owned or hired
SLC’s childhood
Clemens, Jean (Jane Lampton)
“Anecdote of Jean,”
childhood and youth
Clemens family plays and charades
“Closing Words of My Autobiography,”
death of Susy Clemens
German nursemaid
letters from
love of animals
typewriting and SLC typescripts
Clemens, Jeremiah (1732–1811)
Clemens, Jeremiah (1814–65)
Clemens, John Marshall: biography
as county judge
financial problems
as justice of the peace
slaves owned or hired
Tennessee land
undemonstrative nature
Clemens, Langdon: birth and death
infant habits
Clemens, Margaret
Clemens, Mary Eleanor Stotts (Mrs. Orion Clemens)
Clemens, Olivia Louise Langdon (Livy): biography
birth of Clara Clemens
birth of Jean Clemens
birth and death of Langdon Clemens
birth and death of Susy Clemens
Clemens family plays and charades
courtship, engagement, and wedding
as editor of SLC’s books
family history
father’s final illness
financial matters
illness and death
letters from
letters to
relationship with daughters
relationship with SLC
SLC’s description
spelling ability
Clemens, Olivia Susan (Susy): biography
childhood and youth
Clemens family plays and charades
compared to Marjory Fleming
compassion for animals
illness and death
nicknames (Megalopis, Wee Wifie)
play A Love-Chase
poem mis-attributed
relationship with Dr. Brown
relationship with mother
relationship with sisters
Sarah Bernhardt imitations
spelling ability
visit to Grant with SLC
“What is it all for?” question
Adventures of Huckle-berry Finn
Clemens family history
Jervis Langdon
Langdon Clemens
Langdon family
The Prince and the Pauper
SLC and OLC’s first house
SLC and OLC’s first meeting
SLC and OLC’s marriage
SLC’s appearance
SLC’s childhood antics
SLC’s drinking and swearing
SLC’s early adulthood
SLC’s failures to comprehend
SLC’s gait
SLC’s love letters
SLC’s names for cats
SLC’s not going to church
trip to New York
trip to England and Scotland
Clemens, Orion: adventure in home of Dr. Meredith
Ben Franklin Book and Job Office (Keokuk)
buys Muscatine Journal
law career
middle-of-night visit to young lady
as printer’s apprentice in St. Louis
relationship with Bates
requests permission to publish anecdotes about SLC’s childhood
as secretary of Nevada Territory
starts Hannibal Western Union and then buys Hannibal Journal
Tennessee land
writes autobiography
Clemens, Pamela. See Moffett, Pamela A. Moffett
Clemens, Pleasant Hannibal
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne (Mark Twain): appearance
chronology of life
Civil War service
Oxford degree
seventieth birthday dinner
University of Missouri degree
dinner table behavior
eating and drinking
grammar, punctuation, and spelling
Presbyterian conscience
tobacco use
writing speed
bankruptcy and hardship
business ability
employment stratagem
Paige electromagnetic motor
Paige printing telegraph
Paige typesetting machine
Tennessee land. See also American Publishing Company; Charles L. Webster and Company; Harper and Brothers; Osgood, James Ripley
CHILDHOOD: earliest recollections
education and schoolmates
left behind by family
relationship with mother
summers at Quarles farm
sweethearts. See also Florida, Mo.; Hannibal, Mo.
FAMILY: ancestry and genealogy. See also individual Clemens, Crane, Lampton, Langdon, Moffett, Quarles, and Webster family members
The Back Number
Buffalo Express
Chicago Republican
criticism of newspapers
Golden Era
Hannibal Journal and Western Union
Hannibal Western Union
Newspaper Correspondence Syndicate
New York Herald
New York Saturday Press
New York Sunday Mercury
New York Tribune
Sacramento Union
San Francisco Alta California
San Francisco Morning Call
Virginia City Territorial Enterprise
LECTURES AND SPEECHES: “The American Vandal Abroad,”
“Artemus Ward, Humorist,”
Authors’ Readings
“The Babies” (toast to Grant)
Barnard College
first New York lecture
“The Frozen Truth,”
“The Golden Arm” (“The Woman with the Golden Arm,” “A Ghost Story”)
Holmes breakfast
Jewish benefit
lecture-circuit experiences
Longfellow Memorial Association
New Zealand
Players club
“Reminiscences of Some un-Commonplace Characters I Have Chanced to Meet,”
Republican rally (introduction of Grant)
Robert Fulton Memorial Association
“Roughing It” lecture
Sandwich Islands lecture
seventieth birthday dinner
South Africa
speeches November 1905–April 1906
spelling bee
technique at social banquets
tour with Cable
Tuskegee Institute
Twentieth Century Club
Vassar College
Washington, D.C.
Westside Y.M.C.A. (Majestic Theatre)
“whistling story,”
Whittier birthday dinner
world tour
TRAVEL. See also Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, LECTURES AND SPEECHES, world tour
Quaker City excursion
and individual place names
WORKS: “Aguinaldo” (book review)
Ah Sin
The American Claimant
“Anson Burlingame,”
“Ashcroft-Lyon Manuscript,”
“At the Appetite-Cure,”
autobiographical notes (1899)
“An Autobiography,”
“Autobiography of a Damned Fool,”
“Boy’s Manuscript,”
“Captain Montgomery,”
“Captain Stormfield’s Visit to Heaven,”
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches
Christian Science
“Christian Science and the Book of Mrs. Eddy,”
“Closing Words of My Autobiography,”
Collected Works editions
Colonel Sellers (Gilded Age play)
“Concerning Copyright,”
“Concerning the Jews,”
“Conversations with Satan,”
“The Countess Massiglia,”
“A Defence of General Funston,”
“Doings in Nevada,”
“An Encounter with an Interviewer,”
“English as She Is Taught,”
Europe and Elsewhere
“The Facts in the Case of George Fisher, Deceased,”
“The Facts in the Case of the Great Beef Contract,”
“Fortifications of Paris,”
“Forty-Three Days in an Open Boat,”
“From Chapter XVII,”
“A Gallant Fireman,”
“General Washington’s Negro Body-Servant,”
“Hellfire Hotchkiss,”
“Henry H. Rogers (Continued),”
“A Horse’s Tale,”
“How I Escaped Being Killed in a Duel,”
How to Tell a Story and Other Essays
“Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians,”
“Huck Finn” (1902 fragment)
“The Innocents Adrift” (“Down the Rhone”)
“Interview with Gen. Grant,”
“Jane Lampton Clemens,”
“Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog,”
“Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats,”
“Josh” letters
“Jul’us Caesar,”
King Leopold’s Soliloquy
“The Late Benjamin Franklin,”
“The McWilliamses and the Burglar Alarm,”
“Major General Wood, M.D.,”
The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg and Other Stories and Essays
“Marjorie Fleming, the Wonder Child,”
Mark Twain’s (Burlesque) Autobiography
Mark Twain’s Library of Humor
Mark Twain’s Sketches, New and Old
“The Memorable Assassination,”
“Memorial to Susy,”
“Mental Telegraphy,”
“Mental Telegraphy Again,”
More Tramps Abroad
My Début as a Literary Person with Other Essays and Stories
“My First Lie and How I Got Out of It,”
“My Platonic Sweetheart,”
“New Huck Finn,”
“No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger,”
“Old Times on the Mississippi,”
“On the Decay of the Art of Lying,”
Personal Re-collections of Joan of Arc
“The Private History of a Campaign That Failed,”
“A Record of the Small Foolishnesses of Susie & ‘Bay’ Clemens (Infants),”
“Riley—Newspaper Correspondent,”
“‘Russian Liberty Has Had Its Last Chance’” (“The Treaty of Portsmouth”)
“Schoolhouse Hill,”
South African diamond mine book (proposed)
The Stolen White Elephant, Etc.
“St. Petersburg Fragment,”
Tom Sawyer Abroad
“Tom Sawyer, Detective,”
“Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy,”
“To My Missionary Critics,”
“To the Person Sitting in Darkness,”
“To the Rev. S. C. Thompson,”
The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson and the Comedy Those Extraordinary Twins
“Travel-Scraps II,”
A True Story, and the Recent Carnival of Crime
“A True Story, Repeated Word for Word as I Heard It,”
“A Trying Situation,”
“The Turning Point of My Life,”
“Two Little Tales,”
“Unpublished Chapters from the Autobiography of Mark Twain,”
“Villagers of 1840”3,”
“Wapping Alice” (“English Mary”)
“The War-Prayer,”
What Is Man?. See also Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court; Following the Equator; The Gilded Age; The Innocents Abroad; Life on the Mississippi; “The Mysterious Stranger” manuscripts; The Prince and the Pauper; Roughing It; A Tramp Abroad
Clemens, Sherrard
Clements, Gregory (“Geoffrey”)
Clements, Richard
Clements, Robert
Cleveland, Frances Folsom (Mrs. Grover Cleveland)
Cleveland, Grover
Authors’ Reading reception
letters honoring birthday
as mayor and sheriff of Buffalo
response to SLC’s letter to daughter Ruth
SLC’s plea for Mason
visit of SLC and Cable when governor. See also Cleveland-Blaine election
Cleveland, Ruth (“Baby Ruth”)
Cleveland-Blaine election and “mugwumps,”
Cleveland Leader
“Closing Words of My Autobiography,”
Clough, Frederick
Coit, Robert
Collier’s Weekly
Colonel Sellers (Gilded Age play)
Colt, Elizabeth Jarvis (Mrs. Samuel Colt)
Colt, Samuel
Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company
“Comment on Tautology and Grammar,”
Confessions (Rousseau)
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
Consolidated Virginia Mine
Copyright: dispute over Quaker City letters
saved when Webster and Company failed
SLC’s scheme to extend
Cord, Mary Ann (Auntie)
Cornell University
Cosimo I
Cosmopolitan (periodical)
Cox, James
Crane, Susan Langdon (Mrs. Theodore Crane; Aunt Susy)
father’s final illness
inherits Quarry Farm
spelling ability. See also Quarry Farm
Crane, Theodore
Creswell, John A. J.
The Critic (periodical)
The Critic (play)
Croker, Eyre Coote
Croker, Richard
Cunningham, Dr.
Cutler, Ellen (Mrs. William K. Cutler)
Cutler, William K.
Daggett, Rollin M.
Daly, Augustin
Daly, Joseph F.
Daniel (Uncle Dan’l, slave)
Davis, Charles E.
Dawson, John D.
Dawson’s school
Dawson, Noble E.
De Cordova, Raphael
Democratic Party
Jeremiah and Sherrard Clemens
Morris incident
SLC’s opposition to Tilden.
See also Cleveland-Blaine election
Dennison, William
Depew, Chauncey M.
De Quille, Dan. See Wright, William H.
Derby, George Horatio (“Squibob”; “John Phoenix”)
Devens, Charles
DeVoto, Bernard. See Mark Twain in Eruption
The Diary of Samuel Pepys
Dick, William Brisbane
Dick and Fitzgerald
Dickens, Charles
Dickinson, Anna
Dilke, Charles Wentworth
Disraeli, Benjamin
Dixon, Thomas, Jr.
Olivia Clemens’s experience as teenage invalid
Dodge, Mary Mapes
Dodge, Richard Irving
Dodge, William E.
Dodgson, Charles L. (Lewis Carroll)
Dolby, George
Douglas, David
Douglas, Joe
Douglas, John H.
Douglass, Frederick
Drake, Francis
Drew, John
Drinking: anecdote about Episcopal sextons
anecdote about drunken sutler. See also Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, ATTITUDES AND HABITS, eating and drinking
Dueling: rival editors in Virginia City, Nev. Terr.
SLC’s “Dueling” manuscript
Wise and Clemens
Dublin, N.H.: SLC dictates autobiography
SLC spends summers
visit of Harvey
Duncan, Charles C.
Duncan, Joseph W.
Dunham, Austin Cornelius
Dunham, Samuel G.
“An Early Attempt,”
“Early Years in Florida, Missouri,”
École des Beaux-Arts
Eddy, Mary Baker
Eddy, Theodore
Eddy, William
Edison, Thomas A.
Edwards, Henry
Elcho, Lord (Francis Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas)
Eliot, Charles William
Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie (empress of Austria)
Elise (German nursemaid)
Elmira, N.Y.: cemetery
SLC and OLC’s wedding
SLC’s experience with doctor
SLC’s visit to court Olivia Langdon; See also Quarry Farm
Elmira Female College
Elmira Water Cure
Emerson, Ellen
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Whittier birthday dinner
“Emmeline” (painting)
England. See London
English Mary (servant)
Enterprise Publishing Company
Erie Railroad Company
Fagnani, Charles P.
Fair, James G.
Fairbanks, Charles W.
Fairbanks, Mary Mason
Fairchild, Charles
Fairchild, Lucius
Fairfax, Charles Snowden
Fairfax, Thomas
Fairfax, William
Fall, George L.
Farnham Type-Setter Manufacturing Company
Faulkner, Barry (“Guy”)
Ferguson. See Lee, Harvey
Ferguson, Henry
diary entries on Hornet incident
objection to SLC’s use of diaries
Ferguson, Samuel
diary entries on Hornet incident
Field, Kate
Fields, Annie Adams (Mrs. James T. Fields)
Fields, James T.
“The Final (and Right) Plan,”
Finley, John H.
Finn, James (Jimmy)
Fish, James D.
Fiske, Abby M. Brooks (Mrs. John Fiske)
Fiske, John
Fiske, Willard
Fitch, Thomas
FitzGerald, Dr.
Fitzgerald, Edward
Fitz-John Porter Bill
Fitzsimmons, Robert
Fleming, Marjory
Flood, James Clair
Florence: Clemens family 1892–93 residence
Clemens family 1903–4 residence
death of Olivia
SLC’s visit to Mary Wilkes
“Villa di Quarto,”
Villa Viviani
The Florentine Dictations: creation and inclusion in the autobiography
texts and notes
Florida, Mo.: Clemens family births and deaths
Clemens family residence
SLC’s childhood recollections. See also Quarles farm
Following the Equator
English edition
writing of
Foote, Edward M.
Foote, Lilly Gillette
Four Sketches about Vienna
Fourtou, Marie François Oscar Bardy de
France: Clemens family residence in Paris
dispute with Germany over Morocco
SLC’s burlesque map of Paris. See also Joan of Arc
Franklin, Benjamin
Franklin, William Buel
Franz Joseph I (emperor of Austria)
Frederick I (king of Württemberg)
Frederick III (emperor of Germany and king of Prussia)
Frederick William I (emperor of Germany and king of Prussia)
Frelinghuysen, Frederick T.
Frohman, Daniel
Fulton, Robert. See Robert Fulton Memorial Association
Fun (periodical)
Funston, Frederick
Fuqua, Anderson (Andy)
Fuqua, Archibald (Arch)
Gabrilowitsch, Clara Clemens. See Clemens, Clara Langdon
Gabrilowitsch, Ossip
Gaines, “General,”
Galaxy (periodical)
Galloway, Charles B.
Gambetta, Léon
Garfield, James A.
Garth, David J.
Garth, John
Garth, John H.
Gerhardt, Karl
bust of Grant
bust of SLC
Nathan Hale statue
German language: compound words
German nursemaid who uses profanity (Elise)
carriage accident in Worms
Clemens family residence in Berlin
Clemens family residence in Munich
dispute with France over Morocco
Phelps anecdote in Berlin
Gibbons, James
The Gilded Age (Mark Twain and Warner)
New York Daily Graphic review
prototypes for characters
sources of content
Gilded Age play. See Colonel Sellers
Gilder, Jeannette L.
Gilder, Richard Watson
birthday letter to Cleveland
Grant’s memoirs
“My Debut as a Literary Person,”
speech at Players club
Gill, Laura Drake (“Miss Hill”)
Gillette, William Hooker
Gillis, Angus
Gillis, James
Gillis, Philip H.
Gillis, Stephen E.
Gillis, William
Gladstone, William Ewart
Gleason, Rachel Brooks
Gloverson and His Silent Partners (Keeler)
Golden Era (periodical)
Goodman, Joseph T.: “Big Bonanza” silver strike
deciphers Maya inscriptions
as owner and editor of Virginia City Territorial Enterprise
question about SLC’s plagiarism of Holmes
as reference for Jervis Langdon
replaced temporarily by SLC as editor of Enterprise
Goodsell, Abby F.
Goodwin, Francis
Goodwin, Henry Leavitt
Goodwin, James
Gorky, Maxim
Gough, John B.
Gould, Jay
Grand Army of the Republic. See “The Chicago G. A. R. Festival”
Grant, Elizabeth Chapman (Mrs. Jesse Grant)
Grant, Ellen Wrenshall
Grant, Frederick Dent
comments about Grant
and Gerhardt’s bust of Grant
investor in Grant and Ward
invitation to SLC to speak for Robert Fulton Memorial Association
as possible partner in Webster and Company
and publication of Grant’s memoirs
Grant, Ida Honoré (Mrs. Fred Grant)
Grant, Jesse Root, Jr.
possible partner in Webster and Company
Grant, Julia Dent (Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant)
and Gerhardt’s bust of Grant
personal property
royalties earned from Grant’s memoirs
Grant, Orville
Grant, Ulysses S.
bill granting pension
books about
and bust by Gerhardt
Century Magazine war articles
Chicago G.A.R. banquet
concern for Chinese students in U.S.
connection to Lincoln assassination
on Derby
financial problems
and Garfield presidential campaign
help for Howells’s father
illness and death
meetings with SLC
on Sherman’s march
similarity to Jervis Langdon
spiritual adviser
visit of SLC and Susy Clemens
visit to Hartford. See also Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant
Grant, Ulysses S., Jr. (Buck)
“Grant and the Chinese,”
The Grant Dictations
Grant and Ward (stockbrokers). See also Ward, Ferdinand
Gray, David
Gray, David, Jr.
Gray, Martha Guthrie (Mrs. David Gray)
Greeley, Horace
Greene, Jacob L.
Greer, David Hummell
Gridiron Club
Gridley, Reuel Colt
Gridley, Susannah L. Snider (Mrs. Reuel Gridley)
Griffin, George
“A Group of Servants,”
Grumman, William Edgar
Hale, Nathan: statue competition
Haley, H. H.
Hamersley, William
Hamersley, William James
Hancock, Winfield
Hannah (Aunt Hannah, slave)
Hannibal, Mo.
anecdotes about Henry Clemens
anecdote about Jim Wolf
anecdotes about Orion Clemens
anecdote about “playing bear,”
cave near
child left behind during move
cholera and measles epidemics
Clemens family doctor
Clemens family residence
and John Marshall Clemens
newspapers owned by Orion Clemens
SLC’s childhood friends and acquaintances
SLC’s 1902 visit
tragedies that SLC witnessed as a child
Hannibal Gazette
Hannibal Home Guard (Marion Rangers)
Hannibal Journal
Orion Clemens buys and combines with Western Union
Hannibal Missouri Courier: SLC apprenticed to Joseph P. Ament
Hannibal Western Union
Orion Clemens starts
Hapgood, Norman
Hardy, Samuel F.
Hardy, Thomas Duffus
Hardy, Thomas Masterman
Harper, Henry
Harper and Brothers
Harper’s Bazar
Harper’s Monthly
SLC’s first contribution
SLC’s other contributions
Harper’s Weekly
SLC’s birthday issue
Harris, Joel Chandler (Uncle Remus)
Harrison, Carter Henry, Sr.
Harrison, Henry B.
Harrison, Katharine I.
Harte, Bret
Hartford Club
Hartford Courant
on Cleveland-Blaine election
owners and editors
Hartford Monday Evening Club
Harvey, George Brinton McClellan
handwriting on typescripts
posthumous publication of the autobiography
publication of excerpts from the autobiography
on U.S. massacre of Moros
SLC’s birthday dinner
Hawaii. See Sandwich Islands
Hawkes, Forbes Robert
Hawkins, John
Hawley, Harriet Foote
Hawley, Joseph Roswell
Hay, Clara L. Stone (Mrs. John Milton Hay)
Hay, John Milton
as assistant and biographer of Lincoln
conversation with SLC about autobiography
French novel incident
friend of Burlingame
friend of Gray
friend of Greeley
“John Hay,”
Hay, Rosina
Hayes, Isaac I.
Hayes, Rutherford B.
Hearst, George
Hearst, William Randolph
Helps, Arthur
Henry, Hubert-Joseph
“Henry H. Rogers,”
Herndon, William Lewis
Herrick, H.S.
Hickman, Philander A.
Hickman, Sarah M. Brittingham (Mrs. Philander A. Hickman)
Higbie, Calvin H.
Higginson, Thomas W.
Higham, Dick
Hobby, Josephine S.: oral transmission of Susy’s biography
as stenographer for Autobiographical Dictations
transcribes earlier autobiographical writings
transcribes inserted documents
types TS2
types TS3
Hofer, Andreas
Holmes, Oliver Wendell
Authors’ Reading
SLC’s alleged plagiarism
Whittier birthday dinner
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.
Holt, Winifred T.
Hood, John B.
Hood, Thomas
Hood, Tom
“Horace Greeley,”
Hornet (clipper ship)
Hotten, John Camden
Houghton, Henry O.
Houghton, Lady (Annabella Hungerford Crewe)
Houghton, Lord (Richard Monckton Milnes)
House, Edward H.
Howden, Mary Louise
Howells, John M.
Howells, William Cooper
Howells, William Dean
Authors’ Reading
discussions with SLC about autobiography
as editor of Atlantic Monthly
on Grant
Grant’s help for father
introduces SLC at his birthday dinner
on Keeler
letter about McAleer
My Mark Twain
reads early typescript of autobiography
SLC’s letters to, about dictation
SLC’s letters to, about Grant
SLC’s letter to, about “old pigeon-holed things,”
Whittier birthday dinner
Howland, Robert Muir
Hubbard, John
Hubbard, Richard D.
Hubbard, Stephen A.
Hudson, Laura K.
Hughes, Thomas
Hull, John A. T.
Hutchinson, James S.
Hutton, Laurence
Hyde, Ed
Hyde, James H.
Hyde, Richard
Ihrie, George P.
Jaipur religious procession
Indians. See Native Americans
Ingersoll, Robert G.
Injun Joe
The Innocents Abroad
Elisha Bliss, Jr.
dedication allegedly plagiarized
dispute over use of Quaker City letters
sources of content
writing of
Insurance company scandal
Irving, Henry
Italy. See also Florence
Jackass Hill, California
Jackson, Andrew
James, Henry
James, William
Jefferson, Joseph
Jeffreys, George
Jenny (slave)
Jerome, William Travers
Jewett, Hugh J.
“Concerning the Jews,”
first Jews SLC meets
money raised for Russian relief
Russian massacre
Joan of Arc. See also “Scraps from My Autobiography. Private History of a Manuscript That Came to Grief”
John A. Gray and Green
“John Hay,”
John H. Dickey (steamboat)
Johnson, Andrew
Johnson, Charles Frederick
Johnson, Dr.
Johnson, Mr. (farmer)
Johnson, Robert Underwood
Johnson, William M.
Johnston, Gordon (“Lieutenant Johnson”)
Johnston, Joseph F.
Johnston, Robert Daniel
Jones, Anna Taylor
Jones, George
Jones, John P.
Jones, John Paul
Jones, Mr. (Sandwich Islands resident)
“Josh” letters
Jouffroy, François
Kaatmann, Carl Henrich
Keeler, Ralph Olmstead: “Ralph Keeler,”
Keller, Helen
Kendler, Marion von
Kennett, Thomas A. (“Mr. Kinney”)
Keokuk, Iowa
Orion Clemens’s print shop
Kercheval, Helen V. (Mrs. John H. Garth)
Kercheval, William E.
Key, David McKendree
Key, Francis Scott
Key, Philip Barton
Kingsley, Charles
Kinney, Mr. See Kennett, Thomas A.
Kinsmen club
Kleckhoefer, Misses
Klinefelter, John S.
Körner, Theodor
Kung, Prince (Prince Gong)
La Cossitt, Henry
Lacy, Mary Elizabeth (Mrs. Leonard Mefford)
Laird, James L.
Lakenan, Lizzie Ayres (Mrs. Robert F. Lakenan)
Lakenan, Robert F.
Lambton, John George (1792–1840)
Lambton, John George (1855–1928)
Lampton, James J.
Lampton, Lewis
Lampton, Wharton
Lampton, William
Lampton, William James
Landor, Walter Savage
Langdon, Andrew
Langdon, Charles Jervis
as business man
dislikes Atwater
as “General,”
mother’s indulgence of
Quaker City excursion
wagon incident
Langdon, Ida B. Clark (Mrs. Charles Jervis Langdon)
Langdon, Jervis
business interests
buys house for newlywed Clemenses
buys Quarry Farm
illness and death
offers to buy Tennessee land
potential railway magnate
SLC’s courtship of daughter Olivia
Susy Clemens’s biography
Langdon, Julie. See Loomis, Julie Olivia Langdon
Langdon, Olivia Lewis (Mrs. Jervis Langdon)
Langdon, Susan. See Crane, Susan Langdon
Larkin, Henry W.
“The Latest Attempt,”
Lawrence, Joseph E.
Lawson, Thomas W.
League, William T.
Lean, Cornelius
Leary, Katy
death of Susy Clemens
Lee, Harvey (“Ferguson”)
Lee, Robert E.
Leopold II (king of Belgium)
Levering, Clint
Levin boys
Life on the Mississippi
Henry Clemens’s death
Osgood as publisher
praised by Wilhelm II
prototype for Huck’s father
SLC’s experiences as Mississippi River pilot
SLC’s trip to gather material
tramp’s death
Li Hung Chang
Lincoln, Abraham
appoints Orion Clemens as favor to Bates
enjoys Nasby’s humor
Hay as assistant and biographer
Lindley, Caleb W.
Lipton, Thomas
Locke, David Ross (Petroleum Vesuvius Nasby)
Logan, John A.
Logan, Olive
London: Clemens family 1873 residence
Clemens family 1879 visit
Clemens family 1896–97 residence
Clemens family 1899–1900 residence
“Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats” plagiarized
Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee
SLC’s 1872 residence
London Times
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
Memorial Association readings
Whittier birthday dinner
Longworth, Nicholas (horticulturist)
Longworth, Nicholas (congressman)
Loomis, Edward Eugene
Loomis, Julie Olivia Langdon (Mrs. Edward Eugene Loomis)
Lord, Mrs. Herbert
Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal
A Love-Chase (play by Susy Clemens)
Lovell, Gilbert A.
Lowell, James Russell
Lyon, Isabel V.
on death of Malone
friend of Thayers in Dublin, N.H.
hired and fired
in Italy with Clemens family
marriage to Ashcroft
notes on Paine’s edition of autobiography
previous acquaintance with Countess Massiglia
publication of autobiography excerpts in North American Review
records SLC’s Florentine dictations
SLC and Bible class of Rockefeller, Jr.
SLC and Players club
SLC’s description of Roosevelt
SLC’s dictation practices and Hobby
SLC’s reading of “Random Extracts” typescript
SLC’s Y.M.C.A., speech
MacCrellish, Frederick
MacDonald, George
MacDonald, Louisa (Mrs. George MacDonald)
“The Machine Episode,”
Mackay, John W.
Macy, John
Magonigle, John Henry
Maguire, Thomas
Majestic Theatre, New York
Malone, John
Manley, R. M. (Hilary Trent)
Maria Nicolaievna, Grand Duchess
Marion Rangers. See Hannibal Home Guard
Mark Twain: A Biography (MTB) (Paine)
Paine’s plans to write
Mark Twain in Eruption (MTE) (DeVoto)
Mark Twain Project Online (MTPO)
Mark Twain’s Autobiography (MTA) (Paine)
differences from SLC’s version
writings omitted
Mark Twain’s Library of Humor
Marsh, Edward L.
Marsh, Mr. and Mrs. Sheppard
Marsh, William J.
Mason, Dean B.
Mason, Frank H.
Mason, Jennie V. Birchard (Mrs. Frank H. Mason)
Massiglia, Countess (Frances Paxton) passim
Matthews, Brander
Maudslay, Alfred P.
Mayo, Frank
McAleer, Alice
McAleer, Anne (Nancy)
McAleer, Edward
McAleer, Mary Reagan (Mrs. Patrick McAleer)
McAleer, Michael
McAleer, Patrick
described by SLC
hired for newlywed Clemenses
illness and death
McAleer, William
McCall, John A.
McCall, John C.
McCarthy, Denis
McClellan, George B.
McClure, S. S.
McClure’s Magazine
McCormick, Wales
McCullough, John
McDaniel, James W. (Jimmy)
McDowell, Joseph Nash
McKinley, William
McKnight, George H.
McLaren, Elizabeth T.
McMurry, T. P. (Pet)
Medici, Cosimo de’ (Cosimo I)
Medici, Lorenzo de’
Mefford, Leonard
Mémoires (Casanova)
Mental telegraphy
Menzies, John
Meredith, Anna (Mrs. Hugh Meredith)
Meredith, Charles
Meredith, Henry H.
Meredith, Hugh
Meredith, John D.
Miller, Mary
Millet, Francis D. (Frank)
Miner, George R.
Mitchell, Josiah Angier
Moffett, Mary Emily Mantz (Mrs. Samuel E. Moffett)
Moffett, Pamela A. Clemens (Mrs. William A. Moffett)
illness and death
on Jane Lampton Clemens
music teacher
Moffett, Samuel E.
Moffett, William A.
Monday Evening Club
Moore, Thomas
Mora, F. Luis
Morgan, John Pierpont
Moro tribe (Philippines): U.S. massacre
Morrill, Paul
Morris, Mrs. Minor
Morris, William
Moss, Mary (Mrs. Robert F. Lakenan)
Mulford, Prentice
Müller, George Friedrich
Munro, David A.
as editor of North American Review
as Players club member
Murphy, Edgar Gardner
Murray, T. Douglas
Muscatine, Iowa
Muscatine Journal: Orion Clemens buys and sells
“My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It],”
manuscript facsimile of first page
textual history
“My Debut as a Literary Person,”
My Mark Twain (Howells)
“The Mysterious Stranger” manuscripts (“Schoolhouse Hill”; “St. Petersburg Fragment”)
NAR. See North American Review
Nasby, Petroleum Vesuvius. See Locke, David Ross
Nash, Abner
Nash, Mary (Mrs. John Hubbard)
Nash, Thomas S.
Nast, Thomas
Native Americans. See also Injun Joe
Neider, Charles. See The Autobiography of Mark Twain (AMT) (Neider)
Nevada Territory: “Big Bonanza” silver strike
dueling in
scheme for Higbie to get job in mine
SLC as miner. See also Virginia City Territorial Enterprise
New England Gas and Coke Company
Newman, John Philip
New Orleans: SLC seeks ship for South America
SLC stays after fight with Brown
SLC’s 1882 visit
Newton, James Rogers
New York Daily Graphic
New York Evening Post
New York Evening Sun
New York Globe and Commercial Advertiser
New York Herald: Badeau
Higbie’s account of earlier association with SLC
SLC as Washington, D.C. correspondent
SLC’s letters about Quaker City excursion
New York Saturday Press
New York Sunday Mercury
New York Times
covers “Big Bonanza” silver strike
Duncan’s lawsuit
review of autobiography chapters in North American Review
New York Tribune: Badeau
SLC as Washington, D.C., correspondent
SLC’s letters about Quaker City excursion
New York World:
Grant’s memoirs
Moffett as editorial writer
New Zealand
Nicholas I (tsar of Russia)
Nicholas II (tsar of Russia)
Nicolay, John G.
Nigra, Constantino
North, Charles R.
North, John W.
North American Review (NAR): Harvey as editor
Munro as editor
publication of autobiography chapters
Norton, Charles Eliot
“Notes on ‘Innocents Abroad,’ ”
Noyes, Edward Follansbee
Nye, Edgar Wilson (Bill)
Nye, Emma
Nye, John
O’Brien, William Shoney
Oettel, Walter
Ogden, Robert C.
O’Hagan, Joseph
O’Neil, Ellen
O’Neil, John
O’Reilly, John Boyle
Orton, Arthur
Osgood, James Ripley
Owsley, Anna B. (Nannie)
Owsley, William Perry
Page, Thomas Nelson
Paige, James W.: electromagnetic motor
printing telegraph
typesetting machine
Paine, Albert Bigelow
at autobiographical dictation sessions
handwriting on typescripts
role in inception of autobiography. See also Mark Twain’s Autobiography (MTA); Mark Twain: A Biography (MTB)
Palmer, Albert M.
Panama Canal
Parker, Edwin Pond
Parkhurst, Charles Henry
Parr, Thomas
Parsons, William
Paul Jones (steamboat)
Pavey, Jesse H.
Paxton, Frances. See Massiglia, Countess
Pearson’s Magazine
Pennsylvania (steamboat)
Pepys, Samuel
Perkins, Charles E.
Perry Davis’s Pain-Killer
Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant: American Publishing Company as potential publisher
Badeau’s work on
competition between Century Company and SLC to publish
Grant dictates
Grant reluctant to write
Petöfi, Sándor
Peyton, Thomas F.
Phelps, Roswell H.
Phelps, William Walter
Philadelphia, Penn.: SLC works as typesetter
Philadelphia Inquirer
Philadelphia Press
Philadelphia Public Ledger
Philippines: Funston’s capture of Aguinaldo
tariff bill
U.S. massacre of Moros
Phillips, Horatio
Phillips, Wendell
Phoenix, John. See Derby, George Horatio (“Squibob”)
Picquart, Georges
Players club: dinner honoring SLC
SLC’s membership
Plunkett, J. R. (Joe)
Plymouth Church (Brooklyn). See also Beecher, Henry Ward
Pomeroy, Frederick William
Pond, James B.
Porter, Fitz-John
Porter, Horace
Postal system (U.S.)
Potter. See Brooks, Preston S.
Powlison, Charles F.
Practical Jokes with Artemus Ward
Pratt and Whitney Company
“Preface. As from the Grave,”
Presbyterianism. See Religion
Prime, William C.
The Prince and the Pauper
Clemens family children’s play
publication of
Susy Clemens on
Proctor, Richard A.
Quaker City excursion
dispute over rights to SLC’s letters
SLC’s letters about. See also The Innocents Abroad
Quarles, Benjamin L.
Quarles, James A.
Quarles, John Adams. See also Quarles farm
Quarles, Martha Ann Lampton (Mrs. John Adams Quarles; Aunt Patsy)
Quarles, William Frederick (Fred)
Quarles farm:
SLC’s childhood summers
SLC’s use in fiction
Quarry Farm: Clemens family at
Olivia Clemens buried at
as residence of Cranes
“Rab and His Friends” (Brown)
“Ralph Keeler,”
“Random Extracts.” See “My Autobiography [Random Extracts from It]”
Ranzoni, Daniele
Raybaudi-Massiglia, Annibale
Raymond, John T.
Reade, Charles
Redpath, James: definition of artist
as founder of lecture agency
as SLC’s stenographer. See also Redpath Lyceum Bureau
Redpath Lyceum Bureau
“Reflections on a Letter and a Book,”
Reid, Robert
Reid, Whitelaw
Religion: Catholic funerals
Langdon family
Orion Clemens
Presbyterianism: SLC’s churchgoing
SLC’s Presbyterian conscience
Susy Clemens’s “What is it all for?” question
Republican Party
insurance scandal
Mason’s diplomatic appointment
Morris incident
Philippines and U.S. massacre of Moros
politicians and candidates
SLC supports Hawley
SLC supports Hayes. See also Cleveland, Grover
Cleveland-Blaine election
Roosevelt, Theodore
“The Rev. Dr. Newman,”
Richardson, Abby Sage
Richardson, Elisha A.
Richardson, Mary L. RoBards (Mrs. Elisha A. Richardson)
Richardson, Sara Ellen
Richmond, Joshua
Riddle, Matthew Brown
Riley, John Henry
Rising, Franklin S.
Riverdale, N.Y.
Robards, Amanda Carpenter
Robards, Archibald S.
Robards, George C.
Robards (RoBards), John Lewis
Robards, Sarah H. (Sally; “Mary Wilson”)
Robbia, Luca della
Robert Fulton Memorial Association
“Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich,”
Roberts, James B.
Roberts, W. H.
Robinson, Henry C.
Rockefeller, John D., Jr.
Rockefeller, John D., Sr.
Rockefeller, William
Rogers, Henry Huttleston: “Henry H. Rogers,”
letters from
letters to
Paige typesetting machine
as SLC’s financial advisor and agent
visit to Helen Keller
yacht (Kanawha)
Rogers, Mary
Roosevelt, Alice Lee
Roosevelt, Theodore
death blow to Russian revolution
Gridiron Club dinner
mediates peace in Russo-Japanese War
military career
Morris incident
U.S. massacre of Moros
Wood’s career
Ross, Janet Duff
Roughing It
publishing contract
sources of content
“Roughing It” lecture
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (Fitzgerald)
Rudolf I (Holy Roman Emperor)
Rudolf II (king of Bohemia)
Russell, Howard H.
Russell, Isabelle K.
Russia: massacre of Jews
Russian revolution (1905)
Russo-Japanese War
tsars and royal family
Rutter, Dick
Sacramento Union: Brooks as correspondent
Hornet episode
SLC’s Sandwich Islands letters
Sage, Dean
Sage, Henry W.
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Sandwich Islands: Hornet episode
SLC’s lecture
SLC’s meeting with Burlingame
SLC’s Sacramento Union letters
Sandy (slave boy)
San Francisco: earthquake
SLC as correspondent for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise
SLC as local reporter for the San Francisco Morning Call
SLC’s residence
writing of Innocents Abroad. See also Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, JOURNALISM
Sandwich Islands, SLC’s lecture
San Francisco Alta California
SLC as Washington, D.C., correspondent
SLC’s Quaker City letters
SLC’s review of Dickens
SLC’s review of Nasby
San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Evening Mirror
San Francisco Evening Post
San Francisco Examiner
San Francisco Herald
San Francisco Ledger
San Francisco Morning Call: SLC as local reporter
Sanger, Frank W.
Schieffelin, William Jay
Scotland. See Edinburgh
Scott, Walter
“Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IV,”
“Scraps from My Autobiography. From Chapter IX,”
“Scraps from My Autobiography. Private History of a Manuscript That Came to Grief,”
Scribner’s Monthly
Seaman, Louis L.
Seckendorff, Count Goetz von
Sellers, Eschol
Servants: wages. See also Bermingham, Ellen
Cord, Mary Ann
English Mary
Griffin, George
“A Group of Servants”
Hay, Rosina
Leary, Katy
McAleer, Patrick
O’Neil, John
White, Ellen
Wuthering Heights (servant)
Seward, Clarence A.
Seward, William
Shakespeare, William
people compared to
SLC’s editorial for birthday
Shaw, Henry Wheeler (Josh Billings)
Sheppard, John Morris
Sheridan, Philip H.
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley
Sherman, William Tecumseh
Sickles, Daniel Edgar
Sikes, William Wirt
Silverman, Joseph
cruelty witnessed by SLC
Daniel (Uncle Dan’l)
Douglass helped by Jervis Langdon
Hannah (Aunt)
Uncle Remus tales (Joel Chandler Harris)
Washington on
woman who saves SLC from drowning
Slee, John D. F.
Smalley, George Washington
Smarr, Sam
Smith, Edward M.
Smith, H. Boardman
Smith, Roswell
Smith, Sidney
Smith College
“Something about Doctors,”
South Africa
Spaulding, Clara L. (Mrs. John B. Stanchfield; Aunt Clara)
Spencer, Herbert
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand
Springfield (Mass.) Republican
Stanchfield, Alice Spaulding (Mrs. Arthur M. Wright)
Stanchfield, John Barry
Stanchfield, John Barry, Jr.
Standard Oil Corporation
Rogers as vice-president
lawsuits and investigations
Stanford, Leland
Stanford, Leland, Jr.
Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn
Stanley, Henry M.
Stebbins, Horatio
Stevens, Edmund C.
Stevens, Thomas B.
Stevenson, Robert Louis: “Robert Louis Stevenson and Thomas Bailey Aldrich,”
Stewart, William M.
St. Louis, Mo.: James Clemens branch of family
James Lampton family residence
McDowell College
Moffett family residence
Orion Clemens trains as printer
SLC as cub pilot under Bixby
SLC with Henry Clemens
SLC works as typesetter
SLC’s 1867 visit and lecture
SLC’s 1902 visit
St. Louis Evening News
St. Nicholas (periodical)
Stoddard, Charles Warren
Stoddard, Richard H.
Stoker, Dick
Stormfield (Redding, Conn.)
Storrs, Emory
Stout, Ira
Stowe, Calvin Ellis
Stowe, Charles Edward
Stowe, Harriet Beecher
Stowe, Lyman Beecher
Streamer, Volney
Sullivan, Annie (Mrs. John Macy)
“Sunday Magazine,”
Swango family
Swearing. See also Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, ATTITUDES AND HABITS, swearing
Swinton, John
Swinton, William
Taft, Cincinnatus A.
Taft, William Howard
Taylor, Virginia
Tax evasion
Tchaykoffsky. See Chaykovsky, Nikolai Vasilievich
Teller, Charlotte
Clemens children born in
early life of SLC’s parents
family land
Orion Clemens’s birth and childhood
Tennessee, Grand Army of the. See “The Chicago G. A. R. Festival”
“The Tennessee Land,”
Tesla, Nikola
Thanksgiving Day
Thayer, Abbott Handerson
Thayer, Emeline (Emma) Beach
Thomas, John S.
Thompson, Samuel C.
Thomson, Frank
Thurston’s Female Seminary
Tichborne claimant trial
Ticknor, Benjamin H.
Ticknor and Fields
Tilden, Samuel J.
Tillman, Benjamin Ryan
Tillman, James H.
Tilton, Elizabeth and Theodore
Toledo Blade
Tom Hood’s Annual
Toncray, Addison Ovando
Toncray, Alexander Campbell (Aleck)
Tower, Charlemagne
A Tramp Abroad
contract for publishing
prototypes for characters
public readings
sources of content
Travelers Insurance Company
“Travel-Scraps I,”
“Travel-Scraps II” manuscript
Treaty of Portsmouth. See also Russia, Russo-Japanese War
Trent, Hilary. See Manley, R. M.
Tribolo, Niccolò
Trollope, Anthony
Trumbull, Henry Clay
Trumbull, James Hammond
Tuskegee Educational Institute
Twentieth Century Club
Twichell, Joseph H.
advice for anxious suitor
anecdote of hair restorer
Civil War service
Cleveland-Blaine election
Decoration Day prayer
Edinburgh adventure
encounter with profane ostler
Hartford Club
Hartford Monday Evening Club
Kinsmen club
Malone’s death
McAleer’s death
reads Autobiographical Dictations
story about Sickles
story about Croker’s father
support for Chinese students
Susy Clemens’s illness
witnesses execution of Civil War deserters
Twichell, Joseph Hooker
Twichell, Julia Curtis. See Wood, Julia Curtis Twichell
Twichell, Julia Harmony Cushman (Mrs. Joseph Twichell)
Tyrrell, Harrison
Uncle Remus tales
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Ustick, Thomas Watt
Utterback, Polly Rouse
Vanderbilt, Cornelius
Vassar College
Vedder, Elihu
Verey, Joseph
Victoria (queen of England)
Vilas, William F.
“Villa di Quarto,”
Villa Viviani
Vincent, John H.
Virginia City Territorial Enterprise: ownership and staff
SLC as local reporter
SLC as San Francisco correspondent
SLC as substitute editor
SLC as Washington, D.C., correspondent
SLC’s “Josh” letters
Virginia City Union
Wadleigh, G. R.
Wadsworth, Charles
Wagner, Richard
Wales, Theron A.
Walker, John Brisben
Walker, William
Waller, Thomas M.
Ward, Artemus
Ward, Ferdinand
Ward, Henry S.
Ward, J. Q. A.
Warner, Charles Dudley
Cleveland-Blaine election
as coauthor of The Gilded Age
Gerhardt’s statue of Nathan Hale
as speaker
Warner, Elisabeth Gillette (Mrs. George H. Warner)
Warner, George H.
Warner, Margaret (Daisy)
Warner, Olin L.
Warner, Susan (Mrs. Charles Dudley Warner)
Washington, Booker T.
Washington, D.C.: SLC’s 1853 residence
SLC’s 1867–68 residence
Washington Post
Watterson, Henry
Webster, Charles L.
blamed for failure of Charles L. Webster and Company
business arrangement with SLC
negotiations for publication of Grant’s memoirs
opposition to partnership with Grant’s sons. See also Charles L. Webster and Company
Webster, Noah
Webster Manufacturing Company
Welch, Archibald Ashley
Wheeler, Harold
Whipple, Sherman L.
White, Ellen
Whitford, Daniel
Whitmore, Franklin Gray
as SLC’s business agent
spoon-shaped drive incident
Whitney, Henry M.
Whittier, John Greenleaf
seventieth birthday dinner. See also Clemens, Samuel Lang-horne, LECTURES AND SPEECHES, Whittier birthday dinner
Wilhelm II (emperor of Germany and king of Prussia)
Wilhelmine, Princess
Wilkes, Charles
Wilkes, Mary H. Lynch (Mrs. Charles Wilkes)
Williams, Jonathan (“Stud”)
Willing, John Thomson
Wilson, Francis
Wilson, Mary. See Robards, Sarah H.
Winsor, Robert
Winter, William
Wise, Henry Alexander
Wise, O. Jennings
Wolf, Jim: “A Gallant Fireman,”
“Jim Wolf and the Tom-Cats,”
Wolf, Karl Hermann
Wong. See Chin Lan Pin
Wood, Howard Ogden
Wood, Julia Curtis Twichell (Mrs. Howard Ogden Wood)
Wood, Leonard
Woodruff, Douglas
Woods, Enoch S.
Woo Tsze Tun
Wordsworth, William
Wright, Harrison K.
Wright, Howard E.
Wright, William H. (Dan De Quille)
Wuthering Heights (servant)
Y.M.C.A. (West Side Branch)
Young, John Russell
“The Young Medusa” (painting)
The Youth’s Companion (periodical)
Yung Wing
The Mark Twain Project is housed within the Mark Twain Papers of The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. The Papers were given to the University by Mark Twain’s only surviving daughter, Clara Clemens Samossoud, and form the core of the world’s largest archive of primary materials by and about Mark Twain.
Since 1967 the Mark Twain Project has been producing volumes in the first comprehensive critical edition of everything Mark Twain wrote, as well as readers’ editions of his most important texts. More than thirty-five volumes have been published, all by the University of California Press.
The Mark Twain Papers and The Works of Mark Twain
are the ongoing comprehensive editions for scholars.
Full list of volumes in the Papers at
Full list of volumes in the Works at
The Mark Twain Library
is the readers’ edition that reprints texts and notes from the Papers
and Works volumes for the benefit of students and the general reader.
Full list of Library volumes at
Mark Twain Project Online
is the electronic edition for the Mark Twain Project. Autobiography
of Mark Twain, Volume 1, is now published there. All volumes in
the Papers and Works as well as the Library will eventually be made
available at
Jumping Frogs: Undiscovered, Rediscovered, and
Celebrated Writings of Mark Twain
brings to readers neglected treasures by Mark Twain—stories, tall
tales, novels, travelogues, plays, imaginative journalism, speeches,
sketches, satires, burlesques, and much more.
Full list of Jumping Frogs volumes at
Editorial work for all volumes in the Mark Twain Project’s Papers, Works, and Library series has been supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, an independent federal agency, and by donations to The Bancroft Library, matched equally by the Endowment.
Table of Contents
List of Manuscripts and Dictations
Preliminary Manuscripts and Dictations, 1870–1905
Explanatory Notes
Samuel L. Clemens: A Brief Chronology
Family Biographies
Speech at the Seventieth Birthday Dinner, 5 December 1905
Speech at The Players, 3 January 1906
Previous Publication
Note on the Text
Word Division in This Volume

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